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FOL'SDED    BV    JAMES    LOEB,    LL.D. 

t  T,    E.    PAGE,    C.H„  LITT.D. 

F.  CAPPS.  PH.D.,  LL.D.  W.  H.  D.  ROUSE,  litt.d. 

L.  A.  POST,  M.A.  E.  H.  WARMINGTOX,  m.a. 






rRovBgsoK  or  classical  literature  ik  stantobd  urnvBRarrv 







FEB  1 1  1945 

Virsi  printed  1926 

Revised  and  rtpritUed  1929 

RepriMted  1932,  1936,  1939,  1942 

Printed  in  Great  Britain. 






As  is  the  case  with  many  other  volumes  in  the  Loeb 
Classical  Library,  it  has  been  found  necessary  to 
make  this  book  something  more  than  a  mere  trans- 
lation —  something  approaching  a  new  edition  of 
the  poet. 

Each  of  the  Satires  and  Epistles  has  been  provided 
with  its  own  Introduction,  and,  inasmuch  as  the 
poet's  transitions  are  not  seldom  rather  abrupt,  and 
often  it  is  no  easy  matter  to  re-establish  the  con- 
nexion, a  careful  effort  has  been  made  to  indicate 
the  sequence  of  thought.  Numerous  allusions  have 
been  explained  in  the  notes  or  Index ;  many  dubious 
f)assages  have  been  discussed,  however  briefly,  and 
the  Latin  text  itself  has  been  scrutinized  in  every 
detail.  All  important  variant  readings  have  been 
duly  registered  and  considered,  and  the  results  of 
both  old  and  recent  scholarship  have  been  utilized 
in  translation  or  interpretation. 

Acknowledgements  are  due  to  the  general  editors 
of  the  series,  one  of  whom.  Dr.  T,  E.  Page,  has  read 
my  manuscript  carefully  and  offered  many  a  timely 



and  wise  suggestion.     Some  explanations  given  of 
puzzling  passages  are  due  to  him, 

H.  R.  F. 

Harvard  University, 
December  15,  1925. 

In  preparing  for  a  reprint  of  this  volume,  I  take 
the  opportunity  of  thanking  all  who  have  offered 
me  helpful  criticism,  especially  Professor  Charles 
N.  Smiley  of  Carleton  College,  and  Professor  B,  O. 
Foster  of  Stanford  University. 

H.  R.  F. 

February  4,  1929. 


Introduction — 

A.  Chronology  of  the  Poems 

B.  Earlier  History  of  Satire 

C.  Relation  of  Horace  to  Lucilius 

D.  Manuscripts  and  Commentaries 

E.  Editions  and  Bibliography 

F.  Abbreviations 

Book  I. 

Satire  I. 
„  H. 
„  III. 
„  IV. 
«  V. 
„  VI. 
„  VII. 
.  „VIII. 
„  IX. 
„      X. 

Book  II.      . 

Satire  I. 
„  II. 
„  HI. 
„     IV. 








1 24-245 

.  124 
.  134 
.  149 
.  183 


Satire  V. 
„  VI. 
„  VII. 

Book  I.        , 
ElMSTLE       I. 

«  II. 
„  HI. 
„        IV. 

«  VI. 
„  VII. 
„  VIII. 
„        IX. 

«  XI. 
„  XII. 
„  XIII. 
„  XIV. 
„  XV. 
„  XVI. 
„  XVII. 
„  XVIII. 
„  XIX. 
„      XX. 

Book  II.      . 

Epistle  I. 

„       II- 

ARS  POETIC  A  OR  Epistlk 
Index  of  Proper  Names 





.  248 

.  260 

.  269 

.  275 

.  279 

.  284 

.  293 

.  3o:> 

.  309 

.  313 

.  321 

.  327 

.  333 

.  337 

.  34.3 

.  348 

.  358 

.  366 

.  379 

.  387 


.  392 

.  421 

TO    THE    PiSONES  .       442 

.     491 


A.  Chronology  of  the  Poems 

The  First  Book  of  the  Satires  is  the  first  work  which 
Horace  pubhshed,  though  it  is  possible  that  some  of 
the  Epodes  were  composed  before  any  of  the  Satires. 
In  Sat.  i.  10.  45  Horace  refers  to  Virgil's  Eclogues, 
which  were  published  in  37  b.c,  while  the  introduc- 
tion to  Maecenas  {Sat.  i.  6.  54  ff.)  is  commonly- 
assigned  to  38  B.C.  Allowing  some  time  for  the 
friendship  between  the  poet  and  statesman  to  mature, 
and  for  the  general  interest,  referred  to  in  Sat. 
i.  6.  47,  to  be  aroused,  and  keeping  in  view  certain 
passages  in  Satires  ii.  (e.g.  6.  40),  we  miay  claim 
35  B.C.  as  the  probable  date  of  the  publication  of 
Book  I.  At  this  time  the  poet  was  in  his  thirtieth 

In  33  B.C.  Horace  received  from  Maecenas  the  gift 
of  his  Sabine  farm,  which  figures  so  prominently  in 
Book  II.  The  Sixth  Satire  of  this  book  makes  several 
allusions  to  pohtical  events.  In  1.  53  mention  is 
made  of  the  Dacians,  who  in  the  struggle  between 
Octavian  and  Antony  offered  themselves  first  to  one 
leader  and  then  to  the  other.  At  this  time  Octavian 
was  necessarily  absent  from  Rome,  and  in  1.  38 
Horace  speaks  of  the  administration  of  home  affairs 
as  being  in  the  hands  of  Maecenas.     After  the  battle 


of  Actium  (31  B.C.)  public  lands  were  assigned  to  the 
disbanded  soldiers  (1.  55).  On  the  other  hand  the 
absence  of  any  allusion  to  the  closing  of  the  temple 
of  Janus  or  to  the  celebration  of  a  triple  triumph 
shows  that  Book  II.  appeared  before  29  b.c.  We 
may  therefore  claim  30  b.c.  as  the  year  of  its  pubhca- 

In  the  intei'val  between  the  appearance  of  the 
Satires  and  that  of  the  Epistles,  Horace  published  the 
Epodes  (29  B.C.)  and  Books  I.-III.  of  the  Odes  (23  b.c). 
The  next  work  to  appear  was  Book  I.  of  the  Epistles, 
the  last  verse  of  which  {Epist.  i.  20.  28)  gives  the 
consulship  of  LoUius  as  the  date  of  writing.  This 
would  naturally  imply  that  the  book  was  finished  in 
21  B.C.,  but  allusions  to  later  events,  such  as  the  close 
of  Agrippa's  Cantabrian  campaign,  the  restoration 
of  the  standards  taken  from  Crassus  {Epist.  i.  12.  26  ff.), 
and  the  triumphal  progress  of  Tiberius  through  the 
East  (ib.  i.  3.  144.),  show  that  the  book  was  not 
published  before  the  following  year  (20  b.c). 

The  three  Literary  Epistles  which  remain  are  often 
classed  together  as  the  three  Epistles  of  Book  II., 
but  the  Mss.  and  Scholia  recognize  only  two  Epistles 
in  that  Book,  giving  the  third  an  independent  posi- 
tion and  a  special  name  as  Ars  Poetica.  Of  the  two 
the  Second  undoubtedly  precedes  the  first  in  point 
of  composition.  It  is  addressed  to  Florus,  to  whom 
Epist.  i.  3  had  been  sent,  and  who  is  still  absent 
from  Rome  in  the  suite  of  Tiberius.  The  occasion 
for  this  absence  need  not  be  the  same  as  for  the 
earher  letter,  yet  in  view  of  Horace's  renunciation 
of  lyric  poetry  (Epist.  ii.  2.  65  ff.),  this  Epistle  can 
hardly  have  been  written  in  the  years  when  the 
Carmen  Saeculare  and  Odes  iv.  were  produced  (17-13 


B.C.).  It  was  therefore,  in  all  probability,  written 
about  19-18  B.C. 

The  introduction  to  Epist.  ii.  1  gives  the  main 
reason  for  believing  that  the  Epistle  to  Augustus  was 
■v\Titten  after  both  the  Epistle  to  Florus  and  the  Ars 
Poetica.  Moreover,  there  are  several  passages  in  it 
which  indicate  a  connexion  between  it  and  Horace's 
later  lyrics.  Thus  11.  132-137  refer  unmistakably  to 
the  Carmen  Saeculare  of  17  b.c,  and  11.  252-256,  as 
Wickham  has  pointed  out,  show  certain  correspond- 
ences with  the  political  Odes  of  Book  IV.,  which  was 
pubhshed  in  13  b.c. 

In  the  Mss.  the  Ars  Poetica  appears  after  either 
the  Carmen  Saeculare  or  Odes  iv.  Its  present  position 
is  due  to  sixteenth-century  editors,  and  Cruquius 
(1578)  first  called  it  the  Third  Epistle  of  Book  II.  It 
was  perhaps  pubhshed  by  Horace  independently, 
while  Augustus  was  absent  in  Gaul,  16-13  b.c,  but 
the  fact  that  it  reflects  so  much  of  the  influence  of 
Lucilius  would  indicate  a  still  earlier  date  of  com- 
position." It  is  not  certain  who  the  Pisones  (a 
father  and  two  sons)  addressed  in  it  are.  According 
to  Porphyrio,  the  father  was  L.  Calpurnius  Piso, 
praefectus  urbi  in  a.d.  14.  He  was  born  in  49  b.c. 
and  became  consul  15  b.c,  but  could  hardly  have 
had  grown-up  sons  several  years  before  Horace's 
death.  It  is  more  hkely  that  Piso  pater  was  Cn. 
Calpurnius  Piso,  who,  like  Horace,  fought  under 
Brutus  at  Phihppi  and  was  afterwards  consul  in 
23  B.C.  He  had  a  son,  Gnaeus,  who  was  consul 
7  B.C.,  and  another,  Lucius,  who  was  consul  1  b.c. 

"  See  Fiske,  Lucilius  and  Horace,  pp.  446-475.  According 
to  Professor  A.  Y.  Campbell,  "  the  Ars  Poetica  was  written  at 
some  time  between  23-20  b.c.  inclusive  "  {Horac«,  p.  235). 


B.  Earlier  History  of  Satire 

The  great  litei'ary  critic  Quintilian  proudly  claims 
Satire  as  a  purely  Roman  creation,  satira  quidem  iota 
nostra  est  (x.  1.  93).  This  kind  of  literature  had 
originated  in  a  sort  of  rustic  farce,  the  mixed  char- 
acter of  which  had  given  it  its  name.  As  lanx  satura 
was  a  dish  filled  with  various  kinds  of  fruit  offered 
to  the  gods,  and  lex  satura  was  a  law  which  included 
a  variety  of  provisions,  so,  in  the  literary  sphere, 
satura  {sc.  fahuld)  was  a  miscellaneous  story,  which 
was  originally  presented  as  a  dramatic  entertain- 
ment." After  the  introduction  of  the  regular  drama 
from  Greece,  the  dramatic  saturae,  like  the  mimes 
and  the  Atellanae,  survived  as  afterplays  (exodid),^ 
but  the  saturae  of  Livius  Andronicus  and  Naevius 
were  probably  of  the  earlier,  dramatic  type. 

Different  from  these  were  the  saturae  of  Ennius 
and  Pacuvius.  These,  to  be  sure,  were  miscellaneous 
both  in  subjects  and  in  metrical  forms,  but  they 
were  composed  for  reading,  not  for  acting.  The 
Saturae  of  Ennius  included  the  Epicharmus,  a  philo- 
sophic poem  ;  the  Euhemerus,  a  rationalistic  treat- 
ment of  mythology  ;  the  Hedupkagetica,  a  mock 
heroic  poem  on  gastronomy ;  the  Sota,  in  the 
Sotadean  metre  ;  and  the  Scipio  and  the  Ambracia, 
wliich  dealt  with  contemporary  persons  and  events. 
Of  the  Satires  of  Pacuvius  we  know  nothing,  and 

"  It  is  here  assumed  that  the  account  given  of  the  origin 
of  the  drama  in  Rome  by  the  historian  Livy  (vii.  2),  though 
somewhat  confused,  is  essentially  correct.  Certain  writers, 
however,  notably  Leo  and  Hendrickson,  have  regarded  Livy's 
account  as  pure  fiction. 

""  i.e.  comio  scenes  performed  separately  after  tragedies. 


those  of  Ennius  were  quite  overshadowed  by  his  epic 

and  dramatic  poems. 

The  writer  uniformly  recognized  as  the  founder  of 
literary  Satire  (inventor,  Horace,  Sat.  i.  10.  48)  was 
Gaius  LuciUus,  who  Uved  from  180  to  103  b.c.  He 
was  of  equestrian  rank  and  a  man  of  wealth,  the 
maternal  uncle  of  Pompey  the  Great  and  a  member 
of  the  Scipionic  circle.  His  thirty  books  of  Saturae," 
written  partly  in  trochaics,  elegiacs  and  iambics,  but 
mostly  in  hexameters,  handled  a  great  variety  of 
topics.  Fragments,  numbering  over  1300  verses, 
have  been  preserved,  and  are  accessible  in  the  splen- 
did edition  by  F.  Marx  (2  vols.,  1904.,  1905),  which 
has  supplanted  all  earlier  collections.  A  study  of 
these  throws  a  flood  of  light  upon  the  important 
question  of  the  relation  of  Horace  to  his  model  in 
the  satiric  field,  and  we  are  fortunate  in  having  a 
very  thorough  survey  of  the  subject  in  LuciUus  and 
Horace,  a  study  in  the  Classical  Theory  of  Imitation, 
by  Professor  George  Converse  Fiske,''  to  which  every 
future  editor  of  Horace  will  be  much  indebted,  and  to 
which,  therefore,  we  must  often  refer. 

The  Satires  of  LuciUus  were  largely  autobio- 

.  .  .  quo  fit  ut  omnis 
votiva  pateat  veluti  descripta  tabella 
vita  senis. 

(Horace,  Sat.  ii.  1.  32  ff.), 

and  if  they  had  survived  intact  we  should  to-day  have 

"  Cited  thus  by  grammarians  but  called  by  LuciUus  him- 
self ludus  ac  semiones  (fr.  1039).  Note  that  the  latter  term 
sermones  (or  "  Talks  ")  was  adopted  by  Horace  in  his  turn 
as  the  title  of  his  Satires. 

*  Published  in  University  of  Wisconsin  Studies  in  Lan- 
guage and  Literature,  Madison,  1920. 

b  XV 


as  complete  a  picture  of  the  poet's  life  and  times  as 
any  modern  diarist  has  given  of  his.  Lucilius  por- 
trayed not  only  himself  but  also  his  friends  and  foes, 
and  at  the  same  time  discoursed  upon  the  follies  and 
vices  of  his  day,  as  well  as  upon  philosophy,  religion, 
literature,  and  grammar  ;  upon  travels  and  adven- 
tures ;  upon  eating  and  drinking,  and  the  many 
incidents  of  daily  life. 

In  his  criticism  of  others  Lucilius  was  unrestrained, 
and  it  is  because  of  this  Tvapp-qa-la  or  freedom  of 
speech  that  Horace  makes  him  dependent  upon  the 
Old  Comedy  of  Athens  {Sat.  i.  4.  1  ff.).  Lucihus 
does  indeed  show  an  inexhaustible  power  of  invective, 
but  in  this  he  harks  back,  not  so  much  to  Aristophanes, 
as  to  "  the  vivid  and  impromptu  utterances  of  the 
Cynic  and  Stoic  popular  preachers.""  He  was,  it  is 
true,  familiar  with  the  whole  range  of  Greek  litera- 
ture, and  makes  citations  from  Homer,  Aristophanes, 
Euripides,  Menander,  and  Plato.  He  alludes  to 
Socrates  and  Aristippus,  and  draws  freely  upon  the 
Academy  and  later  exponents  of  Greek  philosophy. 
Fiske  aims  at  showing  that  "  Lucilian  satire  is  the 
product  of  a  highly  sophisticated  Hellenistic  environ- 
ment combined  with  the  Italian  penchant  for  frank, 
vigorous,  dramatic  expression."  In  his  diction, 
Lucilius  was  quite  unlike  Terence,  that  puri  sermonis 
amator,  for  "  GaUic  words,  Etruscan  words,  Syrian 
words,  and  words  from  the  Italic  dialects,  Oscan, 
Pehgnian,  Praenestine,  Sardinian,  and  Umbrian,  even 
bits  of  Greek  dialect  slang,  are  found  in  his  pages."  ^ 

We  must  remember  both  the  plebeian  origin  of 
satire,  and  the  chief  characteristics  of  Lucilius,  as 
well  as   the   ancient  mode   of  adhering  closely   to 

"  Fiske,  p.  128.  ^  Fiske,  p.  tl6. 


literary  tjrpes,  if  we  are  to  understand  some  of  the 
features  of  later  satire.  Thus  its  excessive  coarse- 
ness, especially  in  Juvenal,  is  largely  a  sxu-\'ival  from 
early  days,  and  this  element  in  Horace's  Satires, 
strictly  limited  to  Book  I.,  is  due  to  our  poet's 
following  here  too  closely  in  the  footsteps  of  Lucihus. 
So,  too,  the  fierce  invective,  which  Juvenal  has  taught 
us  to  regard  as  the  main  feature  of  satire,  is  a  dis- 
tinct inheritance  from  Lucihus. 

G.  Relation  of  Horace  to  Lucilius 

In  the  Satires  and  Epistles  of  Horace,  it  is  easy  to 
trace  an  interesting  development  in  tone  and  char- 
acter from  the  more  pecuharly  Lucilian  compositions 
to  those  that  are  more  distinctly  independent  and 
Horatian.  Thus  in  the  First  Book  of  Satires,  the 
Seventh,  which  sketches  a  trial  scene  before  the 
court  of  Brutus,  is  to  be  closely  associated  with  a 
satire  in  Book  II.  of  Lucihus,  where  Scaevola  is 
accused  by  Albucius  of  peculation  in  the  province  of 
Asia.  In  the  Second,  deahng  with  a  repulsive  sub- 
ject, not  only  "  the  satiric  moulding  of  the  material," 
but  even  the  vocabulary  is  "  distinctly  Lucihan."  " 
Both  of  these  poems,  as  well  as  the  Eighth,  were 
probably  composed  before  Horace's  introduction  to 
Maecenas.  The  Eighth,  however,  is  the  only  one  of 
this  First  Book  which  shows  no  obvious  connexion 
with  Lucihus.  It  is  a  Priapeum — a  late  genre  in 
Roman  hterature — but  treated  in  satirical  fashion. 

The  famous  Fifth  and  Ninth  Satires,  though  giving 
personal  experiences  of  the  writer,  are  nevertheless 
modelled  somewhat  closely  upon  Lucihus.     Of  the 

»  Fiske,  pp.  271,  272. 


Fifth  Porphyrio  says,  "  Lucilio  hac  satyra  aemulatuT 
Horatius,"  and  Horace's  encounter  with  the  bore  ■will 
lose  none  of  its  interest,  even  when  we  learn  that 
the  Sixth  Book  of  Lucilius  contained  a  similar  satire, 
which  was  his  direct  model."  The  First  Satire 
handles  two  themes  which  were  much  discussed  in 
the  popular  philosophy  of  the  Stoics,  viz.,  discontent 
with  one's  lot  and  the  love  of  riches.  Both  of  these 
figured  in  more  than  one  satire  of  Lucilius,  the 
scanty  fragments  of  whose  Nineteenth  Book  furnish 
sufficient  material  to  enable  Fiske  to  reconstruct  the 
particular  Satire  which  was  Horace's  model  here.^ 

In  the  remaining  Satires  of  Horace's  First  Book, 
viz.,  the  Third,  Fourth,  Sixth  and  Tenth,  Horace  is 
on  his  defence  against  hostile  criticism.  He  makes 
a  plea  for  satire  as  a  literary  form  and  tries  to  prove 
that  it  should  not  be  disliked  because  of  its  subject 
matter.  It  is  therefore  not  without  reason  that  he 
places  the  Third  next  to  the  Second  in  the  collection, 
so  as  to  stand  in  direct  contrast  with  it,  for  while  the 
Second  is  coarse,  brutal,  and  extremely  personal," 
the  Tliird,  dropping  all  abuse  and  invective,  shows  a 
kindly  and  genial  tone  which  must  tend  to  disarm 
all  criticism.  The  Fourth  and  Tenth  Satires  still 
further  show  that  the  poet  is  casting  off  the  spell  of 
Lucilius.  He  is  ready  to  criticize  the  very  founder 
of  the  satiric  genus  scrihendi  and  to  set  up  standards 
of  his  own.  "  In  fact,"  as  Fiske  says,**  "  Horace's 
Fourth  satire  may  be  regarded  as  an  aesthetic  and 

•  Fiske,  p.  335.  "  Fiske,  pp.  246,  247. 

•  "  From  no  other  Satire,  as  the  commentators  point  out, 
do  we  have  such  an  extensive  portrait  gallery  of  contempor- 
aries "  (Fiske,  p.  270). 

"  Fiske,  p.  278. 


ethical  analysis  of  the  Lucihan  theory  of  satire," 
while  the  Tenth,  composed  under  the  smart  of 
hostile  criticism,  is  a  vigorous  polemic  directed,  not 
so  much  against  Lucilius  himself,  as  against  those 
critics  of  Horace's  owti  day,  who  upheld  the  standards 
or  lack  of  standards  illustrated  by  the  Satires  of 
Lucilius.  It  is  "  only  in  the  general  recognition  of  his 
predecessor  as  the  originator  of  the  poetical  form,  and 
in  acknowledgement  of  his  skill  in  the  employment  of 
the  harshest  weapons  of  satire,"  that  Horace  here 
"  treats  LuciUus  with  consideration."  "  And  as  the 
Fourth  and  Tenth  Satires  are  a  defence  of  his  art,  so 
the  Sixth  is  a  defence  of  the  poet  himself,  as  well  as 
of  his  noble  patron  and  the  circle  of  friends  to  which 
Horace  has  been  admitted.  The  fragments  show 
that  in  the  Thirtieth  Book  Lucihus  had  discussed 
liis  own  relations  to  some  patron,  and  had  placed 
the  poet's  calling  above  the  lure  of  wealth,  as  Horace 
places  it  above  political  ambition.*  If  we  had  the 
whole  poem,  we  should  doubtless  find  that  Horace 
had  drawn  a  contrast  between  his  owti  lowly  birth, 
and  the  aristocratic  origin  of  Lucihus.* 

In  the  Second  Book  of  the  Satires,  published  as 
we  have  seen  in  30  B.C.,  Horace  finds  it  no  longer 
necessary  to  make  a  serious  defence  of  his  satire. 
His  position  as  a  writer  is  now  well  estabhshed,  and 
the  controversies  underlying  Book  I.  have  been 
settled  in  his  favour.     Yet  the  poet  is  not  wholly 

•  Hendrickson,  Horace  and  Lucilius,  in  Studies  in  Honor 
o/B.  L.  Gild^rsleeve,  p.  162  (Baltimore,  1903). 

»  Fiske,  p.  318. 

*  See  Sat.  i.  6.  58,  59,  where  claro  natum  patre  probably 
refers  to  Lucilius,  who,  according  to  Cichorius,  had  estates 
near  Tarentum.     Cf.  Fiske,  p.  320. 



free  from  anxiety,  for  there  were  certain  legal 
restrictions  that  might  prove  embarrassing  to  the 
writer  of  satire .'*  Horace,  therefore,  in  the  First 
Satire  of  this  book,  asserts  his  right  to  freedom  of 
speech,  and  makes  an  attack,  however  disguised  in 
its  humorous  form,  upon  the  libel  laws  of  Rome, 
proclaiming  at  the  same  time  that,  as  a  satirist,  he 
is  armed  for  defence  not  offence,  and  that  he  must 
have  the  same  privilege  as  Lucilius  enjoyed,  that  of 
writing  down  his  inmost  thoughts  and  his  personal 
comments  upon  the  world. 

The  Second  Satire  of  Book  II.  corresponds  in 
theme,  as  well  as  position,  with  the  Second  of  Book  I. 
It  applies  the  philosophic  doctrine  of  "  the  mean  " 
to  daily  living,  eating  and  drinking,  just  as  the  earlier 
one  applied  it  to  sexual  morality.  It  is  strongly 
under  the  influence  of  Lucilius,  though,  like  Sat.  i.  2, 
it  abounds  in  ideas  which  were  common  in  the  ser- 
mons of  philosophers. 

Closely  connected  with  the  Second  are  the  Fourth 
and  Eighth,  which  belong  to  a  genre  whose  history 
is  outlined  in  the  introduction  to  the  Fourth.  The 
satiric  SeiTrvov,  of  which  the  Cena  Trimalchionis  of 
Petronius  is  the  most  famous  example,  was  repre- 
sented in  Lucilius  by  at  least  five  satires. 

The  influence  of  Lucilius  is  still  strong  in  the 
lengthy  Third  Satire,  which  deals  with  the  Stoic 
paradox,  on  7ras  ac^puiv  /xatverat,  a  theme  which  it 
would  seem  Lucilius  had  handled  at  least  twice.*  It 
is  interesting  to  find  that  even  the  scene  reproduced 

»  See  Lejay,  pp.  289-292.  In  Book  I.  twenty-four  con- 
temporaries are  criticized  ;  in  II.  only  four.  So  Filbey, 
cited  bv  Fiske,  p.  416. 

»  Fiske,  pp.  390  ff. 



by  Horace  (U.  259-271)  from  the  Eunuckus  of  Terence, 
was  also  utilized  by  Lucilius." 

In  the  remaining  Satires  of  Book  II.,  the  Fifth, 
Sixth  and  Seventh,  the  influence  of  Lueilius  seems 
to  be  very  slight.  The  Sixth,  it  is  true,  illustrates 
the  autobiographical  element  so  conspicuous  in 
Lueilius,  and  epic  parody,  exemphfied  in  the  Fifth, 
was  doubtless  employed  by  Lueilius,  even  as  it  had 
figured  in  the  Middle  and  New  Attic  Comedy,  but 
Horace  is  no  longer  under  his  sway,  and  when  in  the 
Seventh  we  find  the  poet  professing  to  make  himself 
a  target  for  the  shafts  of  satire,  we  realize  that  now 
at  least  he  can  be  independent  of  his  model. 

The  Epistles  belong  essentially  to  the  same  literary 
class  as  the  Satires.  Both  kinds  are  conversational :  ^ 
epistulis  ad  absentes  loquimur,  sermone  cum  praesentibus, 
says  Acron.  In  subject  matter  the  Epistles  cover 
much  the  same  field  as  the  Satires.  They  deal  with 
human  foibles  and  frailties,  discuss  philosophic  prin- 
ciples, open  windows  upon  the  poet's  domestic  circle, 
and  give  us  incidents  and  scenes  from  daily  life. 

Lueilius  had  used  the  epistolary  form  in  a  satire 
of  his  Fifth  Book,  and  Horace  came  to  realize  that 
this  was  the  most  satisfactory  mould  for  him  to 
adopt,  when  expressing  his  personal  feelings  and 
when  passing  judgement  upon  the  hterary  and  social 
problems  of  his  time.  As  to  thought  and  contents, 
however,  the  influence  of  Lucihus  upon  the  Epistles 
is  relatively  very  slight."  These  poems,  indeed,  are 
the   offspring   of    Horace's    maturity,    and    themes 

"  Fiske,  pp.  394  ff. 

*  Hendrickson,  "  Are  the   Letters   of  Horace   Satires  ? " 
American  Journal  of  Philology,  xviii.  pp.  312-324. 
"  See  Fiske,  pp.  427-440. 



already  handled  in  the  Satires  are  now  presented  in 
more  systematic  fashion,  the  Avriter  disclosing  a 
riper  judgement  and  a  more  subtle  refinement  of 
mind.  "  Good  sense,  good  feeling,  good  taste,"  says 
Mackail,  "  these  qualities,  latent  from  the  first  in 
Horace,  had  obtained  a  final  mastery  over  the  coarser 
strain  with  which  they  had  at  first  been  mingled."" 
The  Epistles,  indeed,  with  their  criticism  of  life  and 
literature,  are  the  best  expression  of  that  "  urbanity," 
which  has  ever  been  recognized  as  the  most  out- 
standing feature  of  Horace. 

The  two  Epistles  of  the  Second  Book  are  devoted 
to  literary  criticism,  which  is  an  important  element 
in  the  First  Book  of  the  Satires,  and  which,  we  may 
well  believe,  was  first  suggested  to  Horace  by  his 
relation  to  Lucilius.  Even  in  these  late  productions, 
therefore,  may  be  found  traces  of  Lucilian  influence,^ 
but  Horace  writes  with  a  free  spirit,  and  in  his 
literary,  as  in  his  philosophic,  life,  he  is 

nullius  addictus  iurare  in  verba  magistri.* 

As  to  the  puzzling  Ars  Poetica,  it  is  evident  from 
the  researches  of  Cichorius*^  and  Fiske  that  it  is 
quite  largely  indebted  to  Lucilius,  who  had  a  theory 
of  literary  criticism  "  formulated  according  to  the 
same  rhetorical  cr^rnxara,  and  under  substantially  the 
same  rhetorical  influences  ...  as  Horace's  Ars 
Poetica."  *  Moreover,  a  detailed  comparison  of  the 
fragments  of  Lucilius  with  the  Ars  Poetica  show 
numerous  and  striking  similarities.     To  the  present 

"  Latin  Literattire,  p.  111. 

^  Fiske,  pp.  441-446.  «  Epist.  ii.  1.  14. 

"*  Untersuchungen  zu  Lucilius,  pp.  109-127. 

•  Fiske,  p.  468. 


writer  it  would  seem  to  be  an  obvious  inference  jfrom 
these  facts  that  the  Ars  Poetica  was  largely  composed 
some  years  before  it  was  pubhshed.  It  may  have 
been  -WTitten  originally  in  the  regular  satiric  form, 
and  afterwards  adjusted,  for  publication,  to  the 
epistolary  mould. 

D.  Manuscripts  and  Commentaries 

The  text  of  Horace  does  not  rest  on  as  firm  a 
foundation  as  that  of  Virgil.  Whereas  the  great 
epic  \vTiter  is  represented  to-day  by  as  many  as  seven 
manuscripts  ^^Titten  in  uncial  or  capital  letters,  all  of 
the  extant  Horatian  manuscripts  are  of  the  cursive 
type,  and  not  one  can  claim  to  be  older  than  the  ninth 
century.  Yet,  putting  Virgil  aside,  Horace,  in 
comparison  ^^■ith  the  other  Augustan  poets,  has  fared 
very  well,  and  his  text  has  suffered  comparatively 
httle  in  the  process  of  transmission. 

The  MSB.  number  about  two  hundred  and  fifty,  and 
have  given  rise  to  endless  discussion  as  to  their  mutual 
relations,  their  classification,  their  hne  of  descent 
from  a  common  original,  and  their  comparative  value. 
Such  questions  have  been  rendered  more  uncertain 
by  the  incomplete  knowledge  which  we  possess  of  the 
four  Blandinian  mss.  which  were  destroyed  in  1566, 
when  the  Benedictine  abbey  of  St.  Peter,  at  Blanken- 
berg  near  Ghent,  was  sacked  by  a  mob.  These  mss. 
had,  however,  been  rather  carelessly  collated  a  few 
years  earlier  by  Cruquius,  who,  beginning  with  1565, 
edited  separate  portions  of  Horace,  and  finally  in 
1578  published  a  complete  edition  of  the  poet  at 
Antwerp.     Of  these  lost  Blandinian  mss.  Cruquius 


valued  most  highly  the  one  which  he  calls  vetustissimus, 
and  wliich  Bentley,  Lachmann,  and  other  later  editors 
have  regarded  as  the  soundest  foundation  for  the 
estabhshment  of  a  correct  Horatian  text.  Unfortun- 
ately, doubt  has  been  cast  upon  the  accuracy  of  the 
statements  of  Cruquius,  and  Keller  and  Holder 
depreciate  the  value  of  this  lost  ms. 

The  two  scholars  just  named,  the  most  painstaking 
editors  of  the  Horatian  text,  have  adopted  a  grouping 
of  the  Mss.  in  three  classes,  each  of  which  is  based  on 
a  lost  archetype.  The  three  archetypes  are  ulti- 
mately derived  from  an  original  archetype  of  the 
first  or  second  century.  The  claim  is  made  that  a 
reading  found  in  the  mss.  of  two  classes  should  take 
precedence  over  that  found  in  only  one.  The  three 
classes  are  distinguished  from  one  another  by  the 
degree  of  systematic  alteration  and  interpolation  to 
which  they  have  been  subjected. 

This  elaborate  classification  of  Keller  and  Holder's 
has  proved  too  complicated  and  has  failed  to  win 
general  acceptance.  A  simpler  and  more  satisfactory 
grouping  has  been  attempted  by  Professor  Vollmer 
of  Munich  in  his  recension  of  1906  (2nd  edition  1912) 
in  which  the  editor,  returning  to  the  principles  of 
Bentley,  endeavours  to  reconstruct  the  sixth  century 
Mavortian  "  edition,  beyond  which,  however  far  this 
may  have  departed  from  the  original  Horatian  text, 
one  can  hardly  hope  to  go.  Vollmer  enumerates 
only  fifteen  mss.,  which  he  divides  into  two  groups, 
I.  and  II,  In  Class  I.  he  includes  K,  a  codex  not  known 

"  The  name  of  Mavortius,  who  was  consul  in  a.d.  527, 
appears  in  association  with  that  of  Felix,  orator  urbis  Romae, 
as  an  emendator  or  Stop^wrijs,  in  eight  mss.,  including  A, 
\,  I,  and  Goth. 



to  Keller  and  Holder.  The  vetustissimus  {V^  he  places 
in  Class  II.  along  with  a  Vatican  MS.,  R,  of  the  ninth 
century  and  the  Gothanus  of  the  fifteenth  century, 
wliich  reveals  its  kinship  ^\ith  V.  The  readings  of 
Class  II.  are  often  to  be  preferred  to  those  of  Class  I. 
In  1912,  in  rexising  for  the  Clarendon  Press  Wick- 
ham's  text  edition  of  Horace,  Mr.  H.  W.  Garrod  of 
Oxford  carried  this  simplification  still  further.  He 
adopts  Vollmer's  classification,  but  drops  some  mss. 
which  he  finds  to  have  httle  significance,  viz.  from 
Class  I.,  A,  which  is  a  mere  dupUcate  of  a,  and  K  ; 
while  from  Class  II.  he  omits  R,  Goth.,  A  (Parisinus 
7972),  and  Z  (  =  Leidensis  Lat .  28).  On  the  other  hand, 
he  recalls  M,  which  Keller  had  overestimated  but 
Vollmer  had  rejected  as  of  httle  value.  V,  placed 
outside  the  two  classes,  is  held  in  high  esteem. 

The  MSS.  cited  in  this  edition  are  as  follows  : 

0  =  codex  Ambrosianus  136,  from  Avignon,  now  in  Milan. 

Tenth  century.     Available  for  Satires  and  Epistlet, 

except  from  Sat.  ii.  7.  27  to  ii.  8.  95. 
^  =  Parisinus  7900  a.     Tenth  century.     V se^  for  Epistlesi. 

(here  by  a  second  hand),  and  to  supplement  a. 
B  ==  codex  Bernensis  363  ;  in  Bern,  Switzerland.     Written 

by  an  Irish  scribe  at  the  end  of  the  ninth  century. 

Available  for  Satires  up  to  i.  3.  135,  and  for  Ars  Poet. 

up  to  1.  441. 
C  and  ^= codex  Monacensis  14685  (two  parts).     Eleventh 

century.     C  is   available   from  Sat.  i.  4.  122  up  to 

i.  6.  40  ;  for  Sat.  ii.  8  ;  and  for  Ars  Poet,  up  to  1.  441. 

E  is  available  for  Satires  and  Epistles,  except  for  Sat. 

ii.  5.  87  up  to  ii.  6.  33 ;  and  for  Ars  Poet.,  except  11.  441 

to  476. 
D  =  codex  Argentoratensis.     Destroyed  at  Strasburg  1870. 

Tenth  century.     Available  for  Saiires  and  Epistles, 


except  from  Sat.  ii.  2.  132  to  ii.  3.  75 ;  from  Sat.  n.  5. 95 

to  Epist.  ii.  2.  112.     Not   available  for  Ars  Poet. 
K  =  codex  S.  Eugendi,  now  St.  Claude.     Eleventh  century. 

Available  for  Satires  up  to  ii.  2.  25,  and  for  Ars  Poet. 
M=  codex  Mellicensis.     Eleventh  century.     Available  for 

Satires,  except  from  ii.  5.  95  and  a  portion  of  ii.  3  ; 

and  for  Epistles,  except  from  i.  6.  67  to  i.  16.  35. 
The  above  mss.  constitute  Class  I. 

R  =  Vaticanus  Reginae  1 703.  Ninth  century.  Available 
for  Satires  and  Epistles,  except  from  Sat.  i.  3.  28  to 
i.  8.  4,  and  from  Sat.  ii.  1.  16  to  ii.  8.  95. 

S  =  codex  Harleianus  2725.  Ninth  century.  Available 
for  Satires  up  to  i.  2.  114 ;  and  for  Epistles  up  to 
i.  8.  8,  and  from  ii.  2.  19  to  the  end  of  Ars  Poetica. 

X    =  Parisinus  7972.     Tenth  century.     Complete. 

/    =  Lcidensis  Lat.  28.     Ninth  century.     Complete. 

a-  =  codex  Parisinus  10310.  Ninth  or  tenth  century. 
Available  for  Epistles  and  Ars  Poetica,  but  for  Satires 
only  up  to  i.  2.  70. 

<p  =  codex  Parisinus  7974.     Tenth  century.     Complete. 

^  =  codex  Parisinus  7971.     Tenth  century.     Complete. 

Goth.  =  Gothanus.      Fifteenth    century.     This    lacks    the 
Ars  Poetica. 
These  constitute  Class  II. 

Besides  these,  account  must  be  taken  (through  the 
edition  of  Cruquius)  of  the  four  lost  Blandinian  mss. 
(designated  as  Bland.),  the  chief  of  which  was  F 
(^=ivetustissimus).  In  a  number  of  cases  F  alone  (or 
in  conjunction  with  Goth.)  preserved  the  correct 
reading.  The  most  striking  instance  of  this  is  given 
in  Sat.  i.  6.  126,  but  other  examples  are  afforded  by 
Sat.  i.  1. 108  ;  ii.  2.  56  ;  ii.  3.  303  ;  ii.  4.  44  ;  ii.  8.  88  ; 
Epist.  i.  10.  9  ;  i-  16.  43.  On  the  whole,  however, 
V  was  probably  just  as  faulty  as  are  most  of  the 


extant  mss.,  no  one  of  which  stands  out  as  con» 
spicuous  for  accuracy.  Yet,  as  a  group,  the  mss.  of 
Class  I.  are  distinctly  superior  to  those  of  Class  II., 
though  not  infrequently  the  latter  preserve  correct 
readings  which  the  former  had  lost. 

Collections  of  Horatian  scholia,  or  explanatory 
notes,  have  come  down  to  us  from  antiquity  under 
the  names  of  Porphyrio  and  Acron.  These  scholars 
lived  probably  in  the  third  century  of  our  era,  Acron 
being  the  earlier  of  the  two,  but  the  scholia  now 
surviving  under  Acron's  name  are  as  late  as  the  fifth 
century.  Both  collections  are  largely  interpolated. 
Both,  however,  precede  our  mss.  in  point  of  time,  and 
are  therefore  valuable  in  determining  the  priority  of 
conflicting  readings. 

The  term  Commentator  Cruquianus  is  given  to  a 
collection  of  notes  gathered  by  Cruquius  from  the 
marginaha  in  his  Blandinian  mss. 

E.  Editions  and  Bibliography 

The  editio  princeps  of  Horace  appeared  in  Italy, 
without  date  or  name  of  place,  about  1470,  and  was 
followed  by  the  annotated  edition  by  Landinus, 
Florence,  1482.  Lambin's,  which  first  appeared  in 
1561,  was  frequently  repubhshed  in  Paris  and  else- 
where. The  complete  edition  by  Cruquius  was  issued 
at  Antwerp,  1578.  Modern  editions  may  be  said  to 
begin  with  Heinsius,  Leyden,  1612.  Bentley's  (Cam- 
bridge, 1711,  Amsterdam  1713,  and  frequently  re- 
published) marks  an  epoch  in  Horatian  study.  Among 
nineteenth-century  editors  may  be  mentioned  Doring 
(Leipzig,  1803),   Lemaire  (Paris,   1829),  Peerlkamp 



(Harlem,  1834),  Dillenburger  (Bonn,  1844),  Duentzer 
(Brunswick,  1849)  and  Orelli,  whose  text  and  com- 
mentary (revised  by  Baiter  1852,  then  by  Hirsch- 
felder  and  Mewes — fourth  large  edition,  Berlin,  1892) 
became  the  standard.  Ritter's  edition  is  dated  1856- 
1857,  Leipzig.  Keller  and  Holder's  (editio  maior, 
Leipzig,  1864-70  ;  editio  minor,  1878)  is  based  on  an 
exhaustive  study  of  the  mss.  Vollmer's  important 
edition  (2nd,  1912,  Leipzig)  has  a  serviceable  ap- 
paratus criiicus.  One  of  the  best  annotated  editions 
is  A.  Kiesshng's,  Berhn,  1884  and  later  ;  revised  by 
Heinze,  1910.  Another  good  one  is  that  of  Schiitz, 
Berlin,  1880-83,  and  one  by  L.  Muller,  Leipzig,  1891- 
1893.  English  editions  are  Macleane's,  London, 
1869  (4th,  1881)  ;  Wickham's,  2  vols.,  annotated, 
Oxford,  1878  and  I891,  and  the  Page,  Palmer  and 
Wilkins  edition,  London  and  New  York,  1896. 
Wickham's  text  edition,  Oxford,  1900,  was  revised 
by  Garrod,  1912  (see  p.  xxv).  In  America  the  best 
complete  editions  are  tliose  by  C.  L.  Smith  and 
J.  B.  Greenough,  Boston,  I894,  and  by  C.  H.  Moore 
and  E.  P.  Morris,  New  York,  1909.  In  France, 
there  is  the  Waltz  edition,  Paris,  1887.  Of  the 
Plessis  and  Lejay  edition  only  the  volume  of  Satires 
by  Lejay  has  thus  far  appeared  (Paris,  1911)-  The 
best  complete  edition  in  Italy  is  Fumagalli's,  Rome, 
5th,  1912. 

Special  editions  of  the  Satires  and  Epistles  are 
numerous.  A  few  that  we  may  mention  are  those 
by  A.  Palmer,  Satires,  London  and  New  York,  1883  ; 
A.  S.  Wilkins,  Epistles,  London  and  New  York,  1885  ; 
J.  Gow,  Satires,  i.  Cambridge,  I9OI  ;  J.  C.  Rolfe, 
Boston,  1901  ;  P.  Rasi,  Milan,  1906-07  ;  Sabbadini, 
Turin,  19O6  ;  E.  P.  Morris,  New  York,  1909-11. 


Among  other  •works  of  importance  for  the  study 
of  Horace  may  be  mentioned  the  follo^\^ng  : 

F.  Hauthal,  Acronis  et  Porphyrionis  commentarii  in 
Horatium,  Berlin,  1864-66. 

W.  Meyer,  Porphyrionis  commentarii  in  Horatium,  Leip- 
zig, 1874. 

R.  M.  Hovenden,  Horace's  Life  and  Character,  London, 

O.  Keller,  Epilegornena  zu  Horaz,  Leipzig,  1879-80. 

W,  Y.  Sellar,  Horace,  Roman  Poets  of  the  Augustan  Age, 
Oxford,  1892. 

R.  Y.  Tyrrell,  Latin  Poetry ;  Jolms  Hopkins  Lectures,  1893. 

J.  W.  MackaU,  Latin  Literature,  New  York,  1895. 

Gaston  Boissier,  The  Country  of  Horace  and  Virgil,  trans- 
lated by  Fisher,  New  York,  1896. 

A.  Cartault,  ttude  sur  les  Satires  d' Horace,  Paris,  1899. 

O.  Keller,  Psendacronis  scholia  in  Horatium  vetustiora, 
Leipzig,  1902-4. 

F.  Marx,  C.  Lucilii  carminum  reliquiae,  2  vol.,  Leipzig, 


G.  Cichorius,  Untersuchungen  zu  Lucilius,  Berlin,  1908. 
J.  W.  Duff,  Literary  History  of  Rome,  London,  1909. 

F.  Leo,  Geschichte  der  romischen  Literatur,  Berlin,  1913. 
Courtand,   Horace,   sa  vie   et   sa  pensee   d,    I'epoque    des 

ipitres,  Paris,  1914. 
Lane   Cooper,  A   Concordance  to  the   Works  of  Horace, 

Washington  (The  Carnegie  Institution),  1916. 
Mary  Rebecca  Thayer,   The  Influence  of  Horace  on  the 

Chief  English  Poets  of  the  Nineteenth  Century,  New 

Haven,  1916. 
J.  F.  D 'Alton,  Horace  and  his  Age,  London  and  New 

York,  1917. 

G.  C.  Fiske,  Lucilius  and  Horace  :  a  Study  in  the  Classical 

Theory  of  Imitation,  MadL-on,  Wisconsin,  1920. 
Grant  Showerman,  Horace  and  his  Influence,  Boston,  1922. 
H.  N.  Fowler,  A  History  of  Roman  Literature,  New  York, 

1923  (2nd  edition). 
E.  E.  Sikes,  Roman  Poetry,  London,  1923. 


A.  Y.  Campbell,  Horace,  a  riew  Interpretation,  London, 

Elizabeth  H.  Haight,  Horace  and  his  Art  of  Enjoyment, 

New  York,  1925. 

There  are  also  many  pamphlets  and  periodical 
articles,  too  numerous  to  record,  which  must  be 
consulted  by  an  editor  of  Horace. 

F.  Abbreviations 

A.  J.  V.  =  American  Journal  of  Philology. 

A.P. A.  =  Transactions  and  Proceedings  of  the  American 

Philological  Association. 
C.P.  =  Classical  Philology. 
C.R.  =  Classical  Review. 
C.W.  =  Classical  Weekly. 
¥iske  =  Lticilius  and  Horace,  by  G.  C.  Fiske. 
Harv.  St.  =  Harvard  Studies  in  Classical  Philology. 
3. V.  =  Journal  of  Philology. 
Rh.  M.  =  Rheinisches  Museum  fiir  klaasische  Philologie. 

Editions  of  Horace  are  often  referred  to  by  the 
name  of  the  editor  alone,  e.g.  Lejay  =  the 
Lejay  edition  of  the  Satires. 




The  opening  Satire  serves  as  a  dedication  of  the 
whole  book  to  Maecenas,  and  deals  with  a  conspicuous 
feature  of  social  life  in  the  Augustan  age. 

Everybody,  says  Horace,  is  discontented  with  his 
lot  and  envies  his  neighbour.  Yet,  if  some  god  were 
to  give  men  a  chance  to  change  places,  they  would 
all  refuse.  The  cause  of  this  restlessness  is  the 
longing  for  wealth.  Men  will  assure  you  that  the 
only  reason  why  they  toil  unceasingly  is  that  they 
may  secure  a  competence  and  then  retire.  They 
claim  to  be  like  the  ant,  which  provides  so  wisely  for 
the  future  ;  but  the  ant  enjoys  its  store  when  winter 
comes,  whereas  the  money-seeking  man  never 
ceases  from  his  labours,  so  long  as  there  is  one  richer 
than  himself  (1-40). 

And  yet  what  is  the  use  of  large  possessions  ?  If 
a  man  has  enough,  more  wealth  will  prove  a  burden 
and  a  peril.  The  miser  claims  that  the  wealthier  he 
is  the  more  highly  will  men  think  of  him,  I  will 
not  argue  the  point,  says  Horace,  but  will  leave  him 
to  his  self-esteem.  He  is  like  Tantalus,  tortured 
with  thirst  though  the  waters  are  so  near.  Your 
avaricious  man  suffers  all  the  pain,  and  enjoys  none 
of  the  pleasure  that  money  can  buy.  There  is  indeed 


no  more  certain  cause  of  misery  than  avarice.  Yet 
one  must  not  run  to  the  other  extreme,  but  should 
observe  the  golden  mean  (41-107). 

To  return  to  the  starting-point  :  everybody  is 
trying  to  outstrip  his  neighbour  in  the  race  for  wealth. 
People  are  never  satisfied,  and  therefore  we  seldom 
see  a  man  who  is  ready  to  quit  the  banquet  of  life 
Uke  a  guest  who  has  had  enough  (108-119). 

But  enough  of  this  preaching,  or  you  wiU  think 
that  I  have  rifled  the  papers  of  Crispinus  (120,  121). 

Palmer  thinks  that  this  Satire  "  was  probably  the 
last  composed  of  those  in  the  first  book,"  and  Morris 
speaks  of  its  "  maturity  of  style  and  treatment." 
Campbell,  however,  points  out  "  distinct  signs  of 
immaturity,"  such  as  the  Lucretian  echo  in  11.  23-26, 
a  passage  which  "  smacks  of  the  no\ace  in  satire- 
writing  "  {cf.  Lucr.  i.  936  fF.),  the  weakness  of  1.  108, 
and  the  "lame  conclusion"  in  11.  120,  121  {Horace, 
p.  165).  Lejay  thinks  that  our  author  composed 
the  discussion  of  avaritia  (28-117)  first,  and  later, 
when  dedicating  his  book  to  Maecenas,  added  the 
beginning  and  the  end.  This  is  a  very  plausible 

A  minute  analysis  of  this  Satire  is  given  by  Charles 
Knapp  in  the  Transactions  of  the  American  Philo- 
logical Association,  xlv.  pp.  91  ff. 




Qui  fit,  Maecenas,  ut  nemo,  quam  sibi  sortem 
seu  ratio  dederit  seu  fors^  obiecerit,  ilia 
contentus  vivat,  laudet  diversa  sequentis  ? 
"  o  fortunati  mercatores  !  "  gravis  annis^ 
miles  ait,  multo  iam  fractus  membra  labore.  6 

coYitra  mercator,  navem  iactantibus  Austris, 
"  militia  est  potior,    quid  enim  ?    concurritur  :  horae 
momento  cita  mors  venit  aut  victoria  laeta." 
agricolam  laudat  iuri^lcgumque  peritus, 
sub  galli  cantum  consultor  ubi  ostia  pidsat.  10 

ille,  datis  vadibus  qui  rure  extractus  in  urbem  est, 
solos  felices  viventis  clamat'  in  urbe. 
cetera  de  genere  hoc,  adeo  sunt  multa,  loquacem 
delassare  valent  Fabium.     ne  te  morer,  audi 
quo  rem  deducam.     si  quis  deus  "  en  ego  "  dicat,  15 

1  fors  V  Mss.  :  sors  B. 

*  annis  mss.  :  armis  conjectured  by  Bouhier  and  accepted 
by  Vollmer.  *  cantat  B. 

"  The  reference  is  not  so  much  to  the  professional  lawyer 
as  to  the  influential  citizen,  whose  humble  clients  come 
at  daybreak  to  ask  for  advice.  Such  a  citizen  would 
commonly  have  had   a  good  legal  training.    With  him  is 



BOOK   I       i^ 
Satire  I 

How  comes  it,  Maecenas,  that  no  man  li\ing  is 
content  with  the  lot  which  either  his  choice  has 
given  him,  or  chance  has  thro^vn  in  his  way,  but 
each  has  praise  for  those  who  follow  other  paths  ? 
"  O  happy  traders  !  "  cries  the  soldier,  as  he  feels 
the  weight  of  years,  his  frame  now  shattered  with 
hard  ser\ice.  On  the  other  hand,  when  southern 
gales  toss  the  ship,  the  trader  cries  :  "  A  soldier's 
life  is  better.  Do  you  ask  why  ?  There  is  the  battle 
clash,  and  in  a  moment  of  time  comes  speedy  death 
or  joyous  victory."  One  learned  in  law  and  statutes 
has  praise  for  the  farmer,  when  towards  cockcrow  a 
client  comes  knocking  at  his  door."  The  man 
yonder,  who  has  given  surety  and  is  dragged  into 
town  from  the  country  cries  that  they  only  are  happy 
who  Uve  in  town.  The  other  instances  of  this  kind 
— so  many  are  they — could  tire  out  the  chatterbox 
Fabius.  To  be  brief  with  you,  hear  the  conclusion 
to  which  I  am  coming.     If  some  god  were  to  say  :  *" 

contrasted  a  countryman,  who  is  a  defendant  in  some  case 
and  must,  therefore,  come  to  the  city  against  his  will. 

*  Horace  imagines  a  dramatic  scene  where  a  god  appears 
€x  machina.     C/.  Sat.  ii.  7.  :24  ;  Ara  Poetica,  191. 



"  iam  faciam,  quod  voltis  :  eris  tu,  qui  modo  miles, 
mercator  ;  tu,  consultus  modo,  rusticus  ;  hinc  vos, 
vos  hinc  mutatis  discedite  partibus  :   eia ! 
quid  statis  ?  " — nolint.^     atqui  licet  esse  beatis. 
quid  causae  est,  merito  quin  illis  luppiter  ambas    20 
iratus  buccas  inflet  neque  se  fore  posthac 
tarn  facilem  dicat,  votis  ut  praebeat  aurem  ? 

Praeterea,  ne  sic,  ut  qui  iocularia,  ridens^ 
percurram  :   quamquam  ridentem  dicere  verum 
quid  vetat  ?  ut  pueris  olim  dant  crustula  blandi       25 
doctores,  elementa  velint  ut  discere  prima  : 
sed  tamen  amoto  quaeramus  seria  ludo  : 
ille  gravem  duro  terram  qui  vertit  aratro, 
perfidus  hie  caupo,  miles  nautaeque  per  omne 
audaces  mare  qui  currunt,  hac  mente  laborem         30 
sese  ferre,  senes  ut  in  otia  tuta  recedant, 
aiunt,  cum  sibi  sint  congesta  cibaria  :  sicut 
parvola,  nam -gxemplo  est,  magni  formica  laboris 
ore  trahit  quJWbumque  potest  atque  addit  acervo 
quern  struit,  haud  ignara  ac  non  incauta  futuri.       35 
quae,  simul  inversum  contristat  Aquarius  annum, 
non  usquam  prorepit  et  illis  utitur  ante 
quaesitis  sapiens,^  cum  te  neque  fervidus  aestus 
demoveat  lucro  neque  hiems,  ignis,  mare,  ferrum, 
nil  obstet  tibi,  dum  ne  sit  te  ditior  alter,  40 

Quid  iuvat  immensum  te  argenti  pondus  et  auri 
furtim  defossa  timidum  deponere  terra  ? 
"  quod  si  comminuas,  vilem  redigatur  ad  assem." 

^  nolent  B. 

*  II.  22,  23  with  order  inverted  BK. 

*  sapiens  F,  // ;  patiens  /. 

'  The  sun  enters  the  sign  of  Aquarius  in  Januarj-,  the 
chilHest  month  of  a  Roman  winter,  when  the  year's  cycle 
begins  anew. 


SATIRES,  I.  I.  16-43 

"  Here  I  am  !  I  will  grant  your  prayers  forthmth. 
You,  who  were  but  now  a  soldier,  shall  be  a  trader  ; 
you,  but  now  a  lawyer,  shall  be  a  farmer.  Change 
parts  ;  away  with  you — and  with  you  !  Well  !  Why 
standing  still  ? "  They  would  refuse.  And  yet 
'tis  in  their  power  to  be  happy.  What  reason  is 
there  why  Jove  should  not,  quite  properly,  puff  out 
both  cheeks  at  them  in  anger,  and  say  that  never 
again  will  he  be  so  easy-going  as  to  lend  ear  to  their 
prayers  ? 

^  Furthermore,  not  to  skim  over  the  subject 
with  a  laugh  like  a  writer  of  -w-itticisms — and  yet 
what  is  to  prevent  one  from  telling  truth  as  he  laughs, 
even  as  teachers  sometimes  give  cookies  to  children 
to  coax  them  into  learning  their  ABC  ? — still,  putting 
jesting  aside,  let  us  turn  to  serious  thoughts  :  yon 
farmer,  who  A\ith  tough  plough  turns  up  the  heavy 
soil,  our  rascally  host  here,  the  soldier,  the  sailors 
who  boldly  scour  every  sea,  all  say  that  they  bear 
toil  with  this  in  \iew,  that  when  old  they  may  retire 
into  secure  ease,  once  they  have  piled  up  their  pro- 
visions ;  even  as  the  tiny,  hard-working  ant  (for  she 
is  their  model)  drags  all  she  can  with  her  mouth, 
and  adds  it  to  the  heap  she  is  building,  because  she 
is  not  unaware  and  not  heedless  of  the  morrow.  Yet 
she,  soon  as  Aquarius  saddens  the  upturned  year," 
stirs  out  no  more  but  uses  the  store  she  gathered 
beforehand,  wise  creature  that  she  is  ;  while  as  for 
you,  neither  burning  heat,  nor  winter,  fire,  sea, 
sword,  can  turn  you  aside  from  gain — nothing  stops 
you,  until  no  second  man  be  richer  than  yourself. 

f^  What  good  to  you  is  a  vast  weight  of  silver 
and  gold,  if  in  terror  you  stealthily  bury  it  in  a  hole 
in  the  ground  ?     "  But  if  one  splits  it  up,  it  would 



at  ni  id  fit,  quid  habet  pulchri  constructus  acervus  ? 

milia  frumenti  tua  triverit  area  centum,  45 

non  tuus  hoc  capiet  venter  plus  ac^  meus  ;   ut  si 

reticulum  panis  venalis  inter  onusto 

forte  vehas  umero,  nihilo  plus  accipias  quam 

qui  nil  portarit. 

Vel  die,  quid  referat  intra 
naturae  finis  viventi,  iugera  centum  an  50 

mille  aret  ?     "  at  suave  est  ex  magno  tollere  acervo." 
dum  ex  parvo  nobis  tantundem  haurire  relinquas, 
cur  tua  plus  laudes  cumeris  granaria  nostris  ? 
ut  tibi  si  sit  opus  liquidi  non  amplius  urna 
vel  cyatho,  et  dicas  "  magno  de  flumine  mallem^     55 
quam  ex  hoc  fonticulo  tantundem  sumere."     eo  fit, 
plenior  ut  si  quos  delectet  copia  iusto, 
cum  ripa  simul  avolsos  ferat  Aufidus  acer. 
at  qui  tantuli  eget,  quanto  est  opus,  is  neque  limo 
turbatam  haurit  aquam,  neque  vitam  amittit  in  undis. 

At^  bona  pars  hominum  decepta  cupidine  falso    61 
"  nil  satis  est  "  inquit,  "  quia  tanti  jquantum  habeas 

quid  facias  illi  ?     iubeas  miserum  esse,  libenter 
quatenus  id  facit :   ut  quidam  memoratur  Athenis 
sordidus  ac  dives,  populi  contemnere  voces  66 

sic  solitus  :   "  populus  me  sibilat,  at  mihi  plaudo 
ipse  domi,  simul  ac  nummos  contemplor  in  area," 

Tantalus  a  labris  sitiens  fugientia  captat 
flumina — quid  rides  ?     mutato  nomine  de  te 
1  ac  B  :  quam  aDEM. 
*  mallei:  inalim,  //,  Bentley,  Vollmer. 
^  at  K'^ :  ut  Mss. ;  Vollmer. 

<»  Here  and  below,  the  miser  speaks  for  himself. 

■"  The  picture  is  that  of  a  gang  of  slaves  driven  to  the 
market  for  sale.     One  of  them  carries  the  provisions  for  all. 

'  The  Aufidus,  a  stream  in  Horace's  native  Apulia,  at 
times  became  a  raging  torrent,  undermining  its  banks. 

SATIRES,  I.  I.  44-69 

dwindle  to  a  paltry  penny."  "  Yet  if  that  is  not 
done,  what  beauty  has  the  piled-up  heap  ?  Suppose 
your  threshing-floor  has  threshed  out  a  hundred 
thousand  bushels  of  grain  ;  your  stomach  will  not 
on  that  account  hold  more  than  mine  :  'tis  as 
if  in  the  slave-gang  you  by  chance  should  carry 
the  heavy  bread-bag  on  your  shoulder,  yet  you 
would  receive  no  more  than  the  slave  who  carries 

*®  Or,  tell  me,  what  odds  does  it  make  to  the 
man  who  lives  ^\ithin  Nature's  bounds,  whether  he 
ploughs  a  hundred  acres  or  a  thousand  ?  "  But  what 
a  pleasure  to  take  from  a  large  heap  !  "  So  long 
as  you  let  us  take  just  as  much  from  our  little  one, 
why  praise  your  granaries  above  our  bins  ?  It  is  as 
if  you  needed  no  more  than  a  jug  or  a  cup  of  water, 
and  Avere  to  say,  "I'd  rather  have  taken  the  quantity 
from  a  broad  river  than  from  this  tiny  brook."  So  it 
comes  about  that  when  any  find  pleasure  in  undue 
abundance,  raging  Aufidus  sweeps  them  away,  bank 
and  all  ;  while  the  man  who  craves  only  so  much  as 
he  needs,  neither  draws  water  thick  with  mud,  nor 
loses  his  life  in  the  flood." 

®^  But  a  good  many  people,  misled  by  bhnd 
desire,  say,  "  You  cannot  have  enough  :  for  you  get 
your  rating  from  what  you  have."  What  can  you 
do  to  a  man  who  talks  thus  ?  Bid  him  be  miserable, 
since  that  is  his  whim.  He  is  hke  a  rich  miser  in 
Athens  who,  they  say,  used  thus  to  scorn  the  people's 
talk  :  "  The  people  hiss  me,  but  at  home  I  clap  my 
hands  for  myself,  once  I  gaze  on  the  moneys  in  my 

^  Tantalus,  thirsty  soul,  catches  at  the  streams 
that   fly  from    his   hps — why  laugh  ?     Change    but 



fabula  narratur  :  congestis  undique  saccis  70 

indormis  inhians,  et  tamquam  parcere  sacris 

cogeris  aut  pictis  tamquam  gaudere  tabellis. 

nescis  quo  valeat  nummus,  quem  praebeat  usum  ? 

panis  ematur,  holus,  vini  sextarius  ;   adde 

quis  humana  sibi  doleat  natura  negatis.  75 

an  vigilare  metu  exanimem,  noctesque  diesque 

formidare  malos  fures,  incendia,  servos, 

ne  te  compilent  fugientes,  hoc  iuvat  ?     horum 

semper  ego  optarim^  pauperrimus  esse  bonorum. 

"  At  si  condoluit  temptatum  frigore  corpus  80 

aut  alius  casus  lecto  te  adfixit,^  habes  qui 
adsideat,  fomenta  paret,  medicum  roget,  ut  te 
suscitet  ac  reddat  gnatis^  carisque  propinquis." 
non  uxor  salvum  te  vult,*  non  filius  ;  omnes 
vicini  oderunt,  noti,  pueri  atque  puellae.  85 

miraris,  cum  tu  argento  post  omnia  ponas, 
si  nemo  praestet  quem  non  merearis  amorem  ?  ■* 
an  si^  cognatos,  nullo  Natura  labore 
quos  tibi  dat,  retinere  velis  servareque  amicos, 
infelix  operam  perdas,  ut  si  quis  asellum  90 

in  Campo  doceat  parentem  currere  frenis  ? 

Denique  sit  finis  quaerendi,  cumque  habeas  plus, 
pauperiem  metuas  minus  et  finire  laborem 
incipias,  parto  quod  avebas,®  ne  facias  quod 
Ummidius  quidam.'     non  Jonga  est  fabula  :   dives    93 

^  optarem,  /. 
•  adfixit  K,  so  Bentley  and  most  editors  :  adflixit  most  mss. 
'  gnatis  reddat  Goth.  *  te  vult  salvum  D. 

'  an  si]  at  si  £":  an  sic  Goth. 
^  habebas  B.  '  quidam]  qui  tam  Bentley. 


SATIRES,  I.  I.  70-95 

the  name,  and  the  tale  is  told  of  you.  You  sleep 
with  open  mouth  on  money-bags  piled  up  from  all 
sides,  and  must  perforce  keep  hands  off  as  if  they 
were  hallowed,  or  take  delight  in  them  as  if  painted 
pictures.  Don't  you  know  what  money  is  for,  what 
end  it  serves  ?  You  may  buy  bread,  greens,  a 
measure  of  wine,  and  such  other  things  as  would 
mean  pain  to  our  human  nature,  if  withheld.  What, 
to  lie  awake  half-dead  with  fear,  to  be  in  terror 
night  and  day  of  wicked  thieves,  of  fire,  of  slaves, 
who  may  rob  you  and  run  away — is  this  so  pleasant  ? 
In  such  blessings  I  could  wish  ever  to  be  poorest  of 
the  poor. 

^^  "  But  if  your  body  is  seized  with  a  chill  and 
racked  with  pain,  or  some  other  mishap  has  pinned 
you  to  your  bed,  have  you  some  one  to  sit  by  you, 
to  get  lotions  ready,  to  call  in  the  doctor  so  as  to 
raise  you  up  and  restore  you  to  your  children  and 
dear  kinsmen  ?  "  No,  your  wife  does  not  want  you 
well,  nor  does  your  son  :  every  one  hates  you, 
neighbours  and  acquaintances,  boys  and  girls.  Can 
you  wonder,  when  you  put  money  above  all  else, 
that  nobody  pays  you  the  love  you  do  not  earn  ? 
Or,  when  Nature  gives  you  kinsfolk  without  trouble, 
if  you  sought  to  hold  and  keep  their  love,  would 
it  be  as  fruitless  a  waste  of  effort,  as  if  one  were  to 
train  an  ass  to  race  upon  the  Campus  "  obedient  to 
the  rein  ? 

'^  In  short,  set  bounds  to  the  quest  of  wealth, 
and  as  you  increase  your  means  let  your  fear  of 
poverty  lessen,  and  when  you  have  won  your  heart's 
desire,  begin  to  bring  your  toil  to  an  end,  lest  you 
fare  like  a  certain  Ummidius — 'tis  a  short  story — so 
"  The  Campus  Martius. 



ut  metiretur  nummos  ;  ita  sordidus,  ut  se 
non  umquam  servo  melius  vestiret ;   ad  usque 
supremum  tempus,  ne  se  penuria  victus    • 
opprimeret,  metuebat.     at  hunc  liberta  securi  < 
divisit  medium,  fortissima  Tyndaridax-um.  100 

"  Quid  mi  igitur  suades  ?    ut  vivam  Naevius  aut  sic 
ut  Nomentanus  ?  "     pergis  pugnantia  secum 
frontibus  adversis  componere.     non  ego,  avarum 
cum  veto  te  fieri,  vappam  iubeo  ac  nebulonem. 
est  inter  Tanain  quiddam  socerumque  Viselli :        105 
est  modus  in  rebus,  sunt  certi  denique  fines, 
quos  ultra  citraque  nequit  consistere  rectum. 

Illuc,  unde  abii,  redeo,  qui  nemo,  ut^  avarus, 
se  probet  ac  potius  laudet  diversa  sequentis, 
quodque  aliena  capella  gerat  distentius  uber,        110 
tabescat,  neque  se  maiori  pauperiorum 
turbae  comparet,  hunc  atque  hunc  superare  laboret. 
sic  festinanti  semper  locupletior  obstat, 
ut,  cum  carceribus  missos  rapit  ungula  currus, 
instat  equis  auriga  suos^  vincentibus,  ilium  115 

praeteritum  temnens  extremos  inter  euntem. 
inde  fit  ut  raro,  qui  se  vixisse  beatum 

*  qui  nemo  ut  V :  nemon  ut  mss.,  Porph.:  cum  nemo  ut 
Keck,  Vollmer.  For  other  attempts  to  improve  the  text  see 
Knapp,  loc.  cit.  pp.  102  ff. 

2  suis  aDEM. 

*  i.e.  instead  of  counting  it.  The  idea  was  proverbial, 
c/.  Xen.  Hellen.  iii.  2.  27  ;  Petronius,  Sat.  37. 

*  Clytemnestra,  daughter  of  Tyndareus,  slew  her  husband 
Agamemnon  with  an  axe.  Possibly  the  freedwoman's  name 
was  Tyndaris. 

*  Both  of  these  names  were  used  by  Lucilius.  The  men 
represent  the  spendthrift  type. 


SATIRES,  I.  I.  96-117 

rich  that  he  measured  his  money,"  so  miserly  that  he 
dressed  no  better  than  a  slave  ;  up  to  his  last  hour 
he  feared  he  would  die  of  starvation.  Yet  a  freed- 
woman  cleft  him  in  twain  with  an  axe,  bravest  of 
the  Tyndarid  breed." 

101  "  What,  then,  would  you  have  me  do  ?  Live 
as  a  Naevius  or  a  Nomentanus  ?  "  "  You  go  on  to  set 
opposites  in  head  to  head  conflict  with  each  other."* 
When  I  call  on  you  not  to  be  a  miser,  I  am  not 
bidding  you  become  a  worthless  prodigal.  There 
is  some  mean  between  a  Tanais  and  the  father- 
in-law  of  Visellius."  There  is  measure  in  all  things. 
There  are,  in  short,  fixed  bounds,  beyond  and  short 
of  which  right  can  find  no  place. 

^^  I  return  to  my  starting-point,  how  it  comes 
that  no  man  because  of  his  greed  is  self-contented, 
but  rather  does  each  praise  those  who  follow 
other  paths,  pines  away  because  his  neighbour's 
goat  shows  a  more  distended  udder,  and,  instead  of 
matching  himself  with  the  greater  crowd  of  poorer 
men,  strives  to  surpass  first  one  and  then  another. 
In  such  a  race  there  is  ever  a  richer  in  your  way. 
'Tis  ^  as  when  chariots  are  let  loose  from  the  barriers 
and  swept  onwards  behind  the  hoofed  steeds  :  hard 
on  the  horses  that  outstrip  his  own  presses  the 
charioteer,  caring  naught  for  that  other  whom  he 
has  passed  and  left  in  the  rear.  Thus  it  comes  that 
seldom  can  we  find  one  who  says  he  has  had  a  happy 

'  The  figure  is  taken,  not  so  much  from  gladiators,  as 
from  rams  or  bulls.  Knapp  takes  componere  as  "  reconcile  " 
{loc.  cit.  p.  101). 

•  Tanais  is  said  to  have  been  a  freedman  of  Maecenas. 
The  other  person  is  unknown. 

'  This  passage  closely  resembles  Virgil,  Georg.  L  512  ff. 



dicat  et  exacto  contentus  tempore  vita^ 
cedat  uti  con  viva  satur,  reperire  queamus. 

lam  satis  est.     ne  me  Crispini  scrinia  lippi  120 

compilasse  putes,  verbum  non  amplius  addam. 

^  vitae  D. 

Cf.  Lucretius,  iii.  938, 
Cur  non  ut  plenus  vitae  conviva  recedis. 
Aequo  animoque  capis  securam,  stulte,  quietem  ? 


SATIRES,  I.  I.  118-121 

life,  and  who,  when  his  time  is  sped,  will  quit  life  in 
contentment,  hke  a  guest  who  has  had  his  fill." 

120  Well,  'tis  enough.  Not  a  word  more  ^\ill  I 
add,  or  you  will  think  I  have  rifled  the  rolls  of  blear- 
eyed  Crispinus.* 

*  The  scrinia  were  the  cylindrical  boxes  in  which  rolls 
of  manuscript  were  kept.  Crispiniis,  according  to  the 
scholiasts,  was  an  aretaloyus,  one  who  babbled  about  virtue. 
He  wrote,  we  are  told,  in  verse. 




Men  seldom  keep  the  golden  mean,  but  run  from 
one  extreme  to  another.  Especially  may  this  be 
illustrated  by  \'ictims  of  sensual  indulgence  and  by 
people  guilty  of  adultery,  a  vice  which  has  become 
a  shocking  feature  of  the  age. 

This  immature  and  forbidding  sketch,  coarse  and 
sensational  in  tone,  and  doubtless  one  of  Horace's 
earhest  efforts,  is  closely  associated  mth  the  Lucilian 
type  of  satire.  It  abounds  in  personalities,  freely 
handled,  and  Horace  liimself  (in  Sat.  i.  4.  92)  cites  it 
later  as  an  illustration  of  the  kind  of  writing  which 
had  aroused  enmity  against  the  author.  Even 
Maecenas,  if  we  are  to  believe  the  schohasts,  is 
tliinly  disguised  in  the  Maltinus  of  1.  25. 

In  his  introduction  to  this  Satire,  Lejay  has  sho\vn 
how  dependent  it  ultimately  is  "  upon  the  erotic 
literature  of  the  Hellenistic  period  as  expressed  in 
the  popular  Cynic  philosophy,  in  the  New  Comedy, 
and  in  the  Anthology  "  (Fiske,  p.  251).  There  is  a 
striking  parallel  between  it  and  a  poem  on  love  in 
the  Oxyrhynchus  Papyri  by  the  Cynic  Cercidas  of 
Megalopolis,  who  lived  in  the  latter  part  of  the  third 
century  b.c.  See  Chapter  I.  of  Powell  and  Barber's 
Setv  Chapters  in  the  History  of  Greek  Literature 
(Oxford,  1921). 

c  17 


Ambubaiarum  collegia,  pharmacopolae, 
mendici,  mimae,  balatrones,  hoc  genus  omne 
maestum  ac  sollicitum  est  cantoris  morte  Tigelli : 
quippe  benignus  erat.     contra  hie,  ne  prodigus  esse 
dicatur  metuens,  inopi  dare  nolit  amico,  fi 

frigus  quo  duramque  fameni  propellere^  possit. 
hunc  si  perconteris,  avi  cur  atque  parentis 
praeclaram  ingrata  stringat  malus  ingluvie  rem, 
omnia  conductis  coemens  obsonia  nummis  : 
sordidus  atque  animi  quod  parvi  nolit  haberi,         10 
respondet.     laudatur  ab  his,  culpatur  ab  illis. 
Fufidius  vappae  famam  timet  ac  nebulonis, 
dives  agris,  dives  positis  in  faenore  nummis  :  ^ 
quinas  hie  capiti  mercedes  exsecat,"'  atque 
quanto  perditior  quisque  est,  tanto  acrius  urget ;     15 
nomina  sectatur  modo  sumpta  veste  virili 
sub  patribus  duris  tironum.     "  maxime  "  quis  non 
"  luppiter  !  "  exclamat,  simul  atque  audivit  ?     "at 

in  se 
pro  quaestu  sumptum  facit  hic.^     vix  credere  possis 

^  depellere,  II. 

*  I.  13  {  =  Ars  Poet.  421)  rejected  by  Sanadon,  Holder. 

'  exigit  E^. 

*  facit.  Hie  ?  some  editors,     hie]  hoc  S^i/'. 

"  The  usual  rate  was  one  per  cent  a  month,  twelve  per 

Satire  II 

The  flute-girls'  guilds,  the  drug-quacks,  beggars, 
actresses,  buffoons,  and  all  that  breed,  are  in  grief  and 
mourning  at  the  death  of  the  singer  Tigelhus.  He 
was,  they  sav,  so  generous.  On  the  other  hand, 
here's  one  who,  fearing  to  be  called  a  prodigal, 
would  grudge  a  poor  friend  the  where\\-ithal  to  banish 
cold  and  hunger's  pangs.  Should  you  ask  another 
why,  in  his  thankless  gluttony,  he  recklessly  strips 
the  noble  estate  of  his  sire  and  grandsire,  buying 
up  every  dainty  ^\^th  borrowed  money,  he  answers 
that  it  is  because  he  would  not  like  to  be  thought 
mean  and  of  poor  spirit.  He  is  praised  by  some, 
blamed  by  others.  Fufidius,  rich  in  lands,  rich  in 
moneys  laid  out  at  usury,  fears  the  repute  of  a 
worthless  prodigal ;  five  times  the  interest  he  shces 
away  from  the  principal,"  and  the  nearer  a  man  is 
to  ruin,  the  harder  he  presses  him  ;  he  aims  to  get 
notes-of-hand  from  youths  who  have  just  donned 
the  toga  of  manhood,  and  have  stern  fathers. 
"  Great  Jove  !  "  who  does  not  cry  as  soon  as  he 
hears  it  ?  "  but  surely  he  spends  on  himself  in  pro- 
portion to  his  gains  ?  "     You  would  hardly  beheve 

cent  a  year,  but  Fufidius  charged  five  times  that  rate, 
and  took  it  in  advance  as  in  discounting,  so  that  the  sum 
actually  received  by  the  borrower  was  only  forty  per  cent 
of  the  amount  borrowed. 



quam  sibi  non  sit  amicus,  ita  ut  pater  ille,  Terenti   20 
fabula  quern  miserum  gnato  vixisse  fugato 
inducit,  non  se  peius  cruciaverit  atque  hie. 

Si  quis  nunc  quaerat  "  quo  res  haec  pertinet  ?  "  illue : 
dum  vitant  stulti  vitia,  in  contraria  currunt. 
Maltinus  tunicis  demissis  ambulat  ;   est  qui  25 

inguen  ad  obscenum  subductis  usque^  facetus. 
pastillos  Rufillus  olet,  Gargonius  hircum. 
nil  medium  est.     sunt  qui  nolint^  tetigisse  nisi  illas 
quarum  subsuta  talos  tegat  instita  veste  : 
contra  alius  nullam  nisi  olenti  in  fornice  stantem.    30 
quidam  notus  homo  cum  exiret  fornice,  "  macte 
virtute  esto  "  inquit  sententia  dia  Catonis  : 
"  nam  simul  ac  venas  inflavit  taetra  libido, 
huc^  iuvenes  aequum  est  descendere,  non  alienas 
permolere  uxores."     "  nolim  laudarier,"  inquit       35 
"  sic  me,"  mirator  cunni  Cupiennius  albi. 

Audire  est  operae  pretium,  procedere  recte 
qui  moechis  non  voltis,  ut  omni  parte  laborent, 
utque  illis  multo  corrupta  dolore  voluptas 
atque  haec  rara'*  cadat  dura  inter  saepe  pericla.       40 
hie  se  praecipitem  tecto  dedit ;   ille  flagellis 
ad  mortem  caesus  ;  fugiens  hie  decidit  acrem 
praedonum  in  turbam,  dedit  hie  pro  corpore  nummos, 
hunc  perminxerunt  calones  ;  quin  etiam  illud 

^  Punctuation  after  usque,  Vollmer. 
•  nolunt  aD.  '  hac,  II.  *  rata  E. 

"In  the  Heauton  Timorumenos,  or  Self-Tormentor,  the 
father,  Menedemus,  seized  with  remorse  for  his  harshness 
to  his  son  CHnias,  punishes  himself  with  hard  labour. 

*  i.e.,  married  women  who  dress  as  such. 


SATIRES,  I.  11.  20-44 

how  poor  a  friend  he  is  to  himself,  so  that  the  fathei 
whom  Terence's  play  pictures  as  having  lived  in 
misery  after  banishing  his  son,  never  tortured  himself 
worse  than  he." 

^  Should  one  now  ask,  "  What  is  the  point  of  all 
this  ?  "  'tis  this  :  in  avoiding  a  vice,  fools  run  into 
its  opposite.  Maltinus  walks  'with  his  garments 
trailing  low  ;  another,  a  man  of  fashion,  wears  them 
tucked  up  indecently  as  far  as  his  waist.  Rufillus 
smells  hke  a  scent-box,  Gargonius  Hke  a  goat. 
There  is  no  middle  course.  Some  men  would  deal 
onlv  with  women  whose  ankles  are  hidden  by  a  robe 
x^ith  low-hanging  flounce  ;  *  another  is  found  only 
with  such  as  Uve  in  a  foul  brothel.  When  from  such 
a  place  a  man  he  knew  was  coming  forth,  "  A 
blessing  on  thy  well-doing  :  "  runs  Cato's  revered 
utterance  ;  "  for  when  shameful  passion  has  swelled 
the  veins,  'tis  well  that  young  men  come  down  hither, 
rather  than  tamper  with  other  men's  wives."  "  I 
should  not  care  to  be  praised  on  that  count,"  says 
Cupiennius,  an  admirer  of  white-robed  lechery.*' 

^  It  is  worth  your  while ,'*  ye  who  would  have 
disaster  wait  on  adulterers,  to  hear  how  on  every 
side  they  fare  ill,  and  how  for  them  pleasure  is  marred 
by  much  pain,  and,  rare  as  it  is,  comes  oft  amid 
cruel  perils.  One  man  has  thro^mi  himself  headlong 
from  the  roof ;  another  has  been  flogged  to  death  ; 
a  third,  in  his  flight,  has  fallen  into  a  savage  gang 
of  robbers  ;  another  has  paid  a  price  to  save  his  hfe  ; 
another  been  abused  by  stable-boys  ;    nay,  once  it 

*  Roman  matrons  dressed  usually  in  white. 

*  Cf.  Ennius  : 

audire  est  operae  pretium  procedere  recte 
qui  rem  Romanam  Latiumque  augescere  voltis. 



accidit,  ut  quidam  testis  caudamque  salacem  43 

demeteret  ferro.     "  iure  "  omnes  :   Galba  negabat. 

Tutior  at  quanto  merx  est  in  classe  secunda, 
libertinarum  dico,  Sallustius  in  quas 
non  minus  insanit  quam  qui  moechatur.     at  hie^  si, 
qua  res,  qua  ratio  suaderet,  quaque  modeste  50 

munifico^  esse  licet,  vellet  bonus  atque  benignus 
esse,  daret  quantum  satis  esset,  nee  sibi  damno 
dedecorique  foret.     verum  hoc  se  amplectitur  uno, 
hoc  amat  et  laudat  :  "  matronam  nullam  ego  tango.' 
ut  quondam  Marsaeus,  amator  Originis  ille,  55 

qui  patrium  mimae  donat  fundumque  laremque, 
"  nil   fuerit   mi  "    inquit   "  cum    uxoribus    umquam 

verum  est  cum  mimis,  est  cum  meretricibus,  unde 
fama  malum  gravius  quam  res  trahit.     an  tibi  abunde 
personam  satis  est,  non  illud  quicquid  ubique  60 

officit  evitare  ?     bonam  deperdere  famam, 
rempatris  oblimare, malum  estubicumque.  quid  inter- 
est in  matrona,  ancilla  peccesne^  togata  ? 

Villius  in  Fausta  Syllae  gener,  hoc  miser  uno 
nomine  deceptus,  poenas  dedit  usque  superque     65 
quam  satis  est,  pugnis  caesus  ferroque  petitus, 
exclusus  fore,  cum  Longarenus  foret  intus. 
huic  si  mutonis  verbis  mala  tanta  videnti 

^  at  ^ :  ut  most  Mss.  *  munificum  K*. 

'  -ve  uss.,  Porph. 

"  Galba  was  at  once  an  adulterer  and  (according  to  the 
scholiasts)  a  iu7-is  consultus. 

*  i.e.  of  adulterer.  The  reputation  of  adulterer  would 
come  from  association  with  matronae,  but  not  with  mere- 

'  Meretrices  wore  the  toga  {cf.  v.  82),  in  contrast  with  the 
slola,  worn  by  matrons,  cf.  v.  71.     The  ancilla  is  a  slave- 
girl  who  had  become  a  meretrix. 

SATIRES,  I.  n.  45-68 

so  befell  that  a  man  mowed  dovm.  with  the  sword  the 

testicles  and  lustful  member.     "  That's  the  law,"  cry 
all,  Galba  dissenting." 

*'  But  how  much  safer  is  trafficking  in  the  second 
class — with  freedwomen,  I  mean  ;  after  whom 
Sallustius  runs  just  as  wild  as  an  adulterer.  Yet  he,  if 
he  wished  to  be  good  and  generous,  so  far  as  his  means 
and  reason  would  direct,  and  so  far  as  one  might  be 
liberal  in  moderation,  would  give  a  sum  sufficient, 
not  such  as  would  mean  for  him  shame  and  ruin. 
But  no  ;  because  of  this  one  thing  he  hugs  himself, 
admires  and  plumes  himself,  because,  says  he,  "  I 
meddle  -with  no  matron."  Just  as  was  once  said  by 
Marsaeus,  Origo's  well-known  lover,  who  gave  his 
paternal  home  and  farm  to  an  actress  :  "  Never  may  I 
have  dealings  with  other  men's  wives ! "  But  you  have 
with  actresses  and  with  courtesans,  through  whom 
vour  name  loses  more  than  does  your  estate.  Or  is  it 
enough  for  you  to  avoid. the  role,''  but  not  the  thing, 
which  in  any  case  works  harm  ?  To  throw  away 
a  good  name,  to  squander  a  father's  estate,  is  at 
all  times  ruinous.  What  matters  it,  whether  with 
matron  you  offend,  or  with  long-gowned  maid  "  ? 

^  Vilhus,  son-in-law  of  Sulla,  was  punished  richly 
and  more  than  enough  because  of  Fausta  <* — by  this 
name  alone  was  the  ^\Tetch  misled — being  smitten 
with  the  fist,  assailed  with  the  sword,  and  shut  out 
of  doors  while  Longarenus  was  within.  If  while 
facing  such  evils  a  man's  mind  were  thus  to  plead  on 

■*  The  reference  is  to  a  scandal  of  earlier  days.  Fausta, 
dausrhter  of  Sulla,  was  the  wife  of  Milo,  but  had  other 
lovers,  among  them  Longarenus  and  Villius,  who  is  called 
Sullae  gener  in  derision.  Fausta's  name  indicates  her  noble 



diceret  haec  animus  :  "  quid  vis  tibi  ?  numquid  ego 

a  te 
magno  prognatum  deposco  consule  cunnum  70 

velatumque  stola,  mea  cum  conferbuit  ira  ?  " 
quid  responderet  ?     "  magno  patre  nata  puella  est." 
at  quanto  meliora  monet  pugnantiaque  istis 
dives  opis  natura  suae,  tu  si  modo  recte 
dispensare  velis  ac  non  fugienda  petendis  75 

immiscere.     tuo  vitio  rerumne  labores, 
nil  referre  putas  ?     quare,  ne  paeniteat  te, 
desine  matronas  sectarier,^  unde  laboris 
plus  haurire  mali  est  quam  ex  re  decerpere  fructus. 
nee  naagis  huic  inter  niveos  viridisque  lapillos  80 

(sit  licet  hoc,  Cerinthe,  tuum-)  tenerum  est  femur  aut 

rectius,  atque  etiam  melius  persaepe  togatae  est.^ 
adde  hue  quod  mercem  sine  fucis  gestat,  aperte 
quod  venale  habet  ostendit,  nee,  si  quid  honesti  est, 
iactat  habetque  palam,  quaerit  quo  turpia  celet.     85 
regibus  hie  mos  est,  ubi  equos  mercantur :   opertos* 
inspiciunt,  ne,  si  facies,  ut  saepe,  decora 
molli  fulta  pede  est,  emptorem  inducat  hiantem, 
quod  pulchrae  clunes,  breve  quod  caput,  ardua  cervix, 
hoc  illi  recte  :   ne  corporis  optima  Lyncei^  90 

contemplere  oculis,  Hypsaea  caecior  ilia 
quae    mala   sunt  spectes.     "  o  crus,  o  bracchia  !  " 


^  sectari  matronas  aBD. 

*  Housman  {J.  P.  vol.  xxxv.)  conjectures  aesque,  Corintlie. 
tuum.  '  est  omitted,  most  uss. 

*  This  verse  begins  a  neic  serino  in  some  usa.     For  regibus 
Kiessling  conjectured  Threcibus. 

*  lynceis  EK. 


SATIRES,  I.  II.  69-92 

his  passion's  behalf ;  "  What  wouldst  thou  ?  Do  I 
ever,  when  my  rage  is  at  its  worst,  ask  you  for  a  dame 
clad  in  a  stola,"  the  offspring  of  a  great  consul  ?  " 
What  would  he  answer  ?  "  The  girl  is  a  noble  father's 
child."  But  how  much  better — how  utterly  at 
variance  ^^^th  this — is  the  course  that  nature,  rich  in 
her  own  resources,  prompts,  if  you  would  only  manage 
wisely,  and  not  confound  what  is  to  be  avoided  with 
what  is  to  be  desired  !  Do  you  think  it  makes  no 
difference,  whether  your  trouble  is  due  to  your  own 
fault  or  to  circumstances  ?  Wherefore,  that  you 
mav  have  no  reason  to  repent,  cease  to  court  matrons, 
for  thence  one  may  derive  pain  and  misery,  rather 
than  reap  enjoyment  in  the  reality.  Though  this 
may  not  be  your  opinion,  Cerinthus,  yet  not  softer  or 
finer  are  a  woman's  limbs  amidst  snowy  pearls  and 
green  emeralds — nay,  often  the  advantage  is  with 
tlie  strumpet.  She,  moreover,  presents  her  wares 
>vithout  disguise  ;  what  she  has  for  sale  she  openly 
displays  ;  and  if  she  has  some  charm,  she  does  not 
boastfully  show  it  off,  while  carefully  concealing  all 
unsightUness.  This  is  the  way  with  the  rich  when 
they  buy  horses  ;  they  inspect  them  covered,  so 
that  if  a  beautiful  shape,  as  often,  is  supported  by  a 
tender  hoof,  it  may  not  take  in  the  buyer,  as  he 
gapes  at  the  comely  haunches,  the  small  head,  the 
stately  neck.  In  this  they  act  wisely.  So  do  not 
survey  bodily  perfections  with  the  eyes  of  a  Lynceus  * 
and  be  blinder  than  Hypsaea,  when  you  gaze  upon 
deformities.     '*  What  a  leg  !  what  arms  !  "  you  crj^, 

"  The  stola  was  a  long  over-garment,  caught  in  at  the 
waist  by  a  girdle. 

*  The  keen-sighted  Argonaut.  Nothing  is  known  of  the 
blind  Hypsaea. 



depugis,  nasuta,  brevi  latere  ac  pede  longo  est. 

matronae  praeter  faciem  nil  cernere  possis, 

cetera,  ni  Gatia  est,  demissa  veste  tegentis.  95 

si  interdicta  petes,  vallo  circumdata  (nam  te 

hoc  facit  insanum),  multae  tibi  tum^  efficient^  res, 

custodes,  lectica,  ciniflones,  parasitae, 

ad  talos  stola  demissa  et  circumdata  palla, 

plurima  quae  invideant  pure  apparere  tibi  rem.       100 

altera,  nil  obstat ;  Cois  tibi  paene  videre  est 

ut  nudam,  ne  crure  malo,  ne  sit  pede  turpi ; 

metiri  possis  oculo  latus.     an  tibi  mavis 

insidias  fieri  pretiumque  avellier  ante 

quam  mercem  ostendi  ?  "  leporem  venator  ut  alta  105 

in  nive  sectetur,  positum  sic  tangere  nolit," 

cantat  et  apponit  "  meus  est  amor  huic  similis  ;  nam 

transvolat  in  medio  posita  et  fugientia  captat." 

hiscine  versiculis  speras  tibi  posse  dolores 

atque  aestus  curasque  gravis  e  pectore  pelli^  ?         110 

Nonne,  cupidinibus  statuat  natura  modum  quem, 

quid  latura  sibi,  quid  sit  dolitura  negatum, 

quaerere  plus  prodest  et  inane  abscindere*  soldo  ? 

1  dum,  11.  2  officiunt  <pyp\l. 

3  tolli  VBK.  *  abscedere  B. 

'  A  kind  of  transparent  silk  was  made  in  the  island  of 

*  Horace  makes  use  of  an  epigram  of  the  poet  Callimacluis 
(Anthologia  Palatina,  xii.  102),  in  which  the  lover  is  compared 
to  a  hunter  who  will  go  to  great  trouble  to  catch  game,  but 
scorns  it  when  it  is  caught  and  lies  outstretched  upon  the 
ground  (so  Orelli).     The  Greek  runs  thus  : 

uypevTTis,  'EiriKides,   iv  oOpiffi  iravTa  \ay<abp 
5i(pq.  Kal  nd<T7]s  fxj'ta  SopKaXldos, 


SATIRES,  I.  11.  93-113 

but  there  are  thin  hips,  a  long  nose,  a  short  waist  and 
a  long  foot.  In  a  matron  one  can  see  only  her  face, 
for  unless  she  be  a  Catia,  her  long  robe  conceals  all 
else.  But  if  you  seek  forbidden  charms  that  are 
invested  with  a  rampart — for  this  it  is  that  drives  you 
crazy — many  obstacles  will  then  be  in  your  way — 
attendants,  the  sedan,  hairdressers,  parasites,  the 
robe  dropping  to  the  ankles,  and,  covered  with  a  wTap, 
a  thousand  things  which  hinder  you  from  a  clear 
view.  In  the  other — no  obstacle.  In  her  Coan  silk  " 
vou  may  see  her,  almost  as  if  naked,  so  that  she 
may  not  have  a  poor  leg,  an  unsightly  foot ;  you  may 
measure  her  whole  form  with  your  eye.  Or  would 
you  rather  have  a  trick  played  upon  you  and  your 
money  extorted  before  the  wares  are  shown  ?  The 
gallant  sings  how  ^  "  the  huntsman  pursues  the  hare 
mid  the  deep  snow,  but  declines  to  touch  it  when 
thus  outstretched,"  and  adds  :  "  My  love  is  like  unto 
this,  for  it  passes  over  what  is  served  to  all,  and  chases 
flying  game."  Do  you  suppose  that  ^vith  verses 
such  as  these,  sorrow  and  passion  and  the  burden  of 
care  can  be  lifted  from  your  breast  ? 

m  Would  it  not  be  more  profitable  to  ask  what 
limit  nature  assigns  to  desires,  what  satisfaction  she 
will  give  herself,  what  privation  will  cause  her  pain, 
and  so  to  part  the  "void"  from  what  is  "solid"  P"^  Or, 
when  thirst  parches  your  jaws,  do  you  ask  for  cups  of 

ffTl/Sj    (Cat    Vl<p€Tl^    K€XpyiH^VOi'    i)V    84    TtS    fllTTI, 

"  TTJ,   rdde  §eji\i)Ta.i  dijpiov,"  ovk  fKa^ey. 

Xciifibs  Ipws  Toioade'  ra  fuv  tpevyovra.  SiwKew 

oT5e,   TO.  8'  (V  /iUffO'ifi  Keifieva  xapTrireTai.. 

The  positum  sic  represents  roSe  /S^/SXt/tcu  dtiplov,  while  in  medio 

posita  translates  eV  ixeaat^  Keifjieva. 

'  A  reference  to  Epicurean  physics,  according  to  which  the 
universe  is  composed  of  "void"  {inane)  and  "solid"  atoms. 



num,  tibi  cum  fauces  urit  sitis,  aurea  quaeris 
pocula  ?     num  esuriens  fastidis  omnia  praeter        115 
pavonem  rhombumque  ?     tument  tibi  cum  inguina, 

num,  si 
ancilla  aut  verna  est  praesto  puer,  impetus  in  quem 
continuo  fiat,  malis  tentigine  rumpi  ? 
non  ego  :   namque  parabilem  amo  Venerem  facilem- 

que.  119 

illam  "  post  paulo,"  "  sed  pluris,"  "  si  exierit  vir," 
Gallis,  hanc  Philodemus  ait  sibi,  quae  neque  magno 
stet  pretio  neque  cunctetur  cum  est  iussa  venire. 
Candida  rectaque  sit ;  munda  hactenus,  ut  neque  longa 
nee  magis  alba  velit  quam  dat^  natura  videri. 
liaec  ubi  supposuit  dextro  corpus  mihi  laevum,        125 
Ilia  et  Egeria  est ;  do  nomen  quodlibet  illi, 
nee  vereor^  ne,  dum  futuo,  vir  rure  recurrat, 
ianua  frangatur,  latret  canis,  undique  magno 
pulsa  domus  strepitu  resonet,  vepallida^  lecto 
desiliat^  mulier,  miseram  se  conscia  clamet,  130 

cruribus  haec  metuat,  doti  deprensa,  egomet  mi. 
discincta  tunica  fugiendum  est  et  pede  nudo, 
ne  nummi  pereant  aut  puga  aut  denique  fama, 
deprendi  miserum  est :   Fabio  vel  iudice  vincam. 

1  det  D.  ^  metuo,  //. 

•  vae  pallida  mss.  :  vepallida  known  to  Acron  :  ne  pallida 
Bentley.  *  dissiliat,  //. 

«  These  were  priests  of  Cybele,  who  mutilated  themselves, 
cf.  the  Attis  of  Catullus.  Horace  is  here  quoting  and  sum- 
marizing an  epigram  by  Philodemus,  a  Greek  philosopher, 
and  a  client  of  the  L.  Calpurnius  PIso  who  was  assailed  bv 


SATIRES,  I.  II.  114-134 

gold  ?  When  hungry,  do  you  disdain  everything 
save  peacock  and  turbot  ?  When  your  passions 
prove  unruly,  would  you  rather  be  torn  with  desire  ? 
I  should  not,  for  the  pleasures  I  love  are  those  easy 
to  attain.  "  By  and  by,"  "  Nay  more,"  "  If  my 
husband  goes  out  " — a  woman  who  speaks  thus  is 
for  the  Galli,"  says  Philodemus  ;  for  himself  he  asks 
for  one  who  is  neither  high-priced  nor  slow  to  come 
when  bidden.  She  must  be  fair  and  straight,  and 
only  so  far  arranged  that  she  will  not  wish  to  seem 
taller  or  fairer  than  nature  allows.  When  she  and  I 
embrace,  she  is  to  me  an  Iha  or  an  Egeria '' :  I  give 
her  any  name.  No  fears  have  I  in  her  company,  that 
a  husband  may  rush  back  fi-om  the  country,  the  door 
burst  open,  the  dog  bark,  the  house  ring  through  and 
through  with  the  din  and  clatter  of  his  knocking  ;  that 
the  woman,  white  as  a  sheet,  ^^^ll  leap  away,  the  maid 
in  league  with  her  cry  out  in  terror,  she  fearing  for 
her  limbs,  her  guilty  mistress  for  her  dowry,  and  I  for 
myself.  With  clothes  dishevelled  and  bare  of  foot, 
I  must  run  off,  dreading  disaster  in  purse  or  person  or 
at  least  repute.  To  be  caught  is  an  unhappy  fate  : 
this  I  could  prove,  even  with  Fabius  '  as  umpire. 

Cicero  in  his  In  Pisonem,  where  Philodemus  is  characterized 
in  68  ff.  The  epigram  is  discussed  bv  G.  L.  Hendrickson 
in  A.J.P.  xxxix.  (1918)  pp.  27  ff.,  and  bv  F.  A.  Wright, 
xlii.  (1921)  pp.  168,  169. 

*  Ilia,  mother  of  Romulus,  and  Egeria,  the  nymph  who 
inspired  Numa,  here  represent  women  of  highest  rank. 

*  Cf.  Sat.  i.  1.  14.    This  writer  on  Stoicism  is  said  to 
have  been  detected  in  adultery. 




The  connexion  between  this  satire  and  the  preceding 
one  is  indicated  at  the  outset,  for  the  musician 
Tigellius  is  again  introduced  as  a  person  who  well 
illustrates  the  foibles  and  inconsistencies  of  a  large 
class  of  people.  But,  says  Horace,  some  one  may 
ask  me,  "  Have  you  yourself  no  faults  ?  "  Yes,  I 
have,  though  they  may  not  be  as  bad  as  his.  I  trust 
I  am  not  like  Maenius,  who  laid  bare  the  faults  of 
others,  but  overlooked  his  own.  Self-satisfaction  of 
this  sort  well  deserves  to  be  satirized,  A  man  should 
examine  liimself  and  search  out  his  own  faults  before 
criticizing  others  (l-37j. 

Think  how  blind  is  the  lover  to  the  defects  of  his 
beloved,  or  how  tenderly  a  fond  father  treats  his 
child's  deformities.  Even  so  we  should  be  indulgent 
to  the  weaknesses  of  our  friends.  On  the  contrary, 
we  often  look  upon  real  virtues  as  faults,  calling  for 
example  modest  behaviour  stupidity,  and  simphcity 
boorishness.  We  must  exercise  mutual  forbearance 
and  also  discriminate  between  failings,  for  a  mere 
impropriety  is  not  as  serious  as  a  heinous  crime 

In  fact  the  Stoic  paradox  that  all  offences  are 
equal, "  omnia  peccata  paria  esse  "  (Cicero,  Dejinibus, 


iv.  19.  55),  besides  being  repugnant  to  common  sense, 
is  historically  unsound,  our  social  ethics  being  the 
result  of  a  process  of  evolution.  Yet  your  Stoic 
would  punish  all  offences  alike,  if  he  were  a  king 

"  If  he  were  a  king,"  did  I  say  ?  \VTiy,  according 
to  another  of  his  paradoxes,  the  Stoic  is  already  a 
king,  even  as  he  is  rich  and  handsome  and  everything 
else  that  is  good.  "  Yes,"  he  would  explain,  "  I  am 
a  king  potentially,  even  as  Hermogenes  is  a  singer, 
though  he  does  not  open  his  Hps."  "  Well,"  repUes 
Horace,  "  I  cannot  see  that  your  crown  wins  you 
esteem  or  saves  you  from  ill-treatment.  For  myself, 
not  being  a  philosopher,  I  will  remain  a  private 
citizen,  and  live  on  terms  of  mutual  forbearance  with 
others  "  (124^142). 

In  striking  contrast  with  Satire  II.,  this  one  is 
kindly  and  genial  in  tone,  and  it  would  seem  that  the 
author  was  disarming  criticism  by  his  assurance  that 
he  was  not  disposed  to  be  over-censorious,  as  we  learn 
from  11.  63  fF.  Horace  has  now  become  acquainted 
with  Maecenas,  and  this  improvement  in  his  worldly 
prospects  may  to  some  extent  account  for  the  change 
of  tone,  and  the  doffing  of  the  severity  of  Lucihan 



Omnibus  hoc  vitium  est  cantoribus,  inter  amicos 
ut  numquam  inducant  animum  cantare  rogati, 
iniussi  numquam  desistant.     Sardus  habebat 
ille  Tigellius  hoc.     Caesar,  qui  cogere  posset, 
si  peteret  per  amicitiam  patris  atque  suam,  non       5 
quicquam  proficeret ;  si  collibuisset,  ab  ovo 
usque  ad  mala  citaret  "  io  Bacche^  !  "  modo  summa 
voce,  modo  hac,  resonat-  quae  chordis  quattuor  ima. 
nil  aequale  homini  fuit  illi  :  saepe  velut  qui 
currebat  fugiens  hostem,  persaepe  velut  qui^  10 

lunonis  sacra  ferret  ;   habebat  saepe  ducentos, 
saepe  decem  servos  ;   modo  reges  atque  tetrarchas, 
omnia  magna  loquens,  modo  "  sit  mihi  mensa  tripes  et 
concha  salis  puri  et  toga,  quae  defendere  frigus 
quamvis  crassa  queat."     deciens  centena  dedisses    15 
huic  parco,  paucis  contento,  quinque  diebus 
nil  erat  in  loculis.     noctes  vigilabat  ad  ipsum 
mane,  diem  totum  stertebat.     nil  fuit  umquam 
sic  impar  sibi. 

^  Bacchae  BE.  *  resonet  \p\l. 

'  B  omits  I.  10;  see  C.R.  xxx.  p.  15. 

"  A  dinner  opened  with  the  gustatio  or  promulsis,  supposed 
to  whet  the  appetite.  In  this  eggs  played  a  part.  Fruit 
was  served  as  a  dessert  just  as  with  us. 

*  The  refrain  of  a  drinking-song. 

'  Editors  commonly  take  summa  and  ima  as  defining  the 
position  of  strings  on  the  lyre,  summa  =  vTrdrrj  and  ima  = 
vrirrj;  the  former  therefore  being  "lowest,"  and  the  latter 
"  highest,"  and  voce  being  "  the  note."  But  see  Clement  L 
Spiith  in  C.B.  xx.  (1906)  pp.  397  ff. 

Satire  III 

All  singers  have  this  fault :  if  asked  to  sing  among 
their  friends  they  are  never  so  inclined  ;  if  unasked, 
they  never  leave  off.  That  son  of  Sardinia,  Tigellius, 
was  of  this  sort.  If  Caesar,  who  might  have  forced 
him  to  comply,  should  beg  him  by  his  father's  friend- 
ship and  his  own,  he  could  make  no  headway.  If  the 
man  took  the  fancy,  then  from  the  egg-course  to  the 
fruit"  he  would  keep  chanting  "  lo  Bacche  !  "*  now 
with  highest  voice  and  now  with  one  responding  in 
lowest  pitch  to  the  tetrachord."  There  was  nothing 
consistent  in  the  fellow.  Often  he  would  run  as  if 
fleeing  from  a  foe  ;  very  often  he  would  stalk  as 
slowly  as  some  bearer  of  Juno's  holy  offerings.'' 
Often  he  would  keep  two  hundred  slaves,  often  only 
ten.  Now  he  would  talk  of  kings  and  tetrarchs, 
everything  grand,  and  now  he'd  say,  "  Give  me  a 
three-legged  table,  a  shell  of  clean  salt,  and  a  coat 
that,  however  coarse,  can  keep  out  the  cold."  Sup- 
pose you  had  given  a  milhon  *  to  this  thrifty  gentle- 
man, contented  with  so  httle  ;  in  a  week  there  was 
nothing  in  his  pockets.  All  night,  till  da^vn,  he 
would  stay  awake  ;  all  day  would  snore.  Never 
was  a  creature  so  inconsistent. 

•*  A  reference  to  the  Kavr]<pbpoi.,  or  basket-bearers,  who 
in  religious  processions  walked  with  slow  and  stately  stride. 

'  i.e.  sesterces.  The  sum  in  question  would  amount, 
roughly  speaking,  to  £10,000  or  $50,000. 

D  33 


Nunc  aliquis  dicat  mihi  :  "  quid  tu  ?     19 
nullane  habes  vitia  ?  "  inimo  alia  et  fortasse  minora.^ 
Maenius  absentem  Novium  cum  carperet,  "  heus  tu  " 
quidam  ait,  "  ignoras  te,  an  ut  ignotum  dai-e  nobis 
verba   putas  ?  "      "  egomet   mi    ignosco  "    Maenius 

stultus  et  improbus  hie  amor  est  dignusque  notari. 

Cum  tua  pervideas-  oculis  mala^  lippus  inunctis,  25 
cur  in  amicorum  vitiis  tarn  cernis  acutuni 
quam  aut  aquila  aut  serpens  Epidaurius  ?     at*  tibi 

evenit,  inquirant  vitia  ut  tua  rursus  et  illi. 

Iracundior  est  paulo,  minus  aptus  acutis^ 
naribus  horum  hominum  ;   rideri  possit  eo,  quod     30 
rusticius  tonso  toga  defluit  et  male  laxus 
in  pede  calceus  haeret  :   at  est  bonus,  ut  melior  vir 
non  alius  quisquam,  at  tibi  amicus,  at  ingenium  ingens 
inculto  latet  hoc  sub  corpore.^     denique  te  ipsum 
concute,  num  qua  tibi  vitiorum  inseverit'  olim      35 
natura  aut  etiam  consuetudo  mala  ;   namque 
neglectis  urenda  filix  innascitur  agris. 

lUuc  praevertamur,  amatorem  quod  amicae* 
turpia  decipiunt  caecum  vitia,  aut  etiam  ipsa  haec 
delectant,  veluti  Balbinum  polypus  Hagnae.  40 

vellem  in  amicitia  sic  erraremus,  et  isti 
errori  nomen  virtus^  posuisset  honestum. 

1  B  omits  I.  20. 

2  praevideas  Bentley.  *  male  Bentley. 

*  ac  Mss.  *  aduncis  Bentley. 

•  pectore,  //.  '  insederit,  IT.  *  amici,  II. 

•  victus  Housman,  in  J. P.  xviii.  p.  3. 

"  Epidaurus  was  famous  for  the  worship  of  Aesculapius, 
whose  symbol  was  a  serpent  or  Spd/cw;',  a  word  supposed  to 
come  from  SdpKOfun,  "  to  see. ' 

SATIRES,  I.  III.  19-42 

1*  Now  someone  may  say  to  me :  "  What  about 
yourself  ?  Have  you  no  faults  ?  "  Why  yes,  but  not 
the  same,  and  perhaps  lesser  ones.  When  Maenius 
once  was  carping  at  Novius  behind  his  back,  "  Look 
out,  sir,"  said  someone,  "  do  you  not  know  yourself? 
Or  do  you  think  you  impose  on  us,  as  one  we  do  not 
know  ?  "  "I  take  no  note  of  myself,"  said  Maenius. 
Such  self-love  is  foohsh  and  shameless,  and  deserves 
to  be  censured. 

^  When  you  look  over  your  own  sins,  your  eyes 
are  rheumy  and  daubed  ^\'ith  ointment ;  why,  when 
you  view  the  failings  of  yoiu:  friends,  are  you  as  keen 
of  sight  as  an  eagle  or  as  a  serpent  of  Epidaurus  *  ? 
But,  on  the  other  hand,  the  result  for  you  is  that 
they,  too,  in  turn  peer  into  your  faults. 

^  "  He  is  a  httle  too  hasty  in  temper,  ill-suited  to 
the  keen  noses  of  folk  nowadays.  He  might  awake 
a  smile  because  his  hair  is  cut  in  country  style,  his 
toga  sits  ill,  and  his  loose  shoe  will  hardly  stay  on 
his  foot."  *  But  he's  a  good  man,  none  better  ;  but 
he's  your  friend  ;  but  under  that  uncouth  frame  are 
hidden  great  gifts.  In  a  word,  give  yourself  a  shaking 
and  see  whether  nature,  or  haply  some  bad  habit, 
has  not  at  some  time  so^vn  in  you  the  seeds  of  folly  ; 
for  in  neglected  fields  there  springs  up  bracken,  which 
you  must  burn. 

^  Let  us  turn  first  to  this  fact,  that  the  lover,  in  his 
blindness,  fails  to  see  his  lady's  unsightly  blemishes, 
nay  is  even  charmed  with  them,  as  was  Balbinus 
with  Hagna's  wen.  I  could  wish  that  we  made  the 
like  mistake  in  friendship  and  that  to  such  an  error 
our  ethics  had  given  an  honourable  name.     At  any 

"  The  scholiasts  sugrgest  that  this  may  be  a  description 
either  of  Virgil  or  of  Horace  himself. 



at^  pater  ut  gnati,  sic  nos  debemus  amici^ 

si  quod  sit  vitium  non  fastidire.     strabonem 

appellat  paetum  pater,  et  pullum,  male  parvus        45 

si  cui  filius  est,  ut  abortivus  fuit  olim 

Sisyphus  ;  hunc  varum  distortis  cruribus,  ilium 

balbutit  scaurum  pravis  fultum  male  talis. 

parcius  hie  vivit  :   frugi  dicatur.     ineptus 

et  iactantior  hie  paulo  est  :   concinnus  amicis  60 

postulat  ut  videatur.     at  est  truculentior  atque 

plus  aequo  liber  :   simplex  fortisque  habeatur. 

caldior  est  :   acris  inter  numeretur.     opinor, 

haec  res  et  iungit,  iunctos  et  servat  amicos. 

at  nos  virtutes  ipsas  invertimus  atque  55 

sincerum  cupimus^  vas  incrustare.*     probus  quis 

nobiscum  vivit,  multum  demissus  homo  :   illi^ 

tardo  cognomen,  pingui,  damus.     hie  fugit  omnis 

insidias  nullique  malo  latus  obdit  apertum, 

cum  genus  hoc  inter  vitae  versemur,^  ubi  acris       60 

invidia  atque  vigent  ubi  crimina  :  pro  bene  sano 

ac  non  incauto  fictum  astutumque  vocamus. 

simplicior  quis  et  est  qualem  me  saepe  libenter 

obtulerim  tibi,  Maecenas,  ut'  forte  legentem 

aut  tacitum  impellat^  quovis  sermone  molestus^  :     65 

"  communi  sensu  plane  caret  "  inquimus.     eheu, 

1  at]  ac  BDEM  Vollmer.  ^  amicis  B. 

•  fugrimus  B  :    furimus  Goth.,  Vollmer.        *  incurtare  BDE. 

'  ille  V.  *  versemur  V  Bentley  :  versetur  mss. 

'  ut]  aut  or  haut,  //. 
'  impediat  Bentley.  Some  editors  punctuate  after  sermone. 
*  modestus,  //. 

"  The  pet  names  used,  viz.  paetus,  pullus,  varus,  scaurus, 
are  all  adjectives  denoting  a  less  objectionable  form  of  the 
defect  referred  to,  but  they  were  also  cognomina  in  well- 
known  family  names.  "  Paetus  "  is  associated  with  the 
Aelii  and  Papirii,  "  Pullus  "  with  the  Fabii  and  the  lunii, 
*'  Varus  "    with   the   Quintilii,   and   "  Scaurus  "   with   the 


SATIRES,  I.  III.  43-66 

rate,  we  should  deal  with  a  friend  as  a  father  with 
his  child,  and  not  be  disgusted  at  some  blemish.  If  a 
boy  squints,  his  father  calls  him  "  Blinky  "  ;  if  his 
son  is  sadly  puny,  like  misbegotten  Sisyphus  of 
former  days,  he  styles  him  "  Chickabiddy."  One 
with  crooked  legs  he  fondly  calls  "  Cruikshank,"  and 
one  that  can  hardly  stand  on  twisted  ankles,  "  Curly- 
legs."  <*  Is  a  friend  somewhat  close  ?  Let  us  call 
him  thrifty.  Does  another  fail  in  tact  and  show  off 
a  bit  too  much  ?  He  wants  his  friends  to  think  him 
agreeable.  Or  is  he  somewhat  bluff  and  too  out- 
spoken ?  Let  him  pass  for  frank  and  fearless.  Hot- 
headed is  he  ?  Let  him  be  counted  a  man  of  spirit. 
This,  I  take  it,  is  how  to  make  friends,  and  to  keep 
them  when  made.  But  we  turn  virtues  themselves 
upside  down,  and  want  to  soil  a  clean  vessel.  Does 
there  hve  among  us  an  honest  soul,  a  truly  modest 
fellow  ?  We  nickname  him  slow  and  stupid.  Does 
another  shun  every  snare  and  offer  no  exposed  side 
to  malice,  seeing  that  we  live  in  that  kind  of  a  world 
where  keen  envy  and  slanders  are  so  rife  ?  Instead 
of  his  good  sense  and  prudence  we  speak  of  his 
craftiness  and  insincerity.  Is  one  somewhat  simple 
and  such  as  often  I  have  freely  sho^wTi  myself  to  you, 
Maecenas,  interrupting  you  perhaps  while  reading 
or  thinking  with  some  annoying  chatter  ?  "  He  is 
quite  devoid  of  social  tact,"  ^  we  say.  Ah,  how 
Aemilii  and  Aurelii.  For  the  passage  as  a  whole  we  may 
compare  Plato,  Rep.  v.  474  d,  Lucretius,  iv.  1160  fF.,  Ovid, 
Ars  Am.  ii.  657  ;  and  among  modern  writers,  Moliere, 
Misanthrope,  Act  ii.  Sc.  5,  e.ff.  "  lis  comptent  les  defauts 
pour  des  perfections." 

"  The  expression  communis  sensus  does  not  mean  precisely 
the  same  as  the  phrase  we  have  derived  from  it,  viz.  "common 
sense."  It  is  rather  social  sense,  a  sense  of  propriety  in 
dealing  with  our  fellows,  or  what  the  French  call  savoir  fair*. 



quam  temere  in  nosmet  legem  sancimus  iniquam  ! 
nam  vitiis  nemo  sine  nascitur  :   optimus  ille  est, 
qui  minimis  urgetur.     amicus  dulcis,  ut  aequum  est, 
cum  mea  compenset  vitiis  bona,  pluribus  hisce,        70 
si  modo  plura  mihi  bona  sunt,  inclinet,  amari 
si  volet  :  hac  lege  in  trutina  ponetur  eadem. 
qui  ne  tuberibus  propriis  ofFendat  amicum 
postulat,  ignoscet^  verrucis  illius  :   aequum  est 
peccatis  veniam  poscentem  reddere  rursus.  75 

Denique,  quatenus  excidi  penitus  vitiumirae,^ 
cetera  item  nequeunt  stultis  haerentia,  cur  non 
ponderibus  modulisque  suis  ratio  utitur,  ac  res 
ut  quaeque  est,  ita  suppliciis  delicta  coercet  ? 
si  quis  eum  servum,  patinam  qui  tollere  iussus         80 
semesos  piscis  tepidumque  ligurrierit  ius, 
in  cruce  suffigat,  Labeone  insanior  inter 
sanos  dicatur.     quanto  hoc^  furiosius  atque 
maius  peccatum  est :  paulum  deliquit  amicus, 
quod  nisi  concedas,  habeare  insuavis  :  acerbus^       85 
odisti  et  fugis  ut  Rusonem  debitor  aeris, 
qui  nisi,  cum  tristes  misero  venere  Kalendae, 
mercedem  aut  nummos  unde  unde  extricat,  amaras 
porrecto  iugulo  historias  captivus  ut  audit, 
comminxit  lectum  potus,  mensave  catillum  90 

1  ignoscat  B.  *  B  omits  76-80. 

^  hoc  omitted  EM :  deleted  in  V. 

*  Some  punctuate  after  acerbus  ;  so  Orelli  and  Ritter. 

"  According  to  the  Stoics  only  the  ideal  sage,  the  sapiens, 
is  excepted  from  the  class  of  stulti.  Horace  places  himself 
in  the  majority.  ''  Labeo  was  a  crazy  jurisconsult. 

«  Ruso,  the  usurer,  has  literary  aspirations  and  writes 
histories.  The  fate  of  the  debtor,  who  is  in  Ruso's  power, 
and  must  therefore  listen  while  Ruso  reads  to  him  from  his 
works,  is  humorously  regarded  as  most  horrible.  Cf. 
Macaulay's  story  of  the  criminal,  who  went  to  the  galleys 
rather  than  read  the  history  of  Guicciardini.     ("Burleigh 


SATIRES,  I.  III.  67-90 

lightly  do  we  set  up  an  unjust  law  to  our  own  harm  ! 
For  no  living  wight  is  without  faults  :  the  best  is  he 
who  is  burdened  with  the  least.  My  kindly  friend 
must,  as  is  fair,  weigh  my  \irtues  against  my  faults, 
if  he  wishes  to  gain  my  love,  and  must  turn  the  scales 
in  their  favour  as  being  the  more  numerous — if  only 
my  virtues  are  the  more  numerous.  On  that  con- 
dition he  shall  be  weighed  in  the  same  scale.  One 
who  expects  his  friend  not  to  be  offended  by  his 
o\\Ti  warts  will  pardon  the  other's  pimples.  It  is 
but  fair  that  one  who  craves  indulgence  for  faihngs 
should  grant  it  in  return. 

"^  In  fine,  since  the  fault  of  anger,  and  all  the 
other  faults  that  cleave  to  fools "  cannot  be  wholly 
cut  away,  why  does  not  Reason  use  her  own  weights 
and  measures,  and  visit  offences  with  punishment 
suited  to  each  ?  If  one  were  to  crucify  a  slave  who, 
when  bidden  to  take  away  a  dish,  has  greedily  licked 
up  the  half-eaten  fish  and  its  sauce,  now  cold,  sane 
men  would  call  him  more  insane  than  Labeo.*  How 
much  madder  and  grosser  a  sin  is  this  :  a  friend  has 
committed  a  slight  offence,  which  you  would  be 
thought  ungracious  not  to  pardon  ;  you  hate  him 
bitterly  and  shun  him,  as  Ruso  is  shunned  by  his 
debtor,  who,  poor  vvTctch,  if  at  the  coming  of  the  sad 
Kalends  he  cannot  scrape  up  from  some  quarter 
either  interest  or  principal,  must  offer  his  throat  like 
a  prisoner  of  war  and  hsten  to  his  captor's  dreary 
histories  !  *  What  if  in  his  cups  my  friend  has  wet 
the  couch  or  knocked   off  the   table   a  bowl   once 

and  his    Times"   in  Critical  and  Historical  Essays.)     Cf. 

mille  pericula  saevae 
Tirbis  et  Augusto  recitantes  mense  poetas 

{Sat.  ilL  8). 



Euandri  manibus  tritum  deiecit^  :  ob  hanc  rem, 
aut  positum  ante  mea^  quia  puUum  in  parte  catini 
sustulit  esuriens,  minus  hoc  iucundus  amicus 
sit  mihi  ?  quid  faciam  si  furtum  fecerit,  aut  si 
prodiderit  commissa  fide  sponsumve  negarit  ?  95 

quis  paria  esse  fere  placuit  peccata,  laborant 
cum  ventum  ad  verum  est  :   sensus  moresque  repug- 
atque  ipsa  Utilitas,  iusti  prope  mater  et  aequl. 

Cum  prorepserunt  primis  animalia  terris, 
mutum  et  turpe  pecus,  glandem  atque  cubilia  propter 
unguibus  et  pugnis,  dein  fustibus,  atque  ita  porro  101 
pugnabant  armis,  quae  post  fabricaverat  usus, 
donee  verba,  quibus  voces  sensusque  notarent,' 
nominaque  invenere  ;   dehinc  absistere  bello, 
oppida  coeperunt  munire  et  ponere  leges,  105 

ne  quis  fur  esset,  neu  latro,  neu  quis  adulter, 
nam  fuit  ante  Helenam  cunnus  taeterrima  belli 
causa,  sed  ignotis  perierunt  mortibus  illi, 
quos  venerem  incertam  rapientis  more  ferarum 
viribus  editior  caedebat  ut  in  grege  taurus.  110 

iura  inventa  metu  iniusti  fateare  necesse  est, 
tempora  si  fastosque  veils  evolvere  mundi. 
nee  Natura  potest  iusto  secernere  iniquum, 
dividit  ut  bona  diversis,  fugienda  petendis  ; 
nee  vincet  Ratio  hoc,  tantundem  ut  peccet  idemque 

^  proiecit  B. 

*  me,  //:  B  omits  92,  as  well  as  95-100,  and  111-124.. 

'  quibus  sensus,  vocesque,  notarent  Housman  {cf.  Lucr. 
V.  1041 /•.) 

°  i.e.  of  great  antiquity  and  consequently  very  valuable. 
^  This  was  a  doctrine  of  the  Stoics  ;  cf.  Cicero,  Be  fin.  iv. 
19.  55, "  recte  facta  omnia  aequaiia,  omnia  peccata  paria  esse." 

*  Appeal  is  here  made  to  the  Epicureans,  whose  moral 
philosophy  rested  on  a  distinctly  utilitarian  basis. 


SATIRES,  I.  III.  91-116 

fingered  by  Evander,"  is  he  for  such  offence,  or 
because  when  hungry  he  snatched  up  first  a  pullet 
served  on  my  side  of  the  dish,  to  be  less  pleasing  in 
my  eyes  ?  What  shall  I  do  if  he  commits  a  theft,  or 
betrays  a  trust,  or  disowns  his  bond  ?  Those  whose 
creed  is  that  all  sins  are  much  on  a  par  *  are  at  a  loss 
when  they  come  to  face  facts.  Feelings  and 
customs  rebel,  and  so  does  Expedience  herself,  the 
mother,  we  may  say,  of  justice  and  right." 

^  When  living  creatures  **  crawled  forth  upon 
primeval  earth,  dumb,  shapeless  beasts,  they  fought 
for  their  acorns  and  lairs  vnth  nails  and  fists,  then 
with  clubs,  and  so  on  step  by  step  with  the  weapons 
which  need  had  later  forged,  until  they  found  words 
and  names '  wherewith  to  give  meaning  to  their 
cries  and  feehngs.  Thenceforth  they  began  to  cease 
from  war,  to  build  towns,  and  to  frame  laws  that 
none  should  thieve  or  rob  or  commit  adultery.  For 
before  Helen's  day  a  wench  was  the  most  dreadful 
cause  of  war,  but  deaths  unknown  to  fame  were 
theirs  whom,  snatching  fickle  love  in  wild-beast 
fashion,  a  man  stronger  in  might  struck  down,  like  the 
bull  in  a  herd.  If  you  will  but  turn  over  the  annals 
and  records  of  the  world,  you  must  needs  confess 
that  justice  was  born  of  the  fear  of  injustice.-^  Between 
right  and  \\Tong  Nature  can  draw  no  such  distinction 
as  between  things  gainful  and  harmful,  what  is  to 
be  sought  and  what  is  to  be  shunned  ;  nor  yriW 
Reason  ever  prove  this,  that  the  sin  is  one  and  the 

*  The  doctrine  of  the  evolution  of  society,  as  here  set 
forth,  is  based  on  Lucretius,  De  rerum  natura,  v.  780  ff. 

*  Or  "  verbs  and  nouns,"  the  two  main  divisions  of  human 
speech.     Cf.  A. P.  2^-5. 

*  According  to  the  utilitarian  theory  of  ethics,  the  sense 
of  right  and  wrong  is  not  innate  in  us. 



qui  teneros  caules  alieni  fregerit  horti  116 

et  qui  nocturnus  sacra  divum^  legerit.     adsit 

regula,  peccatis  quae  poenas  inroget  aequas, 

ne  scutica  dignum  horribili  sectere  flagello. 

nam  ut  ferula  caedas  meritum  maiora  subire  120 

verbera  non  vereor,  cum  dicas  esse  pare*  res 

furta  latrociniis  et  magnis  parva  mineris 

falce  recisurum  simili  te,  si  tibi  regnum 

permittant  homines. 

Si  dives,  qui  sapiens  est, 
et  sutor  bonus  et  solus  formosus  et  est  rex,  125 

cur  optas  quod  habes  ?   "  non  nosti  quid  pater  "  inquit 
"  Chrysippus  dicat  :   sapiens  crepidas  sibi  numquam 
nee  soleas  fecit ;  sutor  tamen  est  sapiens."     qui^  ? 
"  ut  quamvis  tacet  Hermogenes  cantor  tamen  atque 
optimus  est  modulator  ;   ut  Alfenus  vafer  omni     130 
abiecto  instrumento  artis  clausaque  taberna"* 
tonsor'*  erat,  sapiens  operis  sic  optimus  omnis 
est  opifex  solus,  sic  rex."     vellunt  tibi  barbam 
lascivi  pueri  ;   quos  tu  nisi  fuste  coerces, 
urgeris  turba  circum  te  stante  miserque^  135 

rumperis  et  latras,  magnorum  maxime  regum. 

*  divum  sacra  aK.  '^  qui  B  :  quo  other  mss. 

»  ustrina  V.  *  tonsor  V:  sutor  mss.,  Porph. 

*  Beginning  with  135,  B  is  lacking  up  to  the  end  of  Book 
II.  of  the  Epistles. 

"  For  another  interpretation  see  T.  G.  Tucker  in  C.R. 
1920,  p.  156. 

"  The  sixth  Stoic  Paradox  according  to  Cicero,  is  "  solum 
sapientem  esse  divitem."  The  Stoics  held  that  the  truly 
wise  man  or  philosopher  was  perfect :  he  was  therefore 
rich,  as  well  as  beautiful,  accomplished,  and  a  king  among 
men.     Horace  ridicules  these  claims  here  and  elsewhere, 


SATIRES,  I.  HI.  116-136 

same  to  cut  young  cabbages  in  a  neighbour's  garden 
and  to  steal  by  night  the  sacred  emblems  of  the 
gods.  Let  us  have  a  rule  to  assign  just  penalties  to 
offences,  lest  you  flay  ^\ith  the  terrible  scourge  what 
calls  for  the  strap.  For  "  as  to  your  striking  with  the 
rod  one  who  deserves  sterner  measures,  I  am  not 
afraid  of  that,  when  you  say  that  theft  is  on  a  par 
with  highway  robbery,  and  when  you  threaten  to 
prune  away  all  crimes,  great  and  small,  with  the 
same  hook,  if  men  would  but  give  you  royal  power. 

^^  If  the  wise  man  is  rich,*  and  a  good  cobbler, 
and  alone  handsome  and  a  king,  why  crave  what 
you  abeady  have  ?  *  "  You  do  not  know,"  he 
answers,  "  what  our  father  Chrysippus  **  means. 
The  wise  man  has  never  made  himself  shoes  or 
sandals  ;  yet  the  wise  man  is  a  cobbler."  How  so  ? 
"  As  Hermogenes,  however  silent,  is  still  the  best  of 
singers  and  musicians  ;  as  shrewd  Alfenus,  after 
tossing  aside  every  tool  of  his  art  and  closing  his 
shop,  was  a  barber  *  ;  so  the  wise  man — he  alone — 
is  the  best  workman  of  every  craft,  so  is  he  king." 
Mischievous  boys  pluck  at  your  beard,  and  unless  you 
keep  them  off  with  your  staff,  you  are  jostled  by  the 
crowd  that  surrounds  you,  while  you,  poor  wretch, 
snarl  and  burst  with  rage,  O  mightiest  of  mighty 

as  in  Epist.  i.  1.  106.  Cf.  the  account  of  the  wise  man  of 
the  Stoics  given  in  Plutarch,  Mor.  p.  1057,  and  for  St.  Paul's 
application  of  the  principle  see  2  Cor.  6.  4-10. 

*  The  Stoic  has  just  admitted  that  he  is  not  a  king. 

**  Chrysippus  was  regarded  as  the  second  founder  of 
Stoicism,  the  first  being  Zeno. 

•  The  reading  tonsor  is  preferred  to  sutor.  As  the  Stoic 
tries  to  prove  that  the  wise  man  is  a  cobbler,  he  naturally 
turns  elsewhere  for  illustrations,  e.g.  to  Hermogenes  the 
musician,  and  to  Alfenus  the  barber. 



ne  longum  faciam  :  dum  tu  quadrante  lavatum 
rex  ibis  neque  te  quisquam  stipator  ineptum 
praeter  Crispinum  sectabitur,  et  mihi  dulces 
ignoscent,  si  quid  peccaro  stultus,  amici,  140 

inque  vicem  illorum  patiar  delicta  libenter, 
privatusque  magis  vivam  te  rege  beatus. 

"  Like  a  Persian  king,  ^affiXein  ^aaCKitav. 
»  C/.  Sat.  i.  1.  120. 


SATIRES,  I.  III.  137-142 

kings  ! "  In  short,  while  you,  a  king,  go  to  your  pennj 
bath,  and  no  escort  attends  you  except  crazy  Cris- 
pinus,''  my  kindly  friends  will  pardon  me  if  I,  yovur 
foolish  man,*^  commit  some  offence,  and  in  turn  I 
shall  gladly  put  up  with  their  shortcomings,  and  in 
my  private  station  shall  live  more  happily  than  Your 

'  i^.  stultus,  as  the  Stoics  used  it,  the  opposite  of  sapiens. 



The  writers  of  Old  Attic  Comedy  assailed  the  vicioug 
with  the  utmost  freedom.  In  Roman  literature, 
Lucilius  shows  the  same  spirit  and  boldness,  but  his 
metrical  forms  are  different,  and  his  verse  is  un- 
couth. He  was  careless  and  verbose,  more  interested 
in  the  quantity  than  in  the  quality  of  his  work  (1-13). 

Similar  in  this  last  respect  is  Crispinus,  who 
challenges  the  poet  to  a  scribbling  contest,  but 
Horace  decUnes  to  compete  with  such  poetasters, 
even  as  he  refuses  to  emulate  the  self-satisfied 
Fannius  by  reading  his  verses  in  public,  because 
this  kind  of  writing  is  not  popular.  Men  do  not 
like  to  have  their  weaknesses  exposed.  "  Give  such 
a  poet  a  wide  berth,"  they  cry  (14-38). 

"  Listen  to  my  defence,"  says  Horace.  "  In  the 
first  place,  a  man  who  composes  verses  as  I  do,  verses 
that  are  really  more  like  conversation,  should  not  be 
called  a  poet.  The  true  poet  has  imaginative  power 
and  lofty  utterance.  This  is  why  the  question  has  been 
raised  whether  comedy  is  poetry,  for  even  in  its  most 
spirited  passages,  as  rendered  on  the  stage,  we  are 
really  dealing  with  pure  conversation,  such  as  would 
be  suitable  to  similar  scenes  in  daily  life  "  (38-56). 

"  So  it  is  with  the  verses  of  Lucilius  and  my  own. 
Take  away  the  metrical  element,  change  the  word- 
order,  and  you  have  plain  prose.  But  the  question 
whether  satire  is  poetry  must  be  postponed.  At 
present  let  us  consider  the  question  of  its  un- 
popularity "  (56-65). 


"  You  look  upon  me  as  an  informer,  but  even  if 
you  are  a  rogue  I  am  no  informer.  My  friends  will 
acquit  me  of  such  a  charge.  I  am  not  writing  for 
the  general  public,  and  my  object  is  not  to  give 
pain.  Yet  it  is  my  habit  to  observe  the  conduct  of 
others,  and  to  profit  thereby,  for  I  was  trained  to 
do  so  by  my  father,  and  have  always  continued  the 
practice.  To  be  sure,  I  jot  down  my  thoughts,  but 
what  of  that  ?  Nowadays  everybody  writes,  and 
you,  my  critic,  ■willy-nilly,  will  take  to  ^vriting 
yourself  "  (65-143). 

On  the  appearance  of  his  first  Satires  (and  it  is 
to  be  noticed  that  the  carefully  chosen  subjunctive 
habeat  in  1.  71  does  not  preclude  their  publication), 
the  poet's  critics  had  accused  Horace  of  being  a 
malevolent  scandal-monger.  They  also  contrasted 
him  unfavourably  with  Lucilius,  who  in  his  open  war- 
fare used  the  weapons  of  Old  Comedy,  was  famihar 
with  the  Greek  moralists  and  philosophers,  and  had 
the  pen  of  a  ready  writer.  In  his  reply,  Horace 
maintains  that  his  own  satire  is  not  personal,  but 
rather  social  and  general  in  its  apphcation.  He  does 
not  indulge  in  the  invective  of  Old  Comedy,  but 
rather  follows  the  New  in  spirit  as  well  as  in  style. 
His  teacher  in  morals,  if  not  a  great  philosopher  {cf. 
sapiens,  1.  115),  was  a  representative  of  the  fine,  old- 
fashioned  Roman  virtues,  even  his  own  father.  As  for 
the  copiousness  of  Lucihus,  that  was  his  predecessor's 
chief  fault,  which  he  himself  would  carefully  avoid. 

This  is  one  of  the  early  Satires,  and  in  \iew  of  the 
citation  in  1.  92  is  to  be  associated  closely  with  the 
Second.  As  there  is  no  reference  to  Maecenas,  it 
was  probably  composed  before  the  poet's  introduction 
to  the  statesman  in  38  b.c. 



Eupolis  atque  Cratinus  Aristophanesque  poetae 
atque  alii,  quorum  comoedia  prisca  virorum  est, 
si  quis  erat  dignus  describi,  quod  malus  ac  fur, 
quod  moechus  foret  aut  sicarius  aut  alioqui 
famosus,  multa  cum  libertate  notabant.  5 

hinc  omnis  pendet  Lucilius,  hosce  secutus 
mutatis  tantum  pedibus  numerisque  ;   facetus, 
emunctae  naris,  durus  componere  versus, 
nam  fuit  hoc  vitiosus  :  in  hora  saepe  ducentos, 
ut  magnum,  versus  dictabat  stans  pede  in  uno  ;        10 
cum  flueret  lutulentus,  erat  quod  tollere  velles  ; 
garrulus  atque  piger  scribendi  ferre  laborem, 
scribendi  recte  :   nam  ut  multum,  nil  moror,     ecce, 
Crispinus  minimo  me  provocat  :   "  accipe,  si  vis, 
accipiam^  tabulas  :   detur^  nobis  locus,  hora,  15 

custodes  ;   videamus  uter  plus  scribere  possit." 
di  bene  fecerunt,  inopis  me  quodque  pusilh 
finxerunt  animi,  raro  et  perpauca  loquentis. 
at  tu  conclusas  hircinis  follibus  auras 
usque  laborantis,  dum  ferrum  molliat  ignis,  20 

ut  mavis,  imitare. 
^  accipe  iam,  7,  but  not  in  harmony  with  hora.        "  dentur,  II. 

"  For  the  emphasis  on  poetae  (denied  by  Uliman,  A. P. A. 
xlviii.  p.  115)  see  Epist.  ii.  1.  247. 
"  Proverbial  for  "  doing  without  effort." 
'  For  Crispinus  see  Sat.  i.  1.  120.     He  offers  to   bet  a 


Satire  IV       *^ 

Eupolis  and  Cratinus  and  Aristophanes,  true  poets,* 

and  the  other  good  men  to  whom  Old  Comedy  belongs, 
if  there  was  anyone  deserving  to  be  dra\vn  as  a  rogue 
and  thief,  as  a  rake  or  cut-throat,  or  as  scandalous 
in  any  other  way,  set  their  mark  upon  him  with 
_reat  freedom.  It  is  on  these  that  Lucilius  wholly 
iiangs  ;  these  he  has  followed,  changing  only  metre 
and  rhythm.  Witty  he  was,  and  of  keen-scented 
nostrils,  but  harsh  in  framing  his  verse.  Herein  lay 
his  fault :  often  in  an  hour,  as  though  a  great  exploit, 
he  would  dictate  two  hundred  lines  while  standing, 
as  they  say,  on  one  foot.*  In  his  muddy  stream 
there  was  much  that  you  would  like  to  remove.  He 
was  wordy,  and  too  lazy  to  put  up  with  the  trouble 
if  \\Titing — of  writing  correctly,  I  mean  ;  for  as  to 
quantity,  I  let  that  pass.  See,  Crispinus  challenges 
ine  at  long  odds  "  :  "  Take  your  tablets,  please  ; 
111  take  mine.  Let  a  place  be  fixed  for  us,  and  time 
md  judges  ;  let  us  see  which  can  write  the  most." 
Ihe  gods  be  praised  for  fashioning  me  of  meagre 
wit  and  lowly  spirit,  of  rare  and  scanty  speech  ! 
I>ut  do  you,  for  such  is  your  taste,  be  Uke  the  air 
-hut  up  in  goat-skin  bellows,  and  ever  puffing  away 
until  the  fire  softens  the  iron. 

large  sum  against  a  small  one  on  my  part.  Bentley  con- 
jectured nummo  for  minimo,  i.e.  "bets  me  a  sesterce,"  that 
being  all  his  poverty  would  allow. 

E  49 


Beatus  Fannius  ultro 

delatis  capsis  et  imagine,  cum  mea  nemo 

scripta  legat  volgo  recitare  timentis  ob  hanc  rem, 

quod  sunt  quos  genus  hoc  minime  iuvat,  utpote  pluris 

culpari  dignos.     quemvis  media  elige^  turba  :         25 

aut  ob  avaritiam^  aut  miisera^  ambitione  laborat. 

hie  nuptarum  insanit  amoribus,  hie  puerorum  ; 

hunc  capit  argenti  splendor  ;   stupet  Albius  aere  ; 

hie  mutat  merces  surgente  a  sole  ad  eum  quo 

vespertina  tepet*  regio  ;   quin  per  mala  praeceps     30 

fertur  uti  pulvis  collectus  turbine,  ne  quid 

summa  deperdat  metuens  aut  ampliet  ut  rem  : 

omnes  hi  metuunt  versus,  odere  poetas. 

"  faenum  habet  in  cornu  :    longe  fuge  !     dummodo 


excutiat  sibi,  non  hic^  cuiquam  parcet  amico  ;  35 

et  quodcumque  semel  chartis  illeverit,  omnis 

gestiet  a  furno  redeuntis  scire  lacuque 

et  pueros  et  anus." 

Agedum,  pauca  accipe  contra. 

primum  ego  me  illorum,  dederim  quibus  esse  poetas,® 

excerpam  numero  :  neque  enim  concludere  versum  40 

dixeris  esse  satis  ;  neque,  si  qui  scribat  uti  nos 

sermoni  propiora,  putes  hunc  esse  poetam. 

^  erue  K,  Vollmer  :   eripe  3  Bland. :  arripe  Bentley. 

2  ab  avaritia,  see  lialfe,  C  P.  vii.  p.  246. 

=*  miser  K,  II.  *  patet,  //. 

*  non  non,  //,  adopted  by  Vollmer  and  Garrod. 

•  poetis  R  and  scholia  on  Sat.  i.  6.  25 :  so  Vollmer. 

"  Fannius,  a  petty  poet,  brought  his  writings  (kept  in 
capsae  or  cylindrical  boxes),  together  with  his  portrait,  into 
prominence,  but  in  what  way  he  did  so  is  now  unknown. 


SATIRES,  I.  IV.  21-42 

^  Happy  fellow,  Fannius,  who  has  delivered  his 
books  and  bust  unasked  !  "  My  writings  no  one 
reads,  and  I  fear  to  recite  them  in  pubhc,  the  fact 
being  that  this  style  *  is  abhorrent  to  some,  inasmuch 
as  most  people  merit  censure.  Choose  anyone  from 
amid  a  crowd  :  he  is  suffering  either  from  avarice 
or  some  A;\Tetched  ambition.  One  is  mad  with  love 
for  somebody's  wife,  another  for  boys.  Here  is 
one  whose  fancy  the  sheen  of  silver  catches  ;  Albius  " 
dotes  on  bronzes  ;  another  trades  his  wares  from 
the  rising  sun  to  regions  warmed  by  his  evening 
rays  ;  nay,  through  perils  he  rushes  headlong,  like 
dust  gathered  up  by  a  whirlwind,  fearful  lest  he  lose 
aught  of  his  total,  olKaitSo  add  to  his  wealth.  All 
of  these  dread  verses  and  detest  the  poet :  "  He 
carries  hay  on  his  horns,**  give  him  a  wide  berth. 
Provided  he  can  raise  a  laugh  for  himself,  he  will 
>pare  not  a  single  friend^^nd  whatever  he  has  once 
scribbled  on  his  sheets  he  will  rejoice  to  have  all 
know,  all  the  slaves  and  old  dames  as  they  come 
home  from  bakehouse  and  pond."  * 

^  Come  now,  listen  to  a  few  words  in  answer. 
First  I  will  take  my  owti  name  from  the  list  of  such 
as  I  would  allow  to  be  poets.  For  you  would  not 
call  it  enough  to  round  off  a  verse,  nor  would  you 
count  anyone  poet  who  WTites,  as  I  do,  Unes  more 

Probably  he  presented  them  to  private  libraries.  At  this 
time  the  only  public  library  in  Rome  was  the  one  founded 
by  Asinius  Pollio  in  38  b.c,  and  the  only  living  writer  whose 
works  were  admitted  to  it  was  Varro.  Another  view  is  that 
Tannius's  admirers  presented  the  poet  with  book-cases  and 
bust.  *  i.e.f  Satire. 

'  The  extravagance  of  Albius  impoverishes  his  son  (1.109). 

*  Dangerous  cattle  were  thus  distinguished. 

•  i.e.  the  common  people,  as  they  went  to  get  bread  from 
the  public  bakery  and  water  from  the  public  tanks.  Agrippa 
set  up  seven  hundred  locus  or  reservoirs  in  Ptome. 



ingenium  cui  sit,  cui  mens  divinior  atque  os 

magna  sonaturum,  des  nominis  huius  honorem. 

idcirco  quidam  Comoedia  necne  poema  43 

esset  quaesivere,  quod  acer  spiritus  ac  vis 

nee  verbis  nee  rebus  inest,  nisi  quod  pede  certo 

differt  sermoni,  sermo  merus.     "  at  pater  ardens 

saevit,  quod  meretrice  nepos  insanus^  arnica 

filius  uxorem  grandi^  cum  dote  recuset,  50 

ebrius  et,  magnum  quod  dedecus,  ambulet  ante 

noctem  cum  facibus."     numquid  Pomponius  istis 

audiret  leviora,  pater  si  viveret  ?     ergo 

non  satis  est  puris^  versum  perscribere  verbis, 

quern  si  dissolvas,  quivis  stomachetur  eodem  56 

quo  personatus  pacto  pater,     his,  ego  quae  nunc, 

olim  quae  scripsit  Lucilius,  eripias  si 

tempora    certa    modosque,    et    quod    prius    ordine 

verbum*  est, 
posterius  facias,  praeponens  ultima  primis, 
non,  ut  si  solvas  "  postquam  Discordia  taetra  60 

Belli  ferratos  postis  portasque  refregit," 
invenias  etiam  disiecti  membra  poetao. 

Hactenus  haec  :   alias  iustum  sit  necne  poema, 
nunc  illud  tantum  quaeram,  meritone  tibi  sit 
suspectum  genus  hoc  scribendi.     Sulcius  acer  66 

ambulat  et  Caprius,  rauci  male  cumque  libellis, 
magnus  uterque  timor  latronibus  :   at  bene  si  quis 
et  vivat  puris  manibus,  contemnat  utrumque. 

'  insanit,  //.     *  grandem,  //.     '  pueris,  //.     *  versum,  II. 

"  Who  Pomponius  was  is  unknown,  but  in  real  life  he 
corresponds  to  the  prodigal  in  the  play,  and  the  language 
used  by  his  father  under  the  circumstances  would  be  similar 
to  that  in  the  scene  from  Comedy. 

"  The  passage  cited  is  from   Ennius  and  refers  to  the 
temple  of  Janus,  which  was  opened  in  time  of  war.     It 
is  imitated  in  Virgil,  Aen.  vii.  622. 

SATIRES,  I.  IV.  43-68 

p.kin  to  prose.  If  one  has  gifts  inborn,  if  one  has  a 
>oul  divine  and  tongue  of  noble  utterance,  to  such 
give  the  honour  of  that  name.  Hence  some  have 
questioned  whether  Comedy  is  or  is  not  poetry  ; 
for  neither  in  diction  nor  in  matter  has  it  the  fire 
and  force  of  inspiration,  and,  save  that  it  differs 
from  prose-talk  in  its  regular  beat,  it  is  mere  prose. 
"  But,"  you  say,  "  there  is  the  father  storming  in 
passion  because  his  spendthrift  son,  madly  in  love 
with  a  wanton  mistress,  rejects  a  wife  with  large 
dower,  and  in  drunken  fit  reels  abroad — sad  scandal 
— with  torches  in  broad  dayhght."  Would  Pom- 
ponius  hear  a  lecture  less  stern  than  this,  were  his 
father  ahve  ?  "  And  so  'tis  not  enough  to  write  out 
a  line  of  simple  words  such  that,  should  you  break 
it  up,  any  father  whatever  would  rage  in  the  same 
fashion  as  the  father  in  the  play.  Take  from  the 
verses  which  I  am  >vriting  now,  or  which  Lucilius 
wrote  in  former  days,  their  regular  beat  and  rhythm 
— change  the  order  of  the  words,  transposing  the 
first  and  the  last — and  it  would  not  be  hke  breaking 

When  foul  Discord's  din 
War's  posts  and  gates  of  bronze  had  broken  in, 

where,  even  when  he  is  dismembered,  you  would  find 
the  limbs  of  a  poet.'' 

^  Of  this  enough.  Some  other  time  we'll  see 
whether  this  kind  of  \VTiting  is  true  poetry  or  not. 
To-day  the  only  question  I'll  ask  is  this,  whether 
you  are  right  in  vie-vWng  it  with  distrust.  Keen- 
scented  Sulcius  and  Caprius  stalk  about,  horribly 
hoarse  and  armed  with  wTits,  both  a  great  terror  to 
robbers,  but  if  a  man  is  honest  of  life  and  his  hands 



ut  sis  tu  similis  Caeli  Birrique  latronum, 

non  ego  sim^  Capri  neque  Sulci :  cur  metuas  me  ?    70 

nulla  taberna  meos  habeat  neque  pila  libellos, 

quis  manus  insudet  volgi  Hermogenisque  Tigelli ; 

nec^  recito  cuiquam  nisi  amicis,  idque  coactus, 

non  ubivis  coramve  quibuslibet.     in  medio  qui 

scripta  foro  recitent,  sunt  multi,  quique  lavantes  :   75 

suave  locus  voci  resonat  conclusus.     inanis 

hoc  iuvat,  haud  illud  quaerentis,  num  sine  sensu, 

tempore  num  faciant  alieno. 

"  Laedere  gaudes  " 
inquit,'  "et  hoc  studio  pravus  facis."     Unde  petitum 
hoc  in  me  iacis  ?     est  auctor  quis  denique  eorum     80 
vixi  cum  quibus  ?     absentem  qui  rodit  amicura, 
qui  non  defendit  alio  culpante,  solutos 
qui  captat  risus  hominum  famamque  dicacis, 
fingere  qui  non  visa  potest,  commissa  tacere 
qui  nequit  :  hie  niger  est,  hunc  tu,  Romane,  caveto.  85 
saepe  tribus  lectis  videas  cenare  quaternos, 
e  quibus  unus*  amet^  quavis  aspergere  cunctos 
praeter  eum  qui  praebet  aquam  ;   post  hunc  quoque 

condita  cum  verax  aperit  praecordia  Liber. 

^  sum  Porph.      *  non,  //.      '  inquis  M,  11.      *  imus,  II. 
*  amet  1  Bland.,  Bentley  :    avet  mss.  ;  a  subjunctive  is 
necessary  here. 

"  Sulcius  and  Caprius  are  commonly  supposed  to  have 
been  professional  informers,  hoarse  from  bawling  in  the 
courts,  but  Ullman  {A. P. A.  xlviii.  p.  117)  takes  them  to  be 
contemporary  satirists,  who  recite  their  long-winded  poems 
and  carry  about  copies  for  free  distribution. 

"  For  Tigellius  see  Sat.  i.  3.  129.  The  scholiasts  iden- 
tify him  with  the  Tigellius  of  Sat.  i.  2.  3,  and  i.  3.  4, 
and  Ullman  convincingly  upholds  this  view  {C.P.  x.  pp. 
270  fF.).  He  was  now  dead,  but  Horace  treats  him  as  the 
poet  of  the  volgus.     See  note  on  Sat.  i.  10.  90.     Book-stalls 


SATIRES,  I.  IV.  69-89 

clean,  he  may  scorn  them  both."  Though  you  be 
like  Caelius  and  Birrius,  the  robbers,  I  need  not  be 
like  Caprius  or  Sulcius  :  why  should  you  fear  me  ? 
I  want  no  stall  or  pillar  to  have  my  httle  works, 
so  that  the  hands  of  the  crowd — and  Hermogenes 
Tigellius  * — may  sweat  over  them.  Nor  do  I  recite 
them  to  any  save  my  friends,  and  then  only  when 
pressed — not  anywhere  or  before  any  hearers.  Many 
there  are  who  recite  their  writings  in  the  middle  of 
the  Forum,  or  in  the  baths.  How  pleasantly  the 
vaulted  space  echoes  the  voice  !  That  delights  the 
frivolous,  who  never  ask  themselves  this,  whether 
what  they  do  is  in  bad  taste  or  out  of  season. 

'*  "  You  hke  to  give  pain,"  says  one,  "  and  you 
do  so  with  spiteful  intent."  \Miere  have  you  found 
this  missile  to  hurl  at  me  ?  Does  anyone  whatever 
with  whom  I  have  lived  vouch  for  it  ?  The  man 
who  backbites  an  absent  friend  ;  who  fails  to  defend 
him  when  another  finds  fault  ;  the  man  who  courts 
the  loud  laughter  of  others,  and  the  reputation  of  a 
■wit ;  who  can  invent  what  he  never  saw  ;  who  cannot 
keep  a  secret — that  man  is  black  of  heart  ;  of  him 
beware,  good  Roman.  Often  on  each  of  the  three 
couches  you  may  see  four  at  dinner,"  among  whom 
one  loves  to  bespatter  in  any  way  everyone  present 
except  the  host  who  provides  the  water,  and  later 
him  as  well,  when  he  has  well  drunk  and  the  truth 
ful  god  of  free  speech  **  unlocks  the  heart's  secrets 

were  usually  in  arcades,  the  pillars  of  which  were  doubtless 
used  for  advertising  the  books  within.  One  may  compare 
the  Parisian  kiosques. 

*  Three  was  the  usual  number,  so  that  this  was  a  large 
party.  Cicero  speaks  of  five  as  a  great  crush :  Graeci 
stipati,  quini  in  lectulis  {In  Pis.  27.  67). 

■*  The  god  Liber  was  identified  with  Bacchus.  Cf.  the 
proverbs  oTvos  koX  dXddta  (Alcaeus),  and  in  vino  Veritas. 



hie  tibi  comis  et  urbanus  liberque  videtur,  90 

infesto  nigris.     ego  si  risi,  quod  ineptus 
pastillos  RufiUus  olet,  Gargonius  hircum, 
lividus  et  mordax  videor  tibi  ?     mentio  si  quac^ 
de  Capitolini^  furtis  iniecta  Petilli 
te  coram  fuerit,  defendas  ut  tuus  est  mos  :  95 

"  me  Capitolinus  convictore  usus  amicoque 
a  puero  est,  causaque  mea  permulta  rogatus 
fecit,  et  incolumis  laetor  quod  vivit  in  urbe  ; 
sed  tamen  admiror  quo  pacto  iudicium  illud 
fugerit."     hie  nigrae  sucus  lolliginis,  haec  est        100 
aerugo  mera.     quod  vitium  procul  afore  cliartis 
atque  animo  prius,  ut^  si  quid  promittei'e  de  me 
possum  aliud  vere,  promitto. 

Liberius  si 
dixero  quid,  si  forte  iocosius,  hoc  mihi  iuris 
cum  venia  dabis.     insuevit  pater  optimus  hoc  me,  105 
ut  fugerem  exemplis  vitiorum  quaeque  notando. 
cum  me  hortaretur,  parce  frugaliter  atque 
viverem  uti  contentus  eo,  quod  mi  ipse  parasset : 
"  nonne  vides,  Albi  ut  male  vivat  filius,  utque 
Baius  inops  ?     magnum  documentum,  ne  patriam  rem 
perdere  quis  veht."     a*  turpi  meretricis  am  ore        111 
cum  deterreret  :   "  Scetani  dissimilis  sis." 
ne  sequerer  moechas,  concessa  cum  venere  uti 
possem  :  "  deprensi  non  bella  est  fama  Treboni," 

*  qua  KM,  II.  ^  capitolinis  DE,  II. 

'  animo,  prius  ut,  ( =  ut  prius)  Housman.    *  aut  E,  II:  at  M. 

"  Cited  from  Sat.  i.  2.  27.  Hie  in  1.  90  is  Lucilius,  who 
must  have  described  such  a  banqueting-scene  (11.  86-89)  in 
the  first  person.     See  Sat.  i.  10.  (55,  and  note. 

*  The  crime  of  which  Petillius  is  said  to  have  been 
accused,  that  of  stealing  the  gold  crown  of  Jupiter  on  the 
Capitol,  was  a  proverbial  one,  as  is  seen  from  the  allusions 


SATIRES,  I.  IV.  90-114 

Such  a  man  you  think  genial  and  witty  and  frank 
— you  who  hate  the  black  of  heart.  As  for  me,  if  I 
have  had  my  laugh  because  silly  "  RufiUus  smells 
like  a  scent-box,  Gargonius  like  a  goat,"  "  do  you 
think  I  am  a  spiteful,  snappish  cur  ?  If  in  your 
presence  somebody  hinted  at  the  thefts  of  Petillius 
Capitolinus,  you  would  defend  him  after  ^o«r  fashion  : 
"  Capitohnus  has  been  a  comrade  and  friend  of 
mine  from  boyhood  ;  much  has  he  done  to  serve 
me  when  asked,  and  I  rejoice  that  he  is  ahve  and 
out  of  danger  here  in  Rome — but  still  I  do  wonder 
how  he  got  out  of  that  trial." ''  Here  is  the  very 
ink  of  the  cuttlefish  ;  here  is  venom  unadulterate. 
That  such  malice  shall  be  far  from  my  pages,  and 
first  of  all  from  my  heart,  I  pledge  myself,  if  there 
is  aught  that  I  can  pledge  with  truth. 

^^^  If  in  my  words  I  am  too  free,  perchance  too 
hght,  this  bit  of  liberty  you  ^\^ll  indulgently  grant  me 
'Tis  a  habit  the  best  of  fathers  taught  me,  for,  to 
enable  me  to  steer  clear  of  follies,  he  would  brand  them, 
one  by  one,  by  his  examples."  Whenever  he  would 
encourage  me  to  live  thriftily,  frugally,  and  content 
with  what  he  had  saved  for  me,  "  Do  you  not  see,"  he 
would  say,  "  how  badly  fares  young  Albius,**  and  how 
poor  is  Baius  ?  A  striking  lesson  not  to  waste  one's 
patrimony  !  "  When  he  would  deter  me  from  a  vulgar 
amour,  "  Don't  be  like  Scetanus."  And  to  prevent  me 
from  courting  another's  wife,  when  I  might  enjoy 
a  love  not  forbidden,  "  Not  pretty,"   he  would  say, 

to  it  in  Plautus,  e.g.  Trinummus  83,  Menaechmi  941.  The 
cognomen  Capitolinus  gave  a  handle  to  his  assailants. 

'  The  hoc  of  1.  105  refers  to  Horace's  freedom  of  speech 
(liberius  si  dixero),  while  the  clause  tU  fugerem  expresses 
the  father's  purpose  with  notando. 

"  Cf.  1.  28  above. 



aiebat.     "  sapiens,  vitatu  quidque  petitu  115 

sit  melius,  causas  reddet  tibi  :  mi  satis  est,  si 
traditum  ab  antiquis  morem  servare  tuamque, 
dum  custodis  eges,  vitam  famamque  tueri 
incolumem  possum  ;   simul  ac  duraverit  aetas 
membra  animumque  tuum,  nabis  sine  cortice."  sic  me 
formabat  puerum  dictis,  et  sive  iubebat,  121 

ut  facerem  quid,  "  habes  auctorem  quo  facias  hoc," 
unum  ex  iudicibus  selectis^  obiciebat  ; 
sive  vetabat,  "  an  hoc  inhonestum  et  inutile  factu^ 
necne  sit  addubites,  flagret  rumore  malo  cum  125 

hie  atque  ille  ?  "     avidos'  vicinum  funus  ut  aegros 
exanimat  mortisque  metu  sibi  parcere  cogit, 
sic  teneros  animos  aliena  opprobria  saepe 
absterrent  vitiis. 

Ex  hoc  ego  sanus  ab  illis, 
perniciem  quaecumque  ferunt,  mediocribus  et  quis  130 
ignoscas^  vitiis  teneor.     fortassis  et  istinc 
largiter  abstulerit^  longa  aetas,  liber  amicus, 
consilium  proprium  ;  neque  enim,  cum  lectulus  aut  me 
porticus  excepit,  desum  mihi :  "  rectius  hoc  est : 
hoc  faciens  vivam  melius  :  sic  dulcis  amicis  135 

occurram :    hoc  quidam  non  belle  :   numquid  ego  illi 
imprudens  olim  faciam  simile  ?  "     haec  ego  mecum 
compressis  agito  labris  ;  ubi  quid  datur  oti, 

>  electis  M,  II :  electi  E.  ^  factum  aDEM. 

'  vides,  //.  *  ignoscat,  IT.         *  abstulerint  aDEM. 

"  A  reference  to  the  list  of  jurors,  men  of  high  character, 
annually  empanelled  by  the  praetor  to  serve  in  the  trial 
of  criminal  cases. 


SATIRES,  I.  IV.  115-138 

is  the  repute  of  Trebonius,  caught  in  the  act.  Your 
philosopher  \v\\\  give  you  theories  for  shunning  or 
seeking  this  or  that  :  enough  for  me,  if  I  can  uphold 
the  rule  our  fathers  have  handed  down,  and  if,  so 
long  as  you  need  a  guardian,  I  can  keep  your  health 
and  name  from  harm.  WTien  years  have  brought 
strength  to  body  and  mind,  you  will  swim  without 
the  cork."  With  words  like  these  would  he  mould 
my  boyhood  ;  and  whether  he  were  advising  me 
to  do  something,  "  You  have  an  example  for  so 
doing,"  he  would  say,  and  point  to  one  of  the  special 
judges  ; "  or  were  forbidding  me,  "  Can  you  doubt 
whether  this  is  dishonourable  and  disadvantageous 
or  not,  when  so  and  so  stands  in  the  blaze  of  ill 
repute  ?  "  As  a  neighbour's  funeral  scares  gluttons 
when  sick,  and  makes  them,  through  fear  of  death, 
careful  of  themselves,  so  the  tender  mind  is  oft 
deterred  from  vice  by  another's  shame. 

^29  Thanks  to  this  training  I  am  free  from  vices 
which  bring  disaster,  though  subject  to  lesser  frailties 
such  as  you  would  excuse.  Perhaps  even  from  these 
much  will  be  withdrawn  by  time's  advance,  candid  J 
finends,  self-counsel  ;  for  when  my  couch  welcomes  \^\^ 
me  or  I  stroll  in  the  colonnade,*  I  do  not  fail  myself: 
"  This  is  the  better  course  :  if  I  do  that,  I  shall  fare 
more  happily  :  thus  I  shall  delight  the  friends  I  meet : 
that  was  ugly  conduct  of  so  and  so  :  is  it  possible  that 
some  day  I  may  thoughtlessly  do  anything  hke  that?" 
Thus,  with  lips  shut  tight,  I  debate  with  myself; 
and  when  I  find  a  bit  of  leism-e,  I  trifle  with  my 

*  The  colonnades,  or  porticoes,  were  a  striking  archi- 
tectural feature  of  ancient  Rome,  and  much  used  for 
promenading  in.  The  lectulus  was  an  easy  couch  for 
reclining  upon  while  reading,  corresponding  to  our  com- 
fortable arm-chairs. 



illudo^  chartis.     hoc  est  mediocribus  illis 

ex  vitiis  unum  :   cui  si  concedere  nolis,  140 

multa  poetarum*veniat^  manus,  auxilio  quae 

sit  mihi  (nam  multo  plures  sumus),  ac  veluti  te 

ludaei  cogemus  in  hanc  concedere  turbam. 

^  incumbo,  // :  Rohl  conjectures  includo. 
*  veniet  Acron,  Bentley. 

"  Horace  toys  with  his  papers  by  jotting  down  his  random 

*  For  the  eagerness  of  the  Jews  to  proselytize  cf.  St. 
Matthew  xxiii.  15. 

«  Among  the  numerous  articles  that  contain  a  discussion 
of  this  Satire,  reference  may  be  made  to  the  following : — 


SATIRES,  I.  IV.  139-143 

papers."  This  is  one  of  those  lesser  frailties  I  spoke 
of,  and  if  you  should  make  no  allowance  for  it,  then 
would  a  big  band  of  poets  come  to  my  aid — for  we 
are  the  big  majority — and  we,  like  the  Jews,''  will 
compel  you  to  make  one  of  our  throng." 

G.  L.  Hendrickson,  "  Horace,  Sermones  i.  4.  A  Protest 
and  a  Programme,"  A. J. P.  xxi.  pp.  121  if.;  "Satura 
— the  Genesis  of  a  Literary  Form,"  C.P.  vi.  pp.  129  If. ; 

Charles  Knapp,  "The  Sceptical  Assault  on  the  Roman 
Tradition  concerning  the  Dramatic  Satura,"  A.J.P. 
xxxiii.  pp.  125  flF. ; 

H.  R.  Fairclough,  "  Horace's  View  of  the  Relations 
between  Satire  and  Comedy,"  A.J.P.  xxxiv.  pp.  183  flf. ; 

B.  L.  Ullman,  "Horace  on  the  Nature  of  Satire,"  A.P.A. 
xlviiL  pp.  Ill  ff.;  "Dramatic  Satura,"  CJ*.  ix.  pp.  1  ff. 



This  Satire  is  modelled  upon  one  by  Lueilius,  who  in 
his  third  book  had  described  a  journey  from  Rome  to 
Capua  and  thence  to  the  Sicilian  straits. 

Horace's  journey  was  associated  with  an  embassy 
on  which  Maecenas  and  others  were  sent  in  38  b.c. 
by  Octavian,  to  make  terms  with  Marcus  Antonius, 
who,  notwithstanding  the  so-called  treaty  of  Brundi- 
sium,  made  between  the  rivals  of  two  years  earlier, 
was  again  somewhat  estranged. 

The  travellers  left  Rome  by  the  Appian  Way,  and 
made  a  night-journey  from  Appii  Forum  to  Anxur 
by  canal-boat  through  the  Pomptine  marshes.  From 
Capua  their  road  took  them  over  the  Apennines  into 
the  Apulian  hill-country  of  Horace's  birth,  whence 
they  passed  on  to  Italy's  eastern  coast,  reaching 
Brundisium  in  fifteen  days.  The  journey  had  been 
pursued  in  a  leisurely  fashion,  for  if  necessary  it  might 
have  been  covered  in  less  than  half  that  time. 

Although  the  mission  of  Maecenas  was  a  political 
one,  Horace  steers  clear  of  political  gossip.  The 
account  reads  like  a  compilation  of  scanty  notes  from 
a  diary,  and  yet  leaves  a  delightful  impression  about 
the  personal  relations  of  men  distinguished  in  htera- 
ture  and  statesmanship.  Some  of  the  character- 


istics  of  the  sketch  are  doubtless  due  to  Horace's 
adherence  to  the  satiric  type.  Thus  the  encounter 
of  the  two  buffoons  (51-69)  is  a  dramatic  scene,  treated 
in  a  mock-heroic  fashion,  where  the  comparison  made 
between  Sarmentus  and  a  unicorfa  recalls  the  Lucilian 
description  of  a  rhinoceros  with  a  projecting  tooth, 

dente  adverse  eminulo  hie  est 

(117f.  ed.  Marx.) 

while  the  four  disfiguring  lines  (82-85)  are  parallel  to 
a  similar  incident  recorded  by  LuciUus.  This  close 
dependence  of  Horace  upon  Lucihus  throughout  is 
clearly  sho^vn  both  by  Lejay,  in  his  introduction  to 
this  Satire,  and  by  Fiske  in  his  LuciUus  and  Horace, 
pp.  306  ff. 

Professor  Tenney  Frank,  in  Classical  Philology, 
XV.  (1920)  p.  393,  has  made  the  plausible  suggestion 
that  Heliodorus,  the  rhetor,  Graecorum  longe  doctis- 
simus,  of  11.  2  and  3,  is  really  Apollodorus,  who  was 
chosen  by  Julius  Caesar  to  be  the  teacher  of  Octa\ian, 
and  who  is  called  by  Wilamowitz  "  the  founder  of 
the  classical  scliool  of  Augustan  poetry."  The  name 
Apollodorus  cannot  be  used  in  hexameters,  and 
Hehos  would  be  an  easy  substitution  for  Apollo. 
This  scholar  would  have  been  a  not  unworthy  mem- 
ber of  the  distinguished  literary  group  who  accom- 
panied Maecenas  to  Brundisium. 



Egressum  magna  me  accepit^  Aricia  Roma 
hospitio  modico  ;  rhetor  comes  Heliodorus, 
Graecorum  longe^  doctissimus  :  inde  Forum  Appi, 
differtum  nautis,  cauponibus  atque  malignis. 
hoc  iter  ignavi  divisimus,  altius  ac  nos  fi 

praecinctis  unum  :   minus  est  gravis  Appia  tardis. 
hie  ego  propter  aquam,  quod  erat  deterrima,  ventri 
indico  bellum,  cenantis  haud  animo  aequo 
expectans  comites. 

lam  nox  inducere  terris 
umbras  et  caelo  difFundere  signa  parabat.  10 

tum  pueri  nautis,  pueris  convicia  nautae 
ingerere  :     "  hue    appelle  !  "     "  trecentos    inseris." 

"  ohe, 
iam  satis  est."     dum  aes  exigitur,  dum  mula  hgatur, 
tota  abit  hora.     mah  culices  ranaeque  palustres 
avertunt  somnos,  absentem  ut^  cantat  amicam         16 
multa  prolutus  vappa  nauta  atque  viator 
certatim.     tandem  fessus  dormire  viator 
incipit  ac  missae  pastum  retinacula  mulae 

^  excepitZ),  11.     *  linguae  K,IL      '  ut  omitted  by  CDK. 

"  The  "  Market  of  Appius,"  for  which  see  Acts  xxviii.  15, 
was  at  the  head  of  the  canal  which  ran  through  the  Pomptine 
marshes  to  Feronia. 

*  i.e.  from  Rome  to  Appii  Forum,  nearly  forty  miles.    The 
phrase  altius  praecinctis  means  literally  "higher  girt,"  of. 
the  Biblical  "  gird  up  your  loins." 

Satire  V    >^ 

Leaving  mighty  Rome,  I  found  shelter  in  a  modest 
inn  at  Aricia,  having  for  companion  Heliodorus  the 
rhetorician,  far  most  learned  of  all  Greeks.  Next 
came  Appii  Forum,"  crammed  with  boatmen  and 
stingy  tavern-keepers.  This  stretch ''  we  lazily  cut 
in  two,  though  smarter  travellers  make  it  in  a  single 
day  ;  the  Appian  Way  is  less  tiring,  if  taken  slowly. 
Here  owing  to  the  water,  for  it  was  \-illainous,  I 
declare  war  against  my  stomach,  and  wait  impatiently 
while  my  companions  dine. 

'  Already  night  was  beginning  to  draw  her  curtain 
over  the  earth  and  to  sprinkle  the  sky  with  stars. 
Then  slaves  loudly  rail  at  boatmen,  boatmen  at 
slaves  :  "  Bring  to  here  !  "  "  You're  packing  in 
hundreds  !  "  "  Stay,  that's  enough  !  "  What  with 
collecting  fares  and  harnessing  the  mule "  a  whole 
hour  shps  away.  Cursed  gnats  and  frogs  of  the  fens 
drive  off  sleep,  the  boatman,  soaked  in  sour  wine, 
singing  the  while  of  the  girl  he  left  behind,  and  a 
passenger  <*  taking  up  the  refrain.  The  passenger 
at  last  tires  and  falls  asleep,  and  the  lazy  boatman 

•  The  mule  was  to  pull  the  boat  through  the  canal. 

"*  Some  take  viator  to  mean  a  driver  of  the  mule  along 
the  tow-path,  but,  according  to  11.  18,  19,  it  would  seem  to 
be  the  boatman  who  drives  the  mule  and  who  drops  his 
work  to  take  a  nap  on  the  bank. 

jr  65 


nauta  piger  saxo  religat  stertitque  supinus. 

iamque  dies  aderat,  nil  cum  procedere  lintrem         20 

sentimus,  donee  cerebrosus  prosilit  unus 

ac  mulae  nautaeque  caput  lumbosque  saligno 

fuste  dolat. 

Quarta  vix  demum  exponimur  hora. 
ora  manusque  tua  lavimus,  Feronia,  lympha. 
milia  turn  pransi  tria  repimus  atque  subimus  25 

impositum  saxis  late  candentibus  Anxur. 
hue  venturus  erat  Maecenas  optimus  atque 
Cocceius,  missi  magnis  de  rebus  uterqu& 
legati,  aversos  soliti  componere  amicosf 
hie  oculis  ego  nigra  meis  collyria  lippus  30 

illinere.     interea  Maecenas  advenit  atque 
Cocceius  Capitoque  simul  Fonteius,  ad  unguem 
factus  homo,  Antoni  non  ut  magis  alter  amicus. 

Fundos  Aufidio  Lusco  praetore  libenter 
linquimus,  insani  ridentes  praemia  scribae,  35 

praetextam  et  latum  clavum  prunaeque  vatillum. 
in  Mamurrarum  lassi  deinde  urbe  manemus, 
Murena  praebente  domum,  Capitone  culinam. 
postera^  lux  oritur  multo  gratissima  :  namque 
Plotius  et  Varius^  Sinuessae  Vergiliusque  40 

occurrunt,  animae  qualis  neque  candidiores 
terra  tulit,  neque  quis  me  sit  devinctior  alter. 

^  proxima  a.  *  varus  K,  II. 

<»  The  word  soliti  implies  at  least  one  previous  experience 
of  this  sort  and  probably  refers  to  the  treaty  of  Brundisium, 
40  B.C. 

*  The  Latin  expression  involves  a  metaphor  from  sculpture, 
for  the  artist  would  pass  his  finger-nail  over  the  marble,  to 
test  the  smoothness  of  its  joints. 

«  The  chief  official  at  Fundi   was   doubtless  an  aedile 


SATIRES,  I.  V.  19-42 

turns  his  mule  out  to  graze,  ties  the  reins  to  a  stone, 
and  drops  a-snoring  on  his  back.  Day  was  now 
da\vning  when  we  find  that  our  craft  was  not  under 
way,  until  one  hot-headed  fellow  jumps  out,  and  >vith 
willow  cudgel  bangs  mule  and  boatman  on  back  and 

23  At  last,  by  ten  o'clock  we  are  barely  landed, 
and  wash  face  and  hands  in  thy  stream,  Feronia. 
Then  we  breakfast,  and  crawhng  on  three  miles 
chmb  up  to  Anxur,  perched  on  her  far-gleaming 
rocks.  Here  Maecenas  was  to  meet  us,  and  noble 
Cocceius,  envoys  both  on  business  of  import,  and  old 
hands  at  setthng  feuds  between  friends."  Here  I 
put  black  ointment  on  my  sore  eyes.  Meanwhile 
Maecenas  arrives  and  Cocceius,  and  with  them 
Fonteius  Capito,  a  man  without  flaw,*  so  that  Antony 
has  no  closer  friend. 

^  Fundi,  \nth  its  "praetor""  Aufidius  Luscus,  we 
quit  with  delight,  laughing  at  the  crazy  clerk's  gew- 
gaws, his  bordered  robe,  broad  stripe,  and  pan  of 
charcoal.  Next,  wearied  out  we  stop  in  the  city 
of  the  Mamurrae,"*  Murena  proxiding  shelter  and 
Capito  the  larder.  Most  joyful  was  the  morrow's 
rising,  for  at  Sinuessa  there  meet  us  Plotius,  Varius, 
and  Virgil,  whitest  souls  earth  ever  bore,  to  whom 
none  can  be  more  deeply  attached  than  I.     O  the 

but  as  he  gave  himself  airs,  Horace  dubs  him  "  praetor." 
Aufidius,  Uke  Horace  himself,  had  once  been  a  humble 
tcriba  at  Rome.  In  his  present  exalted  position  he  wears 
a  toga  with  a  purple  border,  and  a  tunic  with  a  broad  purple 
stripe.  Burning  charcoal  is  carried  before  him,  probably 
in  case  some  ceremonial  sacrifice  is  seen  to  be  appropriate 
on  the  occasion  of  this  visit  of  Maecenas. 

"*  Mamurra,  a  notorious  favourite  of  Julius  Caesar,  came 
from  Formiae. 



o  qui  complexus  et  gaudia  quanta  fuerunt ! 
nil  ego  contulerim^  iucundo  sanus  amico. 

Proxima  Campano  ponti  quae  villula,  tectum       45 
praebuit,  et  paroehi  quae  debent  ligna  salemque. 
hinc  muli  Capuae  clitellas  tempore  ponunt. 
lusum  it  Maecenas,  dormitum  ego  Vergiliusque  : 
namque  pila  lippis  inimicum  et  ludere  crudis. 
hinc  nos  Coccei  recipit  plenissima  villa,  50 

quae  super  est  Caudi^  cauponas. 

Nunc  mihi  paucis 
Sarmenti  scurrae  pugnam  Messique  Cicirri, 
Musa,  velim  memores,  et  quo  patre  natus  uterque 
contulerit  litis.     Messi  clarum  genus  Osci ; 
Sarmenti  domina  exstat  :   ab  his  maioribus  orti        55 
ad  pugnam  venere.     prior  Sarmentus  :  "  equi  te 
esse  feri  similem  dico."     ridemus,  et  ipse 
Messius  "  accipio,"  caput  et  movet.     "  o  tua  cornu 
ni  foret  exsecto  frons,"  inquit,  "  quid  faceres,  cum 
sic  mutilus  minitaris^  ?  "     at  illi  foeda  cicatrix         60 
saetosam  laevi  frontem  turpaverat  oris. 
Campanum  in  morbum,  in  faciem  permulta  iocatus, 
pastorem  saltaret  uti  Cyclopa  rogabat  :  ' 

nil  illi  larva*  aut  tragicis  opus  esse  cothurnis 
^  praetulerim  C. 
•  caudi  BK  Porph.  :  claudi  most  itss. 
•  miniteris  DEM.  *  barba  DR. 

«  The  villula  was  probably  a  small  house  built  for  the 
convenience  of  persons  travelling  on  public  business,  where 
officers  were  stationed  whose  duty  it  was  to  provide  ordinary 
necessaries.  For  these  officers  Horace  uses  a  Greek  word 
(paroehi  from  irap^x^tv),  the  regular  Latin  word,  according 
to  Porphyrio,  being  copiarii. 

*  In  mock-heroic  style  Horace  describes  a  battle  of  wit 
between  two  buffoons,  one  of  whom,  Sarmentus,  is  a  freed- 
man  of  Maecenas,  while  the  other,  Cicirrus,  or  "  game-cock," 
is  of  the  native  Oscan  stock  of  Samnium. 


Satires,  i.  v.  43-64 

embracing  !  O  the  rejoicing  !  Nothing,  so  long  as 
I  am  in  my  senses,  would  I  match  \\ith  the  joy 
a  friend  may  bring. 

•*  The  little  house  close  to  the  Campanian  bridge 
put  a  roof  above  our  heads,  and  the  state-purveyors," 
as  in  duty  bound,  furnished  fuel  and  salt.  Next, 
at  Capua,  our  mules  lay  aside  their  saddle-bags  at 
an  early  hour.  Maecenas  goes  off  to  ball-playing, 
V'irgil  and  I  to  sleep,  for  such  play  is  hard  on  the 
sore-eyed  and  the  dyspeptic.  Another  stage,  and  we 
are  t^en  in  at  the  well-stocked  villa  of  Cocceius, 
lying  above  the  inns  of  Caudium. 

^^  Now,  O  Muse,  recount  in  brief  the  contest  of 
Sarmentus  the  jester  and  Messius  Cicirrus,  and  the 
lineage  of  the  two  who  engaged  in  the  fray.*  Messius 
was  of  famous  stock,  an  Oscan  ;  the  mistress  of 
Sarmentus  is  still  hving  :  from  such  ancestry  sprung,* 
they  entered  the  lists.  And  first  Sarmentus  :  "  You, 
I  say,  are  Uke  a  wild  horse."  We  laugh,  and  Messius 
himself,  "  I  grant  you,"  and  tosses  his  head.  "  Oh  ! ' 
says  Sarmentus,  "  if  only  the  horn  had  not  been  cut 
out  of  your  forehead,  what  would  you  do,  when  you 
can  threaten,  thus  dehorned  ?  "  Now  an  unsightly 
scar  had  disfigured  the  left  side  of  his  bristly  brow. 
With  many  a  joke  on  his  Campanian  disease  •*  and 
on  his  face,  he  begged  him  to  dance  the  Cyclops 
shepherd-dance  :    he  would  need  neither  mask  nor 

•  The  scholiast  on  Juvenal,  Sat.  v.  3,  tells  us  that  a  certain 
Sarmentus  had  been  a  slave,  who  on  the  proscription  and 
death  of  his  master  Favonius  had  been  bought  by  Maecenas 
and  set  free.  If  the  Sarmentus  of  this  scene  is  the  same 
man,  the  domina  is  the  widow  of  Favonius. 

■  The  scholiast  in  Cruquius  explains  this  of  warts,  which 
left  scars  when  removed. 



multa  Gicirrus  ad  haec  :  donasset  iamne  catenam    65 
ex  voto  Laribus,  quaerebat  ;  scriba  quod  esset, 
nilo  deterius  dominae^  ius  esse  ;   rogabat 
denique,  cur  umquam  fugisset,  cui  satis  una 
farris  libra  foret,  gracili  sic  tamque  pusillo. 
prorsus  iucunde  cenam  producimus  illam.  70 

Tendimus  hinc  recta^  Beneventum ;    ubi  sedulus 
paene  macros  arsit  dum  turdos  versat  in  igni  ; 
nam  vaga  per  veterem  dilapso^  flamma  culinam 
Volcano  summum  properabat  lambere  tectum, 
convivas  avidos  cenam  servosque  timentis  76 

tum  rapere  atque  omnis  restinguere  velle  videres. 

Incipit  ex  illo  montis  Apulia  notos 
ostentare  mihi,  quos  torret*  Atabulus  et  quos 
numquam  erepsemus,  nisi  nos  vicina  Trivici 
villa  recepisset,  lacrimoso  non  sine  fumo,  80 

udos  cum  foliis  ramos  urente  camino. 
hie  ego  mendacem  stultissimus  usque  puellam 
ad  mediam  noctem  exspecto  :   somnus  tamen  aufert 
intentum  veneri  ;  tum  immundo  somnia  visu 
nocturnam  vestem  maculant  ventremque  supinom.  85 

Quattuor  hinc  rapimur  viginti  et  milia  raedis, 
mansuri  oppidulo,  quod  versu  dicere  non  est, 
signis  perfacile  est  :   venit  vilissima  rerum 
hie  aqua  ;  sed  panis  longe  pulcherrimus,  ultra 
callidus  ut  soleat  umeris  portare  viator.  90 

^  domini  C.  ^  recte  D,  //. 

»  delapso  CK,  II.  *  terret  CE. 

'  Altino  is  to-day  the  local  Apulian  term  for  the  hot 
scirocco,  which  Horace  calls  the  "  Atabulus." 

''  The  name  is  not  recorded,  at  least  correctly,  but  Horace 
has  in  mind  a  passage  in  Lucilius,  viz.  : 


SATIRES,  I.  V.  65-90 

tragic  buskin.  Much  had  Cicirrus  to  say  to  this. 
Had  he  yet,  he  inquired,  made  a  votive  offering  of 
his  chain  to  the  Lares  ?  Clerk  though  he  was,  yet 
his  mistress's  claim  was  not  less  strong.  At  the 
last  he  asked  why  he  had  ever  run  away,  since  a 
pound  of  meal  was  enough  for  one  so  lean  and  so 
puny.     Right  merrily  did  we  prolong  that  supper. 

'^  Thence  we  travel  straight  to  Beneventum,  where 
our  bustling  host  was  nearly  burned  out  while  turning 
lean  thrushes  over  the  fire.  For  as  Vulcan  slipped 
out  through  the  old  kitchen  the  vagrant  flame 
hastened  to  hck  the  roof.  Then  you  might  have  seen 
the  hungry  guests  and  frightened  slaves  snatching 
up  the  dinner,  and  all  trying  to  quench  the  blaze. 

"  From  this  point  Apulia  begins  to  show  to  my 
eyes  her  familiar  hills,  which  the  Altino  "  scorches, 
and  over  which  we  had  never  crawled  had  not  a  \'illa 
near  Trivicum  taken  us  in,  but  not  without  smoke 
that  brought  tears,  as  green  wood,  leaves  and  all, 
was  burning  in  the  stove.  Here  I,  utter  fool  that  I 
am,  await  a  faithless  girl  right  up  to  midnight. 
Then,  after  all,  sleep  carries  me  off  still  thinking 
upon  love,  and  evil  dreams  assail  me. 

®*  From  here  we  are  whirled  in  carriages  four  and 
twenty  miles,  to  spend  the  night  in  a  little  to-WTi  I 
cannot  name  in  verse,  though  'tis  quite  easy  to 
define  it  by  tokens.*  Here  water,  nature's  cheapest 
product,  is  sold,  but  the  bread  is  far  the  best  to  be 
had,  so  that  the  kno^^ing  traveller  is  wont  to  shoulder 

servorum  est  festus  dies  hie 
quern  plane  hexametro  versu  non  dicere  possis 

(vi.  228,  ed.  Marx), 
"This  is  the  slaves'   festal  day,  which  one  cannot  freely 
name  in  hexameter  verse." 



nam  Canusi  lapidosus  (aquae  non  ditior  urna), 
qui  locus  a  forti  Diomede  est  conditus  olim.^ 
flentibus  hinc  Varius  discedit  maestus  amicis. 

Inde  Rubos  fessi  pervenimus,  utpote  longum 
carpentes  iter  et  factum  corruptius  imbri.  95 

postera  tempestas  melior,  via  peior  ad  usque 
Bari  moenia  piscosi.     dein^  Gnatia  lymphis 
iratis  exstructa  dedit  risusque  iocosque, 
dum  flamma  sine  tura  liquescere  limine  sacro 
persuadere  cupit.     credat^  ludaeus  Apella,  100 

non  ego  :   namque  deos  didici  securum  agere  aevum, 
nee,  si  quid  miri  faciat  natura,  deos  id 
tristis  ex  alto  caeli  demittere*  tecto. 
Brundisium  longae  finis  chartaeque  viaeque  est. 

*  Line  92  was  deleted  by  Bentley.  *  dehinc,  //. 

»  credet  CK  Goth.  «  dimittere  BE. 

"  This  implies  that  Gnatia  had  no  springs.  Pliny  (N.H.  ii. 
Ill)  mentions  the  miracle  of  wood,  placed  on  a  sacred  stone, 
taking  fire  spontaneously.  The  stone  would  seem  to  have 
been  at  the  entrance  of  a  temple. 

*  The  Jews,  who  were  very  numerous  in  Rome  under 


SATIRES,  I.  V.  91-104 

a  load  for  stages  beyond ;  for  at  Caniisium,  a  place 
founded  long  ago  by  brave  Diomede,  it  is  gritty, 
and  as  to  water,  the  town  is  no  better  off  by  a 
jugful.  Here  Varius  leaves  us,  to  the  grief  of  his 
weeping  friends. 

^*  Thence  we  come  to  Rubi,  very  weary  after 
covering  a  long  stage  much  marred  by  the  rain. 
Next  day's  weather  was  better,  but  the  road  worse, 
right  up  to  the  walls  of  Barium,  a  fishing  town. 
Then  Gnatia,  built  under  the  wrath  of  the  water- 
nymphs,"  brought  us  laughter  and  mirth  in  its  effort 
to  convince  us  that  frankincense  melts  v\"ithout  fire 
at  the  temple's  threshold.  Apella,  the  Jew,^  may 
beheve  it,  not  I ;  for  I  "  have  learned  that  the  gods 
lead  a  care-free  life,"  *  and  if  Nature  works  any 
marvel,  the  gods  do  not  send  it  dovvn  from  their 
heavenly  home  aloft  when  in  surly  mood  ** !  Brun- 
disium  is  the  end  of  a  long  story  and  of  a  long  joiurney. 

Augustus,  were  regarded  by  the  Romans  as  peculiarly 

*  Horace  is  quoting  from  Lucretius,  De  rerum  not.  ▼.  82. 

*  Horace  uses  tristis  of  the  gods  as  Virgil  speaks  of 
Charon  as  tristis,  Aen.  \\.  315. 




This  Satire,  addressed  to  the  poet's  patron,  is  mainly 
autobiographical.  Horace,  now  an  intimate  friend 
of  Maecenas,  has  become  an  object  of  suspicion  and 
envy  to  many  people  whose  social  and  pohtical 
aspirations  were  unsatisfied.  He  therefore  disclaims 
such  ambition  for  himself,  sets  forth  the  principles 
upon  which  Maecenas  chooses  his  friends,  and  pays 
a  noble  tribute  to  his  o^ti  father,  to  whom  he  is 
indebted  for  all  that  he  is,  both  in  character  and 
education.  Himself  the  son  of  a  freedman,  he  has 
no  wish  to  change  places  with  a  man  of  patrician 
birth.  As  it  is,  he  lives  a  simple  and  care-free  life, 
and  is  far  more  happy  than  if  he  had  the  burden  of 
noble  ancestry  on  his  shoulders. 

As  this  interesting  Satire  contains  no  allusion  to 
the  Sabine  farm,  it  was  probably  composed  before 
33  B.C.,  the  year  when  Maecenas  presented  him 
with  the  estate.  In  its  subject  and  treatment  it  is 
to  be  grouped  with  the  third,  fourth,  and  tenth 
Satires.  It  is  at  once  a  defence  of  Maecenas,  who 
did  not  look  down  upon  men  of  lowly  birth,  and  of 
the  poet  himself,  who  is  not  ashamed  of  his  hiunble 
origin,  but  is  proud  of  his  freedman  father,  who  had 
given  him  the  intellectual  and  moral  training  which 
won  for  him  a  place  in  the  circle  of  his  patron. 

For  the  influence  of  LuciUus  upon  this  Satire  see 
Introduction  C. 



Non  quia,  Maecenas,  Lydorum  quidquid  Etruscos 
incoluit  finis,  nemo  generosior  est  te, 
nee  quod  avus  tibi  maternus  fuit  atque  paternus, 
olim  qui  magnis  legionibus  imperitarent,^ 
ut  plerique  solent,  naso  suspendis  adunco  6 

ignotos,2  ut^  me  libertino  patre  natum.* 

Cum  referre  negas  quali  sit  quisque  parente 
natus,  dum  ingenuus,  persuades  hoc  tibi  vere, 
ante  potestatem  Tulli  atque  ignobile  regnum 
multos  saepe  viros  nullis  maioribus  ortos  10 

et  vixisse  probos,  amplis  et  honoribus  auctos  ; 
contra  Laevinum,  Valeri  genus,  unde  Superbus 
Tarquinius  regno  pulsus^  fugit,  unius  assis 
non  umquam  pretio  pluris  licuisse,  notante 
iudice  quo  nosti  populo,  qui  stultus  honores  15 

saepe  dat  indignis  et  famae  servit  ineptus, 
qui  stupet  in  titulis  et  imaginibus.     quid  oportet 
nos  facere  a  volgo  longe  longeque®  remotos  ? 

Namque  esto,  populus  Laevino  mallet  honorem 

^  imperitarint,  I,  accepted  by  Vollmer. 

*  ignoto  Palmer.        *  ut  D:  aut  aM,  II;  aut  ut  C:  at  ut  E. 

*  natus  or  natos  aCDE. 

*  pulsus  regno  CK.  *  lateque  Goth. 

"  Cf.  Odes,  i.  1.  1.  The  Etruscans,  according  to  the 
tradition  commonly  accepted  in  antiquity,  came  from  Lydia. 

''  The  reference  is  to  Servius  Tuliius,  the  sixth  king  of 
Rome,  said  to  have  been  the  son  of  a  female  slave.  See, 
however,  Livy,  i.  39.  5. 


Satire  VI    "-^ 

Though  of  all  the  Lydians  that  are  settled  in  Tuscan 
lands  none  is  of  nobler  birth  than  you,"  and  though 
grandsires  of  yours,  on  your  mother's  and  father's 
side  alike,  conunanded  mighty  legions  in  days  of  old, 
yet  you,  Maecenas,  do  not,  hke  most  of  the  world, 
curl  up  your  nose  at  men  of  unknown  birth,  men  hke 
myself,  a  freedman's  son. 

'  ^\^len  you  say  it  matters  not  who  a  man's  parent 
is,  if  he  be  himself  free-born,  you  rightly  satisfy 
yourself  of  this,  that  before  the  reign  of  Tulhus  and 
his  lowly  kingship,''  numbers  of  men,  sprung  from 
ancestors  of  no  account,  often  hved  upright  hves  and 
were  honoured  with  high  office  ;  that  Lae\inus,  on 
the  other  hand,  descendant  of  that  Valerius  through 
whom  Tarquin  the  Proud  was  driven  from  his  throne 
to  exile,  was  never  valued  higher  by  the  price  of  a 
single  penny,  even  when  rated  by  the  people — the 
judge  you  know  so  well,  who  in  folly  often  gives 
office  to  the  unworthy,  is  stupidly  enslaved  to  fame, 
and  dazzled  by  titles  of  honour  and  waxen  masks." 
What,  then,  should  we  •*  do,  we  who  are  set  far,  far 
above  the  \Tilgar  ? 

^  For  let  us  grant  that  the  people  would  rather 

*  Waxen  masks  of  ancestors  ^^-ith  accompanying  in- 
scriptions would  imply  the  antiquity  and  nobility  of  one's 

'  The  plural  is  generic,  meaning  intelligent  and  educated 



quam  Decio  mandare  novo,  censorque  moveret       20 

Appius,  ingenuo  si  non  essem  patre  natus  : 

vel  merito,  quoniam  in  propria  non  pelle  quiessem. 

sed  fulgente  trahit  constrictos  Gloria  curru 

non  minus  ignotos  generosis.     quo  tibi,  Tilli, 

sumere  depositum  clavum  fierique  tribuno  ?  25 

invidia  accrevit,  privato  quae  minor  esset. 

nam  ut  quisque  insanus  nigris  medium  impediit^  crus 

pellibus  et  latum  demisit^  pectore  clavum, 

audit  continuo  :  "  quis  homo  hie  est^  ?  "  "  quo  patre 

natus  ?  " 
ut*  si  qui  aegrotet  quo  morbo  Barrus,  haberi  30 

et  cupiat  formosus,  eat  quacumque,  puellis 
iniciat^  curam  quaerendi  singula,  quali 
sit  facie,  sura,  quali  pede,  dente,  capillo  : 
sic  qui  promittit  civis,  urbem  sibi  curae, 
imperium  fore  et  Italiam,  delubra  deorum,  35 

quo  patre  sit  natus,  num  ignota  matre  inhonestus, 
omnis  mortalis  curare  et  quaerere  cogit.^ 
"  tune,  Syri,  Damae,  aut  Dionysi  filius,  audes 
deicere  de  saxo  civis  aut  tradere  Cadmo  ?  " 
"  at  Novius  collega  gradu  post  me  sedet  uno  :  40 

1  impediit  Porph. :   impediet  uss.  ^  dimisit  DEK. 

3  est  aDE  :   et  CK:  aut  Bentley.  *  et  0. 

'  inliciat  CK  Goth.  *  cogit^:  cogat  Af5S. 

"  A  reference  to  the  well-known  fable  of  the  Ass  in  the  Lion's 
Skin.  P.  Decius  Mus,  first  of  a  plebeian  family  to  become  a 
consul,  sacrificed  himself  in  the  Latin  war  (Livj',  viii.  9 ). 

*  The  laticlave  or  broad  stripe  (c/.  Sat.  i.  5.  36)  of  purple 
on  the  tunic  was  a  mark  of  the  senatorian  order.  Tillius, 
according  to  the  scholiasts,  was  removed  from  the  senate 


SATIRES,  I.  VT.  20-40 

give  office  to  a  Laevinus  than  to  an  unknown  Decius, 
and  that  an  Appius  as  censor  would  strike  out  my 
name  if  I  were  not  the  son  of  a  free-born  father — 
and  quite  rightly,  for  not  having  stayed  quiet  in  my 
own  skin."  The  truth  is,  Vanity  drags  all,  bound 
to  her  gUttering  car,  the  unkno^^'n  no  less  than  the 
well  known.  What  good  was  it  to  you,  TilUus,  to 
assume  the  stripe  once  doffed  and  become  a  tribune  ?  ' 
Envy  fastened  on  you  afresh,  but  would  be  less, 
were  you  in  a  private  station.  For  as  soon  as  any 
man  is  so  crazy  as  to  bind  the  black  thongs  half  way 
up  his  leg,*  and  to  drop  the  broad  stripe  dowTi  his 
breast,  at  once  he  hears  :  "  What  fellow  is  this  ? 
What  was  his  father  ?  "  Just  as,  if  one  should 
suffer  from  the  same  malady  as  Barrus,  and  long  to 
be  thought  handsome,  then  wherever  he  went  he 
would  make  the  girls  eager  to  ask  about  details — 
what  his  face  was  like,  his  ankle,  his  foot,  his  teeth, 
his  hair  :  so  he  who  takes  it  upon  himself  to  look 
after  his  fellow-citizens  and  the  city,  the  empire 
and  Italy  and  the  temples  of  the  gods,  compels  aU 
the  world  to  take  an  interest,  and  to  ask  who  was 
his  father,  and  whether  he  is  dishonoured  through 
an  unknown  mother.  "  Do  you,  the  son  of  a  S}tus, 
a  Dama,  a  Dionysius,'*  dare  to  fling  from  the  rock* 
or  to  hand  over  to  Cadmus  citizens  of  Rome  ?  " 
"  But,"  you  say,  "  Novius,  my  colleague,  sits  one  row 

by  Julius  Caesar,  but  after  the  Dictator's  death  resumed 
this  dignity  and  also  became  a  military  tribune. 

*  Senators  wore  a  peculiar  shoe,  fastened  by  four  black 
thongs  bound  about  the  leg. 

*  These  are  common  slave-names. 

'  i.e.  the  Tarpeian  rock  from  which  criminals  were 
sometimes  thrown  by  order  of  a  tribune.  Cadmus  was  a 
public  executioner. 



namque  est  ille,  pater  quod  erat  meus."     "  hoc  tibi 

et  Messalla  videris  ?     at  hie,  si  plostra  ducenta 
concurrantque  foro  tria  funera  magna,  sonabit^ 
cornua  quod  vincatque  tubas  :  saltern  tenet  hoc  nos." 

Nunc  ad  me  redeo  hbertino  patre  natum,  45 

quem  rodunt  onines  hbertino  patre  natum,^ 
nunc,  quia  sim^  tibi,  Maecenas,  convictor,  at  ohm, 
quod  mihi  pareret  legio  Romana  tribuno. 
dissimile  hoc  ihi  est,  quia  non,  ut  forsit  honorem 
iure  mihi  invideat  quivis,  ita  te  quoque  amicum,      50 
praesertim  cautum  dignos  adsumere,  prava 
ambitione  procul.     fehcem  dicere  non  hoc 
me  possim,*  casu  quod  te  sortitus  amicum  : 
nulla  etenim  mihi  te  fors  obtulit ;  optimus  olim 
Vergilius,  post  hunc  Varius,  dixere  quid  essem.       55 
ut  veni  coram,  singultim  pauca  locutus, 
infans  namque  pudor  prohibebat  plura  profari, 
non  ego  me  claro  natum  patre,  non  ego  circum 
me  Satureiano  vectari  rura  caballo, 
sed  quod  eram  narro.     respondes,  ut  tuus  est  mos,  60 
pauca  :  abeo,  et  revocas  nono  post  mense  iubesque 
esse  in  amicorum  numero.     magnum  hoc  ego  duco, 
quod  placui  tibi,  qui  turpi  secernis  honestum 
non  patre  praeclaro,  sed  vita  et  pectore  puro. 

Atqui  si  vitiis  mediocribus  ac  mea^  paucis  65 

*  funera,  magna  sonabit ;  so  Palmer,  Wickham,  Vollmer. 

*  natus  aD.  "  sum  D. 

*  possunt  com.  Cruq.,  Bentley.  *  aut  mea,  //. 

«  Seats  in  the  theatre  were  assigned  according  to  rank, 
knights  occupying  the  first  fourteen  rows,  and  the  senators 
the  orchestral  space. 

*  Horace  was  a  tribune  in  the  army  of  Brutus,  but  each 
legion  had  six  tribunes. 


SATIRES,  I.  VI.  41-65 

behind  me,"  for  he  is  only  what  my  father  was." 
"  Do  you  therefore  fancy  yourself  a  Paulus  or  a 
Messala  ?  Why,  this  Novius,  if  two  hundred  carts 
and  three  big  funerals  come  clashing  in  the  Forum, 
will  shout  loud  enough  to  drown  horns  and  trumpets  : 
that  at  least  takes  with  us." 

\*^  Now  to  return  to  myself,  "  son  of  a  freedman 
father,"  whom  all  carp  at  as  "  son  of  a  freedman 
father" — now,  because  I  consort  with  you,  Maecenas ; 
but  in  other  days,  because  as  tribune  I  had  a  Roman 
legion  under  my  command.''  This  case  and  that  are 
different,  for  though  perchance  anyone  may  rightly 
grudge  me  the  office,  yet  he  should  not  grudge  me 
your  friendship  as  well — the  less  so,  as  you  are 
cautious  to  choose  as  friends  only  the  worthy,  who 
stand  aloof  from  base  self-seeking.  Fortunate  I  could 
not  call  myself  as  having  won  your  friendship  by  some 
chance  ;  for  'twas  no  case  of  luck  throwing  you  in  my 
way ;  that  best  of  men,  Virgil,  some  time  ago,  and  after 
him  V'arius,  told  you  what  manner  of  man  I  was. 
On  coming  into  your  presence  I  said  a  few  faltering 
words,  for  speechless  shame  stopped  me  from  saying 
more.  My  tale  was  not  that  I  was  a  famous  father's 
son,  not  that  I  rode  about  my  estate  on  a  Saturian  " 
steed :  I  told  you  what  I  was.  As  is  your  way,  you 
answered  little  and  I  withdrew ;  then,  nine  months 
later,  you  sent  for  me  again  and  bade  me  join  your 
friends.  I  count  it  a  great  honour  that  I  pleased  you, 
who  discern  between  fair  and  foul,  not  by  a  father's 
fame,  but  by  blamelessness  of  life  and  heart. 

*^  And  yet,  if  the  flaws  that  mar  my  otherwise 

sound  nature  are  but  trifling  and  few  in  number, 

*  i.e.  Tarentine,  Saturium   being  the  district  in   which 

Tarentum   was  founded.     The  adjective  belongs  quite  as 

much  to  rura  as  to  caballo. 

Q  81 


mendosa  est  natura,  alioqui^  recta,  velut  si 

egregio  inspersos  reprehendas  corpore  naevos, 

si  neque  avaritiam  heque  sordes  nec^  mala  lustra 

obiciet  vere  quisquam  mihi,  purus  et  insons, 

ut  me  collaudem,  si  et  vivo  carus  amieis  ;  70 

causa  fuit  pater  his,  qui  macro  pauper  agello 

noluit  in  Flavi  ludum  me  mittere,  magni 

quo  pueri  magnis  e'  centurionibus  orti, 

laevo  suspensi  loculos  tabulamque  lacerto, 

ibant  octonos  referentes  Idibus  aeris,*  75 

sed  puerum  est  ausus  Romam  portare,  docendum 

artis,  quas  doceat  quivis  eques  atque  senator 

semet  prognatos.     vestem  servosque  sequentis, 

in  magno  ut  populo,  si  qui^  vidisset,  avita 

ex  re  praeberi  sumptus  mihi  crederet  illos.  80 

ipse  mihi  custos  incorruptissimus  omnis 

circum  doctores  aderat.^  quid  multa  ?     pudicum, 

qui  primus  virtutis  honos,  servavit^  ab  omni 

non  solum  facto,  verum  opprobrio  quoque  turpi ; 

nee  timuit,  sibi  ne  vitio  quTs^  verteret,  olim  85 

si  praeco  parvas  aut,  ut  fuit  ipse,  coactor 

mercedes  sequerer  :    neque  ego  essem  questus  :    at 

hoc''  nunc 
laus  illi  debetur  et  a  me  gratia  maior^ 

Nil  me  paeniteat  sanum  patris  huitis,  eoque 
non,  ut  magna  dolo  factum  negat  esse  suo  pars,      90 
quod  non  ingenuos  habeat  clarosque  parentis, 
sic  me  defendam.     longe  mea  discrepat  istis 

^  alioquin,  /,  hut  cf.  Sat.  i.  4.  4. 
•  nee  (mala)  V:  ac  mss.  :  aut  Porph.,  Bentley.  '  et  a. 

*  octonis  .  .  .  aera  M,  II,  retained  by  Wickham. 
^  si  quis  K,  Goth. *  servabat,  II. ^  ad  hoc  n^s. 

"  The  pupils  paid  their  small  school  fee  on  the  Ides  of 
each  month.  The  reading  octonis  would  imply  that  the 
school-year  lasted  eight  months. 


SATIRES,  T.  VT.  66-92 

even  as  you  might  find  fault  with  moles  spotted  over 
a  comely  person — if  no  one  "will  justly  lay  to  my 
charge  avarice  or  meanness  or  lewdness ;  if,  to  venture 
on  self-praise,  my  hfe  is  free  from  stain  and  guilt  and 
I  am  loved  by  my  friends — I  owe  this  to  my  father, 
who,  though  poor  with  a  starvehng  farm,  would  not 
send  me  to  the  school  of  Fla\-ius,  to  w^hich  grand  boys 
used  to  go,  sons  of  grand  centurions,  with  slate  and 
satchel  slung  over  the  left  arm,  each  carrying  his 
eightpence  on  the  Ides"  —  nay,  he  boldly  took  his 
boy  off  to  Rome,  to  be  taught  those  studies  that  any 
knight  or  senator  would  have  his  own  offspring 
taught.  Anyone  who  saw  my  clothes  and  attendant 
slaves — as  is  the  way  in  a  great  city  * — would  have 
thought  that  such  expense  was  met  from  ancestral 
wealth.  He  himself,  a  guardian  true  and  tried,  went 
with  me  among  all  my  teachers.  Need  I  say  more  ? 
He  kept  me  chaste — and  that  is  virtue's  first  grace — 
free  not  only  from  every  deed  of  shame,  but  from  all 
scandal.  He  had  no  fear  that  some  day,  if  I  should 
follow  a  small  trade  as  crier  or  like  himself  as  tax- 
collector,  somebody  would  count  this  to  his  discredit. 
Nor  should  I  have  made  complaint,  but,  as  it  is,  for 
this  I  owe  him  praise  and  thanks  the  more.  | 

^  Never  while  in  my  senses  could  I  be  ashamed 
of  such  a  father,  and  so  I  will  not  defend  myself,  as 
would  a  goodly  nmnber,who  say  it  is  no  fault  of  theirs 
that  they  have  not  free-born  and  famous  parents. 
Far  different  from  this  is  what  I  say  and  what  I  think : 

*  I  take  this  to  mean  that  on  going  to  Rome  Horace's 
father  did  as  the  Romans  did.  At  Venusia  Horace  would 
have  gone  unattended,  carrying  liis  own  books.  Some,  how- 
ever, take  the  words  in  magno  ut  populo  with  vidisset,  i.e. 
"  had  anyone  noticed — so  far  «s  one  could  notice  such  things 
in  a  great  throng." 



et  vox  et  ratio  :  nam  si  natura  iuberet 

a  certis  annis  aevum  remeare  peractum 

atque  alios  legere  ad  fastum  quoscumque  parentis  95 

optaret  sibi  quisque,^  meis  contentus  honestos^ 

fascibus  et  sellis  nollem  mihi  sumere,  demens 

iudicio  volgi,  sanus  fortasse  tuo,  quod 

nollem  onus  baud  umquam  solitus  portare  molestum. 

nam  mihi  continuo  maior  quaerenda  foret  res  100 

atque  salutandi  plures,  ducendus  et  unus 

et  comes  alter,  uti  ne  solus  rusve  peregreve' 

exirem,  plures  calones  atque  caballi 

pascendi,  ducenda  petorrita.     nunc  mihi  curto 

ire  licet  mulo  vel  si  libet  usque  Tarentum,  105 

mantica  cui  lumbos  onere  ulceret  atque  eques  armos  : 

obiciet  nemo  sordes  mihi,  quas  tibi,  Tilli, 

cum  Tiburte  via  praetorem  quinque  sequuntur 

te  pueri,  lasanum  portantes  oenophorumque. 

hoc  ego  commodius  quam  tu,  praeclare  senator,     110 

milibus  atque  aliis  vivo. 

Quacumque  libido  est, 
incedo  solus  ;  percontor  quanti  bolus  ac  far  ; 
fallacem  Circum  vespertinumque*  pererro 
saepe  Forum  ;  adsisto  divinis  ;  inde  domum  me 
ad  porri  et  ciceris  refero  laganique  catinum.  115 

cena  ministratur  pueris  tribus,  et  lapis  albus 
pocula  cum  cyatho  duo  sustinet ;   adstat  echinus 
vilis,  cum  patera  gutus,  Campana  supellex. 
deinde  eo  dormitum,  non  sollicitus  mihi  quod  eras 

*  si  quisque,  II.  *  (h)onustos. 

■  peregre  aut  M8S.:  Housman  conjectures  ne  rus  solusve 
peregre.  *  vespertinusque. 

"  The  fasces  were  insignia  of  the  consuls  and  praetors ; 
the  curule  sellae  were  a  privilege  of  the  aediles  and  censors 
as  well. 


SATIRES,  I.  VI.  93-119 

for  if  after  a  given  age  Nature  should  call  upon  us  to 
traverse  our  past  lives  again,  and  to  choose  in  keeping 
with  our  pride  any  other  parents  each  might  crave — 
content  >\ith  my  own,  I  should  dechne  to  take  those 
adorned  with  the  rods  and  chairs  of  state."  And 
though  the  world  would  deem  me  mad,  you,  I  hope, 
would  think  me  sane  for  dechning  to  shoulder  a 
burden  of  trouble  to  which  I  have  never  been  ac- 
customed. For  at  once  I  should  have  to  enlarge  my 
means,  to  welcome  more  callers,  to  take  one  or  two 
in  my  company  so  as  not  to  go  abroad  or  into  the 
country  alone ;  I  should  have  to  keep  more  pages 
and  ponies,  and  take  a  train  of  wagons.  To-day,  if 
I  will,  I  may  go  on  a  bob-tailed  mule  even  to  Taren- 
tum,  the  saddle-bag's  weight  galhng  his  loins,  and 
the  rider  his  withers.  No  one  will  taunt  me  with 
meanness  as  he  does  you,  praetor  Tillius,^  when  on 
the  Tibur  road  five  slaves  follow  you,  carrying  a 
commode  and  case  of  wine.  In  this  and  a  thousand 
other  ways  I  live  in  more  comfort  than  you,  illustrious 

^^  Wherever  the  fancy  leads,  I  saunter  forth  alone. 
I  ask  the  price  of  greens  and  flour  ;  often  toward 
evening  I  stroll  round  the  cheating  Circus  *  and  the 
Forum.  I  listen  to  the  fortune-tellers ;  then  home- 
ward betake  me  to  my  dish  of  leeks  and  peas  and 
fritters.  My  supper  is  served  by  three  boys,  and  a 
white  stone-slab  supports  two  cups  with  a  ladle.  By 
them  stand  a  cheap  salt-cellar,  a  jug  and  saucer  of 
Campanian  ware.  Then  I  go  off  to  sleep,  untroubled 
with  the  thought  that  I  must  rise  early  on  the  morrow 

'  Apparently  the  man  mentioned  in  1.  24  above. 
*  The  stalls  in  the  outer  wall  of  the  Circus  Maximus  were 
used  by  fortune-tellers,  confidence-men,  and  the  like. 



surgendum  sit  mane,  obeundus  Marsya,  qui  se       120 

voltum  ferre  negat  Noviorum  posse  minoris. 

ad  quartam  iaceo  ;  post  banc  vagor  ;   aut  ego,  lecto 

aut  scripto  quod  me  taciturn  iuvet,  unguor  olivo, 

non  quo  fraudatis  immundus  Natta  lucernis. 

ast  ubi  me  fessum  sol  acrior  ire  lavatum  125 

admonuit,  fugio  Campum  lusumque  trigonem.^ 

pransus  non  avide,  quantum  interpellet  inani 

ventre  diem  durare,  domesticus  otior. 

Haec  est 
vita  solutorum  misera  ambitione  gravique  ; 
his  me  consolor  victurum^  suavius  ac  si  130 

quaestor  avus  pater  atque  meus  patruusque^  fuissent. 

^  fugio  campum  lusumque  trigonem  V^,  Goth,  (lusitque): 
fugio  rabiosi  tempora  signi  ass.  Porph.  Bannier  {in  Rh.  M. 
Ixxiii.  neue  Folge,  pp.  65  ff.)  makes  the  interesting  claim  that 
both  readings  are  correct,  the  original  passage  having  been 
such  as  the  following  : 

admonuit  fugio  campum  lusumque  trigonem 
providus  et  fugio  rabiosi  tempora  signi. 
*  victurus  Goth. 
'  For  patruus  Biicheler  conjectured  praetor. 

"  A  statue  of  the  Satyr  Marsyas  stood  in  the  Forum  near 
the  praetor's  tribunal.    The  usurer  Novius  had  his  table 


SATIRES,  I.  VI.  120-131 

and  pass  before  Marsyas,  who  says  he  cannot  stand 
the  face  of  No\aus  Junior .<»  I  he  a-bed  till  ten  ;  then 
I  take  a  stroll,  or  after  reading  or  writing  something 
tliat  will  please  me  in  quiet  moments  I  anoint  myself 
with  oil — not  such  as  filthy  Natta  steals  from  the 
lamps-  But  when  I  am  weary  and  the  fiercer  sun 
has  w^'irned  me  to  go  to  the  baths,  I  shun  the  Campus 
and  the  game  of  ball.*  After  a  slight  luncheon,  just 
enough  to  save  me  from  an  all-day  fast,  I  idle  away 
time  at  home. 

^^  Such  is  the  life  of  men  set  free  from  the  burden 
of  unhappy  ambition.  Thus  I  comfort  myself  with 
the  thought  that  I  shall  hve  more  happily  than  if  my 
grandfather  had  been  a  quaestor,  and  my  father 
and  uncle  Ukewise. 

near  by  and  so  gives  the  poet  an  opportunity  to  put  his  own 
interpretation  on  the  attitude  or  facial  expression  of  Marsyas, 
who,  after  defeat  in  a  musical  contest  with  Apollo,  was 
flayed  alive.  Extant  copies  of  Myron's  Mars5'as  show  him 
with  right  hand  uplifted  and  a  face  expressive  of  pain. 

*  The  trigo  was  a  game  of  ball  in  which  three  players 
took  part.  The  phrase  lusum  trigonem  means  properly 
"the  playing  of  ball,"  and  implies  a  transitive  use  of  lud^re 
(ef.  "  post  decisa  negotia,"  Ep.  i.  7.  59  ;  also  Sat.  ii.  3.  248). 
See  Jefferson  Elmore,  A.P.A.  xxxv.  p.  xciL 




The  incident  recorded  here  occurred,  probably  in 
43  B.C.,  at  Clazomenae  in  Asia  Minor,  when  Brutus, 
as  propraetor  of  the  Pro\'ince,  was  holding  court,  and 
Horace  was  ser\ing  as  tribune  in  his  army.  The 
poem  gives  us  a  single  scene,  a  battle  of  ^^it  between 
two  litigants,  RupiUus  Rex,  of  Praeneste,  a  man 
proscribed  by  Antony  and  Octa\'ius,  and  Persius, 
a  half-Greek,  half-Roman  merchant  of  Clazomenae. 
The  main  point  of  the  story  is  found  in  Persius'  pun 
on  the  name  Rex  (king),  which  he  cleverly  hnks  up 
with  the  propraetor  and  the  propraetor's  most 
famous  ancestor.  The  latter  had  driven  out  of  Rome 
the  ancient  Tarquin  kings,  and  Brutus  himself  had 
slain  Caesar. 

This  little  poem,  similar,  perhaps,  to  the  farcical 
and  dramatic  scenes  of  early  Satura,  is  probably  the 
first  of  Horace's  Sermones,  and  must  have  been  com- 
posed before  the  battle  of  Philippi  (42  b.c  ),  and  the 
tragic  death  of  Brutus. 



Proscripti  Regis  Rupili  pus  atque  venenum 
hybrida  quo  pacto  sit  Persius  ultus,  opinor 
omnibus  et  lippis  notum  et  tonsoribus  esse. 
Persius  hie  permagna  negotia  dives  habebat 
Clazomenis,  etiam  litis  cum  Rege  molestas,  6 

durus  homo  atque  odio  qui  posset  vincere  Regem, 
confidens,  tumidus,-"^  adeo  sermonis  amari, 
Sisennas,  Barros  ut  equis  praecurreret  albis. 

Ad  Regem  redeo.     postquam  nihil  inter  utrumque 
convenit  (hoc  etenim  sunt  omnes  iure  molesti,         10 
quo  fortes,  quibus  adversum  bellum  incidit :  inter 
Hectora  Priamiden,  animosum  atque  inter  Achillem 
ira  fuit  capitalis,  ut  ultima  divideret  mors, 
non  aliam  ob  causam,  nisi  quod  virtus  in  utroque 
summa  fuit  :   duo  si  discordia  vexet  inertis,  15 

aut  si  disparibus  bellum  incidat,  ut  Diomedi 
cum  Lycio  Glauco,  discedat  pigrior,^  ultro 
muneribus  missis),  Bruto  praetore  tenente 
ditem  Asiam,  Rupili  et  Persi  par  pugnat,  uti  non 

^  tumidusque,  II. 
'  pigrior  VKi  pulchrior  if 55. 

«  He  was  half-Greek  and  half-Roman. 


Satire  VII 

How  the  mongrel "  Persius  took  vengeance  on  the 
foul  and  venomous  Rupilius  Rex  ("  king  "),  an  out- 
lawed man,  is  a  tale  well  known,  methinks,  to  every 
blear-eyed  man  and  barber.''  This  Persius,  a  rich 
man,  had  a  very  large  business  at  Clazomenae,  also 
a  troublesome  lawsuit  with  Rex.  A  rough  man  he 
was,  the  sort  that  in  ofFensiveness  could  outdo  Rex, 
bold  and  blustering  and  so  bitter  of  speech  as  to 
outstrip  a  Sisenna  or  a  Barrus  with  the  speed  of  white 

^  To  return  to  Rex.  When  he  and  Persius  could 
come  to  no  terms — (for  quarrelsome  folk  all  claim 
the  same  right  as  heroes  who  meet  front  to  front  in 
battle  :  between  Hector,  son  of  Priam,  and  the 
wrathful  Achilles,  the  anger  was  so  deadly,  that 
death  alone  could  part  them,  and  for  this  sole  reason 
that  the  valour  of  each  was  supreme  :  if  two  cowards 
chance  to  quarrel,  or  an  ill-matched  pair  meet  in  war, 
as  Diomede  and  Lycian  Glaucus,'*  the  less  valiant 
man  gives  way  and  sends  gifts  to  boot) — well,  when 
Brutus  was  praetor  in  charge  of  rich  Asia,  Persius 

*  The  shops  of  apothecaries  and  barbers  were  favourite 
places  of  gossip. 

*  A  proverbial  expression,  white  horses  being  regarded 
as  the  swiftest  of  their  kind.     Cf.  Virgil,  Aen.  xii.  83  ff. 

•*  See  Index  under  Glaucus.  The  reference  is  to  a  famous 
scene  in  the  sixth  Iliad. 



compositum^  melius  cum  Bitho  Bacchius.    in  ius^     20 
acres  procurrunt,^  magnum  spectaculum  uterque. 

Persius  exponit  causam  ;  ridetur  ab  omni 
conventu  ;   laudat  Brutum  laudatque  cohortem  ; 
solem  Asiae  Brutum  appellat,  stellasque  salubris 
appellat  comites,  excepto  Rege  ;   Canem  ilium.      25 
invisum  agricolis  sidus,  venisse.     ruebat 
flumen  ut  hibernum,  fertur  quo  rara  securis. 
tum  Praenestinus  salso  multoque*  fluenti 
expressa  arbusto  regerit  convicia,  durus 
vindemiator  et  invictus,  cui  saepe  viator  30 

cessisset  magna  compellans  voce  cuculum. 

At  Graecus,  postquam  est  Italo  perfusus  aceto, 
Persius  exclamat  :   "  per  magnos,  Brute,  deos  te 
oro,  qui  reges  consueris  tollere,  cur  non 
hunc    Regem    iugulas  ?     operum    hoc,    mihi    crede, 
tuorum  est."  35 

^  compositus  DK.  ^  in  ius]  intus  V. 

*  procurrunt  VK,  II :  concurrunt  aDEM. 

*  multumque,  //. 

"  In  par  and  compositum  Horace  uses  terms  appropriate 
to  gladiators,  to  which  class  Bacchius  and  Bithus  belonged. 

''  i.e.  in  some  mountain  gorge,  which  wood-choppers 
cannot  enter. 


SATIRES,  I.  VII.  20-35 

and  Rupilius  clashed,  a  pair  «  not  less  well  matched 
than  Bacchius  and  Bithus.  Keenly  they  rush  into 
court,  each  wondrous  to  behold. 

^2  Persius  sets  forth  his  case  :  all  the  assembly 
laugh.  He  praises  Brutus,  he  praises  his  staff.  The 
"  sun  of  Asia  "  he  calls  Brutus,  and  "  healthful 
stars  "  his  suite — all  except  Rex,  who  had  come  like 
tlie  Dog-star,  hated  of  husbandmen.  On  he  rushed 
like  some  winter  torrent,  whither  the  axe  is  seldom 
borne.*  Then,  in  answer  to  his  full  flood  of  wit,  the 
man  of  Praeneste  flings  back  abuse,  the  very  essence 
of  the  vineyard,  like  some  vine-dresser,  tough  and 
invincible,  to  whom  the  wayfarer  has  often  had  to 
yield,  when  loudly  hooting  at  him  "  Cuckoo  !  "  * 

^2  But  the  Greek  Persius,  now  soused  with  Italian 
vinegar,  cries  out  :  "  By  the  great  gods,  I  implore 
you,  O  Brutus,  since  it  is  in  your  line  to  take  off 
"  kings,"  why  not  behead  this  Rex  ?  <*  This,  believe 
me,  is  a  task  meet  for  you." 

•  In  calling  out  "  Cuckoo  !  "  the  passer-by  implies  that 
the  vine-dresser  is  late  in  his  pruning,  which  should  be 
finished  before  the  cuckoo  arrives  in  the  spring. 

■*  It  was  a  Brutus  who  had  driven  out  the  Tarquins,  and 
it  was  a  Brutus  who  had  slain  Caesar. 




Horace  lays  the  scene  of  this  incident  in  that  part 
of  the  Esquihne  which  lay  outside  the  famous  Agger, 
or  Mound  of  Servius,  on  the  north-east  side  of  Rome. 
In  this  district  there  had  long  been  a  burial-place, 
used  especially  for  criminals  and  paupers,  where, 
among  the  tombs,  witches  practised  their  weird  and 
infernal  rites.  Here,  however,  Maecenas,  co-operating 
with  Augustus  in  the  work  of  city  improvement,  had 
laid  out  beautiful  gardens,  in  which  he  later  built 
himself  a  palace  with  a  conspicuous  tower." 

The  incident  must  be  supposed  to  have  occurred 
before  the  transformation  from  a  squalid  and  repul- 
sive site  had  been  completed.  A  wooden  statue, 
however,  of  Priapus,  the  god  of  gardens,  had  abeady 
been  set  up. 

The  gruesome  story  of  the  witches'  incantations 
comes  to  a  ridiculous  end  when  the  wood  of  the 
statue  cracked,  and  the  noise  of  the  explosion  drove 
the  hags  away  in  terror. 

The  Satire  is  closely  connected  in  subject  with 
Epodes  5  and  17.  Virgil's  eighth  Eclogue  may  also 
be  compared,  as  well  as  the  three  Priapea  to  be 
found  among  the  minor  poems  attributed  to  Virgil. 

"  Cf.  "molem  propinquam  nubibus  arduis,"  Odes  ill. 
29.  10. 



Olim  truncus  eram  ficulnus,  inutile  lignum, 
cum  faber,  incertus  scamnum  faceretne  Priapum, 
maluit  esse  deum.     deus  inde  ego,  furum  aviumque 
maxima  formido  ;   nam  fures  dextra  coercet 
obscenoque  ruber  porrectus  ab  inguine  palus  ;  5 

ast  importunas  volucres  in  vertice  harundo 
terret  fixa  vetatque  novis  considere  in  hortis. 
hue  prius  angustis  eiecta  cadavera  cellis 
conservus  vili^  portanda  locabat  in  area  ; 
hoc  miserae  plebi  stabat  commune  sepulcrum,         10 
Pantolabo  scurrae  Nomentanoque  nepoti. 
mille  pedes  in  fronte,  trecentos  cippus  in  agrum 
hie  dabat,  heredes  monumentum  ne  sequeretur.^ 
nunc  licet  Esquiliis  habitare  salubribus  atque 
Aggere  in  aprico  spatiari,  quo^  modo  tristes  15 

albis  informem  spectabant  ossibus  agrum  ; 

*  vilis  K,  II.        '  sequerentur  K,  IL        '  qua  Bentley. 

«  Cf.  Isaiah  xliv.  10  ff.,  especially  17  "  and  the  residue 
thereof  he  maketh  a  god." 

*  A  wooden  statue  of  Priapus,  the  garden-god,  was  used 
as  a  scarecrow. 

«  On  the  Esquiline  Hill,  just  outside  the  Servian  Wall,  was  a 
cemetery  largely  used  for  the  pauper  and  criminal  classes. 
Here,  however,  Maecenas  laid  out  his  Horti,  or  gardens, 
which  became  one  of  the  beauty-spots  of  Imperial  Rome. 

<*  This  verse  may  come  from  Lucilius.  It  is  repeated  in 
Sat.  ii.  1.  22  and  Nomentanus  is  mentioned  in  Sat.  i.  1.  102. 


Satire  VIII 

Once  I  was  a  fig- wood  stem,  a  worthless  log,  when 
the  carpenter,  doubtful  whether  to  make  a  stool  or  a 
Priapus,  chose  that  I  be  a  god."  A  god,  then,  I 
became,  of  thieves  and  birds  the  special  terror*  ;  for 
thieves  my  right  hand  keeps  in  check,  and  this  red 
stake,  protruding  from  unsightly  groin  ;  while  for 
the  mischievous  birds,  a  reed  set  on  my  head  affrights 
them  and  keeps  them  from  hghting  in  the  new  park." 
Hither  in  other  days  a  slave  would  pay  to  have  carried 
on  a  cheap  bier  the  carcasses  of  his  fellows,  cast  out 
from  their  narrow  cells.  Here  was  the  common 
burial-place  fixed  for  pauper  folk,  for  Pantolabus 
the  parasite,  and  spendthrift  Nomentanus.''  Here  a 
pillar  assigned  a  thousand  feet  frontage  and  three 
hundred  of  depth,  and  provided  that  the  graveyard 
should  pass  to  no  heirs.*  To-day  one  may  live  on 
a  wholesome  Esquihne,  and  stroll  on  the  sunny 
Rampart,^  where  of  late  one  sadly  looked  out  on 
ground  ghastly  vnth  bleaching  bones.     For  myself, 

•  Horace  puts  into  verse  form  the  common  inscription, 
which  defined  the  dimensions  of  a  plot  of  ground  assigned 
for  burial  purposes  and  often  closed  with  the  abbrevi- 
ated formula  H.  M.  H.  N.  S.  {Hoc  monument  urn  heredes  non 

'  This  is  the  famous  Agger,  an  embankment  and  fosse 
of  nearly  a  mile  in  length,  which  on  the  Esquiline  level  was 
a  part  of  the  Servian  Wall  system. 

H  97 


cum  mihi  non  tantum  furesque  feraeque  suetae 
hunc  vexare  locum  curae  sunt^  atque  labori, 
quantum  carminibus  quae  versant  atque  venenis 
humanos  animos  :   has  nullo  perdere^  possum  20 

nee  prohibere  modo,  simul  ac  vaga  Luna  decorum 
protulit  OS,  quin  ossa  legant  herbasque  nocentis. 

Vidi  egomet  nigra  succinctam  vadere  palla 
Canidiam,  pedibus  nudis  passoque  capillo, 
cum  Sagana  maiore  ululantem  :   pallor  utrasque     25 
fecerat  horrendas  aspectu.     scalpere  terram 
unguibus  et  pullam  divellere  mordicus  agnara 
coeperunt ;   cruor  in  fossam  confusus,  ut  inde 
manis  elicerent,  animas  responsa  daturas, 
lanea  et  effigies  erat,  altera  cerea  :  maior  30 

lanea,  quae  poenis  compesceret  inferiorem  ; 
cerea  suppliciter  stabat,  servilibus  ut  quae 
iam  peritura  modis,     Hecaten  vocat  altera,  saevam 
altera  Tisiphonen  :   serpentes  atque  videres 
infernas  errare  canes,  Lunamque  rubentem,  35 

ne  foret  his  testis,  post  magna  latere  sepulcra. 
mentior  at  si  quid,  merdis  caput  inquiner  albis 
corvorum,  atque  in  me  veniat  mictum  atque  cacatum 
lulius  et  fragilis  Pediatia  furque  Voranus. 
singula  quid  memorem,  quo  pacto  alterna  loquentes  40 
umbrae  cum  Sagana  resonarint^  triste  et  acutum, 
utque  lupi  barbam  variae  cum  dente  colubrae 
abdiderint  furtim  terris,  et  imagine  cerea 
largior  arserit  ignis,  et  ut  non  testis  inultus 

^  sint  D.  *  pellere  Heinsiua. 

^  resonarint  Bentley  :  resonarent  uss. 

*•  The  passage  is  mock-heroic  and  based  upon  the  famous 
scene  in  the  eleventh  book  of  the  Odyssey  (36  ff.),  where  the 
blood  poured  into  a  trench  brought  the  spirits  up  from 

SATIRES,  I.  viii.  17-44 

'tis  not  so  much  the  tliieves  and  beasts  wont  to 
infest  the  place  that  cause  me  care  and  trouble,  as 
the  witches  who  with  spells  and  drugs  vex  human 
souls  :  these  in  no  >vise  can  I  bring  to  naught  or 
stop  from  gathering  bones  and  harmful  herbs,  as 
soon  as  the  roving  Moon  has  uplifted  her  beauteous 

^  My  own  eyes  have  seen  Canidia  walk  with 
black  robe  tucked  up,  her  feet  bare,  her  hair  dis- 
hevelled, shrieking  ^vith  the  elder  Sagana.  Their 
sallow  hue  had  made  the  two  hideous  to  behold. 
Then  they  began  to  dig  up  the  earth  with  their  nails, 
and  to  tear  a  black  lamb  to  pieces  with  their  teeth  ; 
the  blood  was  all  poured  into  a  trench,  that  there- 
from they  might  draw  the  sprites,  souls  that  would 
give  them  answers."  One  image  there  was  of  wool, 
and  one  of  wax,  the  woollen  one  the  larger,  to  curb 
and  punish  the  smaller  ;  the  waxen  stood  in  suppliant 
guise,  as  if  awaiting  death  in  sla\ish  fashion.  One 
witch  calls  on  Hecate,  the  other  on  fell  Tisiphone. 
You  might  see  serpents  and  hell-hounds  roaming 
about,  and  the  blushing  Moon,  that  she  might  not 
\%itness  such  deeds,  hiding  behind  the  tall  tombs. 
Nay,  if  I  lie  in  aught,  may  my  head  be  defiled  by 
ravens'  white  ordure,  and  may  Julius  and  the  weak- 
hng  Pediatia  and  the  thief  Voranus  come  to  water 
and  befoul  me  !  Why  tell  each  detail — how  in  con- 
verse with  Sagana  the  shades  made  echoes  sad  and 
shrill,  how  the  two  stealthily  buried  in  the  ground  a 
wolf's  beard  and  the  tooth  of  a  spotted  snake,*  how 
the  fire  blazed  higher  from  the  image  of  wax,  and 
how  as  witness  I  shuddered  at  the  words  and  deeds 

*  With  this  passage  cf.  the  famous  witch  scene  in  Macbeth 
IT.  i. 



horruerim  voces  Furiarum  et  facta  duarum  ?  45 

nam  displosa  sonat  quantum  vesica  pepedi 
diffissa  nate  ficus  :  at  illae  currere  in  urbem. 
Canidiae  dentes,  altum  Saganae  caliendrum 
excidere  atque  herbas  atque  incantata  lacertis 
vincula  cum  magno  risuque  iocoque  videres.  50 


SATIRES,  I.  VIII.  45-60 

of  the  two  Furies — though  not  unavenged  ?  For  as 
loud  as  the  noise  of  a  bursting  bladder  was  the 
crack  when  my  fig-wood  buttock  split.  Away  they 
ran  into  town.  Then  amid  great  laughter  and  mirth 
you  might  see  Canidia's  teeth  and  Sagana's  high  wig 
come  tumbhng  down,  and  from  their  arms  the  herbs 
and  enchanted  love-knots. 




While  taking  a  morning  stroll,  Horace  is  joined  by 
a  mere  acquaintance,  who  insists  on  accompanying 
iiim,  hoping  through  closer  intimacy  to  secure  an 
introduction  to  Maecenas.  The  poet  vainly  en- 
deavoiu-s  to  shake  him  off,  and  it  is  only  when  the 
man's  adversary  in  a  lawsuit  appears  on  the  scene — 
a  genuine  deus  ex  machina — that  Horace  is  rescued 
from  his  unhappy  position. 

The  delightful  humour,  the  skilful  dramatic  treat- 
ment of  the  theme,  and  the  poet's  well-estabhshed 
position  in  Maecenas's  circle  which  is  assiuned, 
indicate  that  this  is  one  of  the  latest  Satires,  in 
point  of  composition,  in  the  first  book.  It  may  be 
compared  with  the  sixth  Satire,  in  which  Horace 
gives  an  account  of  his  introduction  to  Maecenas. 

For  the  connexion  of  this  Satire  with  Lucilius  see 
Introduction  C. 



Ibam  forte  Via  Sacra,  sicut  meus  est  mos 
nescio  quid  meditans  nugarum,  totus  in  illis. 
accurrit^  quidam  notus  mihi  nomine  tantum, 
arreptaque  manu,  "  quid  agis,  dulcissime  rerum  ?  *' 
"  suaviter,  ut  nunc  est,"  inquam,  "  et  cupio  omnia 
quae  vis."  5 

Cum  adsectaretur,  "  num  quid  vis  ?  "  occupo.  at  ille, 
"  noris  nos,"  inquit ;  "  docti  sumus."    hie  ego, "  pluris 
hoc,"  inquam," mihi  eris."  miserediscedere quaerens, 
ire  modo  ocius,  interdum  consistere,  in  aurem 
dicere  nescio  quid  puero,  cum  sudor  ad  imos^  10 

manaret  talos.     "  o  te,  Bolane,  cerebri 
felicem  !  "  aiebam  tacitus,  cum  quidlibet  ille 
garriret,  vicos,^  urbem  laudaret. 

Ut  illi 
nil  respondebam,  "  misere  cupis,"  inquit,  "  abire  ; 
iamdudum  video  ;  sed  nil  agis  ;  usque  tenebo  ;      15 
persequar*  hinc  quo  nunc  iter  est  tibi."     "  nil  opus 
est  te 

^  occurrit. 

*  Bentley  punctuated  so  as  to  take  cum  .  .  .  manaret  with 

'  ficos,  //,  Charisius. 

*  prosequar  D,  II,  Bentley. 

"  The  Sacra  Via  was  the  oldest  and  most  famous  street  in 
Rome,  running  into  the  Forum ;  see  Via  Sacra  in  Index. 


Satire  IX 


I  was  strolling  by  chance  along  the  Sacred  Way," 
musing  after  my  fashion  ^  on  some  trifle  or  other, 
and  wholly  intent  thereon,  when  up  there  runs  a 
man  I  knew  only  by  name  and  seizes  my  hand  : 
"  How  d'ye  do,  my  dearest  fellow  ?  "  "  Pretty 
well,  as  times  are  now,"  I  answer,  "  I  hope  you  get 
all  you  want." 

*  As  he  kept  dogging  me,  I  break  in  with,  "Nothing 
you  want,  is  there  ?  "'  But  he  :  "  You  must  know 
me ;  I'm  a  scholar."  To  this  I  say,  "  Then  I'll 
esteem  you  the  more."  Dreadfully  eager  to  get 
away  I  now  walk  fast,  at  times  stop  short,  then 
whisper  a  word  in  my  slave's  ear,  wliile  the  sweat 
trickled  down  to  my  very  ankles.  "  O  Bolanus,"  I 
kept  saying  to  myself,  "  how  lucky  to  have  your 
temper  !  "  while  the  fellow  rattled  on  about  every- 
thing, praising  the  streets  and  the  city. 

^^  As  I  was  making  him  no  answer,  "  You're  dread- 
fully anxious  to  be  off,"  said  he,  "  I  have  long  seen 
that ;  but  it's  no  use,  I'll  stick  to  you  ;  I'll  stay 
with  you  to  your  joiu-ney's  end." 

"  There's  no  need  of  your  being  dragged  about ; 

^  In  view  oi  forte,  Wickham  rightly  associates  sicut  .  .  . 
mos  with  meditans,  not  with  Ham.     So  too  Lejay. 

•  The  question  num  quid  vis?  is  a  polite  formula  of 



circnmagi  :  quendam  volo  visere  non  tibi  notum  ; 
trans  Tiberim  longe  cubat  is,  prope  Gaesaris  hortos." 
"  Nil  habeo  quod  agam  et  non  sum  piger  :   usque 
sequar  te," 

Demitto  auriculas,  ut  iniquae  mentis  asellus,        20 
cum  gravius  dorso  subiit  onus.. 

Incipit  ille  : 
"  si  bene  me  novi,  non  Viscum  pluris  amicum, 
non  Varium  facies  :   nam  quis  me  scribere  pluris 
aut  citius  possit  versus  ?     quis  membra  movere 
mollius  ?  invideat  quod  et  Hermogenes,  ego^antQ." 

Interpellandi  locus  hie  erat :   "  est  tibi  mater,     26 
cognati,  quis  te  salvo  est  opus  ?  " 

"  Haud  mihi  quisquam  : 
omnis  composui." 

"  Felices  !   nunc  ego  resto. 
confice  ;   namque  instat  fatum  mihi  triste,  Sabella 
quod  puero  cecinit  divina.mota^  anus  urna  :  30 

'  hunc  neque  dira  venena  nee  hosticus  auferet  ensis 
nee  laterum  dolor  aut  tussis  nee  tarda  podagra  ; 
garrulus  hunc  quando  consumet  cumque  ;  loquaces, 
si  sapiat,  vitet,  simul  atque  adoleverit  aetas.'  " 

Ventum  erat  ad  Vestae,  quarta  iam  parte  diei     36 
praeterita,  et  casu  tunc  respondere  vadato 
debebat ;  quod  ni  fecisset,  perdere  litem. 
"  si  me  amas,"  inquit,  "  paulum  hie  ades." 

^  mota  divina  Bentley. 

<»  These  gardens,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Tiber,  were 
left  by  Juhus  Caesar  to  the  people  of  Rome. 

^  Qualifications  despised  by  Horace  ;  cf.  Sat.  i.  4.  12  fF. 
0  See  Sat.  i.  4.  72. 


SATIRES,  I.  IX.  17-38 

I  want  to  visit  a  man  you  do  not  know.  He's  ill 
abed,  a  long  way  off  across  the  Tiber,  near  Caesar's 
gardens."  " 

"  I've  nothing  to  do,  and  I'm  not  a  poor  walker ; 
I'll  keep  on  with  you  to  the  end." 

Down  drop  my  poor  ears  hke  a  sulky  donkey's, 
when  he  has  come  under  a  load  too  heavy  for  his 

^  Then  he  begins  :  "  If  I  do  not  deceive  myself, 
you  will  not  think  more  of  Viscus  or  of  Varius  as  a 
friend  than  of  me  :  for  who  can  WTite  more  verses 
or  write  more  quickly  than  I  ?  *  Who  can  dance 
more  daintily  ?  Even  Hermogenes  "  might  envy  my 

^  Here  was  my  chance  to  break  in  :  "  Have  you 
a  mother  or  kindred  who  are  dependent  upon  your 
welfare  ?  " 

~^^-Net-one  ;   I  have  laid  them  all  to  rest." 

"  O  happy  they  !  now  I  am  left.  Finish  me ;  for 
now  draws  near  to  me  that  sad  fate,  which  a  Sabine 
dame,  shaking  her  divining  urn,  sang  for  me  in  my 
boyhood : 

No  wicked  drug  shall  prove  his  end. 
No  foeman's  sword  shall  death  him  send, 
No  cough  or  pleurisy  or  gout — 
A  chatterbox  shall  talk  him  out : 
And  if  he's  wise,  as  he  grows  old. 
He'll  steer  quite  clear  of  talkers  bold. 

^  fWe  had  come  to  Vesta's  temple,  a  fourth  of 
the  day  being  now  past,  and  by  chance  at  that 
hour  he  was  due  to  give  answer  to  a  plaintiff,  on 
pain  of  losing  his  suit,  should  he  fail  to  appear. 
"  As  you  love  me,"  he  says,  "  do  help  me  here  a 
while  !  " 



"  Inteream,  si 
aut  valeo  stare^  aut  novi  civilia  iura  ; 
et  propero  quo  scis." 

"  Dubius  sum  quid  faciam,"  inquit,  40 
"  tene  relinquam   an  rem."     "  me,  sodes."     "  non 

faciam,"  ille, 
et  praecedere  coepit.    ego,  ut  contendere  durum^ 
cum  victore,  sequor. 

"  Maecenas  quomodo  tecum  ?  " 
hinc  repetit  :   "  paucorum  hominum  et  mentis  bene 

nemo  dexterius  fortuna  est  usus.     haberes  45 

magnum  adiutorem,  posset  qui  ferre  secundas, 
hunc  hominem  velles  si  tradere  ;   dispeream,  ni 
summosses  omnis." 

"  Non  isto  vivimus^  illic" 
quo  tu  rere  modo  ;  domus  hac  nee  purior  ulla  est 
nee  magis  his  aliena  malis  ;  nil  mi*  officit,  inquam,    50 
ditior  hie  aut  est  quia  doctior  ;  est  locus  uni 
cuique  suus." 

"  Magnum  narras,  vix  credibile  !  "  "  atqui^ 
sic  habet." 

"  Accendis,  quare  cupiam  magis  illi 
proximus  esse." 

"  Velis  tantummodo  :  quae  tua  virtus, 
expugnabis  ;   et  est  qui  vinci  possit,  eoque  65 

difficilis  aditus  primos  habet." 

"  Haud  mihi  deero  : 
muneribus  servos  corrumpam  ;   non,  hodie  si 
exclusus  fuero,  desistam  ;   tempora  quaeram, 

*  ista  re  Verrall.  *  durum  est.  '  vivitur. 

*  mi  omitted  by  VK  Qoth.  '  atque,  //. 


SATIRES,  I.  IX.  38-58 

"  Confound  me  if  I  either  have  strength  to  st-and 
up,"  or  know  the  laws  of  the  land  !  and  besides  I 
must  hurry,  you  know  where." 

"  I  wonder,"  said  he,  "  what  I  ought  to  do,  whether 
to  leave  my  suit  or  you."  "  Me,  I  pray  !  "  "  No,  I 
won't,"  said  he,  and  started  to  go  ahead.  As  for  me, 
since  'tis  hard  to  fight  with  one's  master,  I  follow. 

*3  "  How  stands  Maecenas  with  you,"  he  thus 
begins  afresh,  "  a  man  of  few  friends  and  right  good 
sense  ?  No  one  ever  made  wiser  use  of  his  luck. 
You  might  have  a  strong  backer,  who  could  be  your 
understudy,  if  you  would  introduce  your  humble 
servant.  Hang  me,  if  you  wouldn't  find  that  you 
had  cleared  the  field  !  " 

"  We  don't  live  there  on  such  terms  as  you  think. 
No  house  is  cleaner  or  more  free  from  such  intrigues 
than  that.  It  never  hurts  me,  I  say,  that  one 
is  richer  or  more  learned  than  I.  Each  has  his  own 

"  That's  a  strange  tale,  I  can  scarce  believe  it." 

"  And  yet  'tis  so." 

"  You  add  flame  to  my  desire  to  get  closer  to  him." 

"  You  have  only  to  wish  it  ;  such  is  your  valour, 
you  will  carry  the  fort.  He's  a  man  who  can  be  won, 
and  that  is  why  he  makes  the  first  approaches  so 

"  I'll  not  fail  myself.  I'll  bribe  his  slaves.  If 
shut  out  to-day,  I'll  not  give  up.  I'll  look  for  the 

"  As  he  would  have  to  do  in  court.  That  this  is  the 
sense  of  stare  seems  to  follow  from  valeo.  Some,  however, 
take  stare  as  a  synonym  of  adesse,  "  to  appear  in  court,"  or 
as  meaning  "  to  be  successful,"  i.e.  in  law. 



occurram  in  triviis,  deducam.     nil  sine  magno 
vita  labore  dedit  morta'ibus." 

Haec  dum  agit,  ecce  60 
Fuscus  Aristius  occurrit,  mihi  carus  et  ilium 
qui  pulchre  nosset.     consistimus.     "  unde  venis  ?  "  et 
"  quo  tendis  ?  "  rogat  tt  respondet.     vellere  coepi 
et  pressare^  manu  lentissima  braechia,  nutans, 
distorquens  oculos,  ut  me  eriperet.     male  salsus      65 
ridens  dissimulare  ;  meum  iecur  urere  bilis.^  - 
"  certe  nescio'quid  secreto  velle  loqui  te 
aiebas  mecum," 

"  Memini  bene,  sed  meliore     . 
tempore  dicam  ;   hodie  trieesima  sabbata  :   vin  tu 
Curtis  ludaeis  oppedere  ?  " 

"  Nulla  mihi,"  inquam,   70 
"  religio  est." 

"  At  mi ;  sum  paulo  infirmior,  unus 
multorum.     ignosces  ;  alias  loquar." 

Huncine  solem 
tam  nigrum  surrexe  mihi  !     fugit  improbus  ac  me 
sub  cultro  linquit. 

Casu  venit  obviu's  illi 
adversarius,  et,  "  quo  tu  turpissime  ?  "  magna         76 
inclamat  voce,  et  "  licet  antestari  ?  "     ego  vero 
oppono  auriculam.     rap^t  in  ius  ;  clamor  utrimque, 
undique  concursus.     sic  me  servavit  Apollo. 

^  pressare  BK,  Porph. :  prensare  V,  Bentley.     *  bellis,  //. 

<»  Probably  a  quotation  from  some  poet.  The  sentiment 
is  found  as  early  as  Hesiod,  Works  and  Days,  287. 

*  This  is  probably  pure  nonsense,  no  particular  Sabbath 
being  intended.  Perhaps,  however,  the  Sabbath  fell  on  the 
thirtieth  of  the  month. 

«  A  bystander,  consenting  to  act  as  witness,  allowed  the 


SATIRES,  I.  IX.  59-78 

fitting  time  ;  111  meet  him  in  the  streets  ;  I'll  escort 
him  home. 

Life  grants  no  boon  to  man  without  much  toil."  " 

^  While  he  is  thus  running  on,  lo  !  there  comes  up 
Aristius  Fuscus,  a  dear  friend  of  mine,  who  knew  the 
fellow  right  well.  We  halt.  "  Whence  come  you  ? 
Whither  go  you  ?  "  he  asks  and  answers.  I  begin  to 
twitch  his  cloak  and  squeeze  his  arms — they  were 
quite  unfeeling — nodding  and  winking  hard  for  him 
to  save  me.;  The  cruel  joker  laughed,  pretending 
not  to  understand.  I  grew  hot  with  anger.  "Surely 
you  said  there  was  something  you  wanted  to  tell  me 
in  private." 

"  I  mind  it  well,  but  I'll  tell  you  at  a  better  time. 
To-day  is  the  thirtieth  Sabbath.*  Would  you  affront 
the  circumcised  Jews  ?  " 

"  I  have  no  scruples,"  say  I. 

"  But  I  have.  I'm  a  somewhat  weaker  brother, 
one  of  the  many.  You  will  pardon  me  ;  I'll  talk 
another  day." 

To  think  so  black  a  sun  as  this  has  shone  for  me  ! 
The  rascal  runs  away  and  leaves  me  under  the  knife. 

'*  It  now  chanced  that  the  plaintiff  came  face  to 
face  ^\ith  his  opponent.  "  Where  go  you,  you 
scoundrel  ?  "  he  loudly  shouts,  and  to  me  :  "  May  I 
call  you  as  witness  ?  "  I  off"er  my  ear  to  touch.* 
He  hurries  the  man  to  court'  There  is  shouting  here 
and  there,  and  on  all  sides  a  running  to  and  fro. 
Thus  was  I  saved  by  Apollo.'* 

htigant  to  touch  the  tip  of  his  ear.     The  custom  was  an 
old  one  and  is  referred  to  in  Plautus. 

"*  Apollo  was  the  god  who  befriended  poets.  The  ex- 
pression comes,  however,  from  Homer  {Iliad,  xx.  443), 
Tov  5"  iirjpira^ev  'AjroXXuv,  words  which  Lucilius  had  also  used. 




Horace  resumes  a  discussion  of  the  main  subject 
of  his  fourth  Satire,  which  had  brought  down  con- 
siderable censure  upon  him  from  the  critics,  who 
upheld  the  excellence  of  early  Latin  poetry,  and  to 
these  he  now  makes  reply. 

He  reminds  them  that,  while  he  had  found  fault 
with  Lucilius's  verse,  he  had  also  credited  it  with  great 
satiric  power.  In  this  he  was  quite  consistent,  for 
one  may  admire  good  mimes  without  holding  them 
to  be  good  poems.  You  may  make  people  laugh, 
but  you  must  also  have  a  terse  style  and  a  proper 
mixture  of  the  grave  and  the  gay,  such  as  is  seen 
in  the  robust  writers  of  Old  Attic  Comedy,  whom 
Hermogenes  and  his  school  never  read.  But  LuciUus 
is  admired  for  his  skill  in  blending  Greek  and  Latin. 
"  Nonsense  !  "  cries  Horace,  "  such  a  mixture  is  a 
serious  blemish,  and  no  more  acceptable  in  poetry 
than  in  oratory  "  (1-30). 

The  poet  here  confesses  that  at  one  time  he  had 
thought  of  writing  in  Greek  instead  of  Latin,  but 
realized  in  time  that  this  would  be  like  carrying 
faggots  to  the  forest  (31-35). 

So  while  Bibaculus  essays  something  grand  and 
lofty,  Horace  is  less  ambitious  and  turns  to  a  more 
modest  field.  If  we  survey  contemporary  literature, 
comedy  is  pre-empted  by  Fundanius  ;  Polho  has  won 


fame  in  tragedy  and  Varius  in  the  epic  ;  Virgil  is 
simple  and  charming  in  his  pastorals.  Satire  alone 
was  open  to  Horace,  for  Varro  Atacinus  and  others 
had  tried  it  and  failed,  while  Horace  has  met  ^nth 
success,  however  short  he  may  come  of  the  first  in 
the  field  (36-4-9). 

It  is  true  that  Horace  had  criticized  Lucihus,  just 
as  Lucihus  had  pointed  out  defects  in  Accius  and 
Ennius.  His  verse  is  faulty- — his  stream  is  muddy, 
he  lacks  finish,  he  ■wrote  too  freely.  If  we  were  to 
compare  him  with  a  writer  who  is  carving  out  a  new 
species  of  verse  quite  untouched  by  the  Greeks,  we 
might  attribute  to  him  some  pohsh,  but  the  fact 
remains  that  had  he  lived  in  the  Augustan  age,  he 
would  have  filed  away  his  roughnesses,  and  learned 
"  the  last  and  greatest  art,  the  art  to  blot "  (50-71). 

A  >\Titer  should  aim  at  pleasing,  not  the  multitude, 
but  a  small  circle  of  good  critics.  If  he  wins  their 
approval,  he  may  bid  the  cheap  teachers  of  the 
lecture-room  go  hang  !  (72-91). 

With  this  statement  of  his  conviction,  Horace  puts 
the  finishing  touch  to  his  First  Book  (92). 

In  this  satire  Horace  is  a  spokesman  for  the  chief 
^vriters  of  the  Augustan  era,  setting  forth  some  of  their 
ideals  in  contrast  ^vith  the  ignorance  and  \'ulgarity 
of  popular  scribblers,  as  represented  by  men  like 
Tigellius.  Among  the  requisites  of  good  satire 
Horace  speaks  of  the  appropriate  use  of  humour, 
together  Avith  the  qualities  of  bre\-ity,  clearness, 
purity  of  diction  and  smoothness  of  composition, 
all  of  which  are  characteristic  of  the  so-called 
plain  style,  or  genus  tenue,  of  poetry  as  of  orator)', 
(For  a  full  discussion  see  papers  by  Hendrickson  and 
UUman ;  also  Fiske,  Lucilius  and  Horace,  pp.  336  ff.) 
I  113 


[Lucili,  quam  sis  mendosus,  teste  Catone 
defensore  tuo  pervineam,  qui  male  factos 
emendare  parat  versus  ;  hoc  lenius  ille, 
quo  melior  vir  est,  longe  subtilior  illo, 
qui  multum  puer  et  loris  at  funibus  udis  6 

exoratus,  ut  esset  opem  qui  ferre  poetis 
antiquis  posset  contra  fastidia  nostra, 
grammaticorum    equitum    doctissimus.     ut    redeam 
illuc  :  ]i 

Nempe  incomposito  dixi  pede  currere  versus 
Lucili.     quis  tarn  Lucili  fautor  inepte  est, 
ut  non  hoc  fateatur  ?     at  idem,  quod  sale  multo 
urbem  defricuit,  charta  laudatur  eadem. 

Nee  tamen  hoc  tribuens  dederim  quoque  cetera  ; 
nam^  sic  5 

et  Laberi  mimos  ut  pulchra  poemata  mirer. 
ergo  non  satis  est  risu  diducere^  rictum 

^  LI.  1-8.  These  awkward  verses  are  found  in  uss.  of  class 
II  only,  but  are  not  commented  on  by  the  scholiasts.  Persius, 
an  imitator  of  Horace,  begins  his  third  satire  with  nempe. 
In  I.  4,  vir,  used  by  the  writer  as  a  long  syllable,  appears  as 
vir  et  in  a  few  later  uss. 

*  num  aM,  II.  *  dcducere  K,  II. 

"  The  first  eight  lines  are  regarded  as  spurious,  and  the 
only  reason  for  reproducing  them  is  that  they  are  given  in 
many  mss.,  though  not  in  the  best.  The  Cato  referred  to  is 
Valerius  Cato,  a  poet  and  critic  of  the  late  Republic,  but  who 
the  grammaticorum  equitum  doctissimus  was  is  not  known. 


Satire  X    i^^ 

[Lucilius,  how  faulty  you  are  I  will  prove  clearly  by 
the  witness  of  Cato,  your  own  advocate,  who  is  setting 
to  work  to  remove  faults  from  your  ill-wrought  verses. 
This  task  is  done  so  much  more  gently  by  him,  as  he 
is  a  better  man,  of  much  finer  taste  than  the  other, 
who  as  a  boy  was  ofttimes  gently  entreated  by  the 
lash  and  moist  ropes,  so  that  later  he  might  give  aid 
to  the  poets  of  old  against  oxir  present  daintiness, 
when  he  had  become  the  most  learned  of  pedagogic 
knights.     But  to  return  •*  :] 

^  To  be  sure  I  did  say  *  that  the  verses  of  Lucilius 
run  on  with  halting  foot.  Who  is  a  partisan  of 
LuciUus  so  in-and-out  of  season  as  not  to  confess 
this  ?  And  yet  on  the  self-same  page  the  self-same 
poet  is  praised  because  he  rubbed  the  city  down 
with  much  salt. 

*  Yet,  while  granting  this  virtue,  I  would  not  also 
allow  Mm  every  other  ;  for  on  those  terms  I  should 
also  have  to  admire  the  mimes  of  Laberius  as  pretty 
poems.*  Hence  it  is  not  enough  to  make  your 
It  is  surely  impossible  "  by  reaching  back  over  the  relative 
clause  intervening"  to  refer  these  words  to  Cato,  as  does 
Hendrickson,  who  upholds  the  genuineness  of  these  verses. 

*  In  Sat.  i.  4,  which  may  be  compared  with  this  Satire 

'  Mimes  were  dramatic  scenes  from  low  life,  largely 
farcical  and  grotesque  in  character.  Laberius,  a  Pioman 
knight,  who  was  compelled  by  Julius  Caesar  to  act  in  his 
own  mimes,  was  no  longer  living  when  Horace  wrote. 



auditoris  ;  et  est  quaedam  tamen  hie  quoque  virtus  : 
est  brevitate  opus,  ut  currat  sententia  neu  se 
impediat  vei-bis  lassas  onerantibus  auris  ;  10 

et  sermone  opus  est  modo  tristi,  saepe  iocoso, 
defendente  vieem  modo  rhetoris  atque  poetae, 
interdum  urbani/  parcentis  viribus,  atque 
extenuantis  eas  consulto.     ridicullim  acri 
fortius  et  melius  magnas  plerumque  secat  res.         15 
illi  soripta  quibus  comoedia  prisca  viris  est 
hoc  stabant,  hoc  sunt  imitandi  ;  quos  neque  pulcher 
Hermogenes  umquam  legit  neque  simius  iste 
nil  praeter  Calvum  et  doctus  cantare  Catullum. 

"  At  magnum  fecit,  quod  verbis  Graeca  Latinis  20 

O  seri  studiorum,  quine  putetis 
difficile  et  mirum,  Rhodio  quod  Pitholeonti 
contigit ! 

"  At  sermo  lingua  concinnus  utraque 
suavior,  ut^  Chio  nota  si  commixta  Falerni  est." 

Cum  versus  facias,  te  ipsum  percontor,  an  et  cum  25 
dura  tibi  peragenda  rei  sit  causa  Petilli  ? 
scilicet  oblitus^  patriaeque  patrisque,  Latine* 
cum  Pedius  causas  exsudet  Publicola  atque 

^  urbane,  //.  ^  et,  //. 

'  oblitos  Bentley  ;  so  Holder,  Vollmer. 

*  Latine  comm.  Cruq. :  Latini  V,  7,  Bentley. 

"  This,  according  to  Porphyrio,  is  the  Demetrius  mentioned 
in  1.  90  below.  Hendrickson  thinks  it  is  Bibaculus  (CP. 
xii.  p.  87). 

*  For  cantare  "  to  satirize  "  cf.  Sat.  ii.  1.  46.  These  words 
are  not,  as  commonly  believed,  said  in  depreciation  of  Calvus 
and  Catullus,  for  there  was  no  opposition  toward  thera 
on  the  part  of  the  Augustan  poets.  See  Rand,  "  Catullus 
and  the  Augustans,"  Harv.  St.  xvii.  p.  28,  and  Ullraan, 
"  Horace,  Catullus,  and  Tigellius,"  C.P.  x.  pp.  270  ff. 

SATIRES,  I.  X.  8-28 

hearer  grin  with  laughter— though  even  in  that  there 
is  some  merit.  You  need  terseness,  that  the  thought 
may  run  on,  and  not  become  entangled  in  verbiage 
that  weighs  upon  wearied  ears.  You  also  need  a 
style  now  grave,  often  gay,  in  keeping  with  the  role, 
now  of  orator  or  poet,  at  times  of  the  wit,  who  holds 
his  strength  in  check  and  husbands  it  with  wisdom. 
Jesting  oft  cuts  hard  knots  more  forcefully  and 
effectively  than  gravity.  Thereby  those  great  men 
who  wrote  Old  Comedy  won  success  ;  therein  we 
should  imitate  them — vsTiters  whom  the  fop  Hermo- 
genes  has  never  read,  nor  that  ape,"  whose  skill  lies 
solely  in  droning  Calvus  and  Catullus.* 

^  But  that  was  a  great  feat,"  you  say,  "  his 
mixing  of  Greek  and  Latin  words." 

O  ye  late  learners  !  "  ye  who  really  think  that  a 
hard  and  wondrous  knack,  which  Pitholeon  of  Rhodes 
achieved  ! 

"  But  a  style,  where  both  tongues  make  a  happy 
blend,  has  more  charm,  as  when  the  Falernian  wine 
is  mixed  with  Chian."- 

^  In  your  verse-making  only  (I  put  it  to  your- 
self), or  does  the  rule  also  hold  good  when  you 
have  to  plead  the  long,  hard  case  of  the  defen- 
dant Petillius  ?  Would  you  forsooth  forget  father- 
land and  father,  and,  while  Pedius  Publicola  and 
Corvinus  si^at  over  their  causes  in   Latin,  would 

'  Seri  studiorum  is  a  translation  of  ofifiaSeh,  used  of 
those  who  make  a  show  of  their  newly  acquired  knowledge. 
In  the  words  following,  -ne  should  not  be  regarded  as 
interrogative.  It  is  an  affirmative  particle,  as  Priscian  held 
it  to  be.  Nothing  is  known  about  Pitholeon,  but  Bentley 
plausibly  supposed  he  was  the  same  as  Pitholaus,  who 
assailed  Julius  Caesar  in  verse  (Suet.  Jul.  75). 



Corvinus,  patriis  intermiscere  petita 

verba  foris  malis,  Canusini  more  bilinguis  ?  ^^30 

Atque^  ego  cum  Graecos  facerem,  natus  mare  citra, 
versiculos,  vetuit  me  tali  voce  Quirinus, 
post  mediam  noctem  visus,  cum  somnia  vera  : 
"  In  silvam  non  ligna  feras  insanitis  ac  si 
magnas  Graecorum  malis  implere  catervas."  35 

Turgidus  Alpinus  iugillat  dum  Memnona  dumque 
defingit^  Rheni  luteum  caput,  haec  ego  ludo, 
quae  neque  in  aede  sonent  certantia  iudice  Tarpa, 
nee  redeant  iterum  atque  iterum  spectanda^  theatris. 

Arguta  meretrice  potes  Davoque  Chremeta         40 
eludente  senem  comis  garrire  libellos 
unus  vivorum,  Fun^ani  ;   Pollio  regum 
facta  canit  pede  ter  percusso  ;  forte  epos  aQcr, 
ut  nemo,  Varius  ducit  ;  molle  atque  facetum 
Vergilio  adnuerunt^  gaudentes  rure  Camenae.         45 
hoc  erat,  experto  frustra  Varrone  Atacino 
atque  quibusdam  aliis,  melius  quod  scribere  possem,^ 
inventore  minor  ;   neque  ego  illi  detrahere  ausim 
haerentem  capiti  cum  multa  laude  coronam. 

^  atqui  Bentley. 

^  defingit,  / :  diffingit  K,  II,  Porph. 

*  spectata  K,  II. 

*  adnuerant  a  :  adnuerint  D.  *  possim,  //. 

"  At  Canusium,  in  Apulia,  both  Greek  and  Oscan  were 
spoken.  ^^ 

*  A  sarcastic  reference  to  M.  Furius  BibacvRs,  who  wrote 
an  epic  on  Caesar's  Gallic  Wars,  and  also  an  Aethiopis,  in 
which  Memnon  is  slain  by  Achilles.  The  references  would 
be  more  intelligible  if  the  poems  of  Bibaculus  were  extant, 
but  his  bombastic  style  is  clearly  parodied.  See  further. 
Sat.  ii.  5.  41. 

*  i.e.  the  Temple  of  the  Muses,  where  new  poetry  could 
be  read.     For  Tarpa  see  Index,  under  Maecius. 

''  A  reference  to  New  Comedy,  as  handled  by  Terence. 

SATIRES,  I.  X.  29-49 

you  prefer  to  jumble  with  your  native  speech  words 
imported  from  abroad,  like  the  Canusian's  jargon  <»  ? 

31  I,  too,  though  born  this  side  of  the  sea,  once  took 
to  writing  verses  in  Greek;  but  after  midnight,  when 
dreams  are  true,  Quirinus  appeared  and  forbade  me 
with  words  like  these  :  "  'Tis  just  as  foolish  to  carry 
timber  to  a  wood  as  to  ^vish  to  swell  the  crowded 
ranks  of  the  Greeks." 

^  So  while  the  pompous  poet  of  the  Alps  miu-ders* 
Memnon  and  botches  with  mud  the  head  of  the 
Rhine,*  I  am  toying  'vnth  these  trifles,  which  are 
neither  to  be  heard  in  the  Temple"  as  competing  for 
Tarpa's  verdict,  nor  are  to  come  back  again  and  again 
to  be  witnessed  on  the, stage. 

*^  You  alone  of  living  poets,  Fundanius,  can  charm 
us  ^v^th  the  chit-chat  of  comedies,  where  the  artful 
mistress  and  Davus  fool  old  Chremes."*  In  measure 
of  triple  beat  Polho  sings  of  kings'  exploits .«  Sur- 
passing all  in  spirit,  Varius  moulds  the  valorous  epic' 
To  Virgil  the  Muses  rejoicing  in  rural  life  have 
granted  simplicity  and  charm."  This  satire,  which 
Varro  of  the  Atax  and  some  others  had  vainly  tried, 
was  what  I  could  vncite  with  more  success,  though 
falhng  short  of  the  inventor  "  ;  nor  would  I  dare  to 
■wTcst  from  him  the  crown  that  clings  to  his  brow 
with  so  much  glory. 

•  Pollio  us^^he  iambic  trimeter  in  his  tragedies. 

f  This  was  written  before  Virgil  had  composed  his  Aeneid. 

'  A  reference  to  the  Eclogues.  Professor  C.  N.  Jackson 
has  won  wide  acceptance  for  his  view  that  in  moUe  atqu4 
facetum,  commonly  rendered  as  "  tenderness  and  grace," 
Horace  refers  to  distinctive  features  of  the  genus  tenu4,  or 
plain  style  of  writing  {Hare.  St.  xxv.  pp.  117  ff.). 

*  Lucilius. 



^   p    At^  dixi  fluere  hunc  lutulentum,  saepe  ferentem  50 
pliira  quidem  tollenda  relinquendis.     age,  quaeso,^ 
tu  nihil  in  magncf  doctus  reprehendis  Homero  ? 
nil  comis  tragici  mutat  Lucilius  Acci  ? 
non  ridet  versus  Enni  gravitate  minores,'' 
cum  de  se  loquitur  non  ut  maiore  reprensis  ?  65 

quid  vetat  et  nosmet  Lucili  scripta  legentis 
quaerere,  num  illius,  num  rerum  dnrfi  negarit 
versiculos  natura  magis  factes^t  euntis 
mollius,  ac^  si  quis,  pedibus  quid  claudere  senis, 
hoc  tantum  contentus,  amet  scripsisse  ducentos     60 
ante  cibum  versus,  totidem  cenatus  ?     Etrusci 
quale  fuit  Cassi  rapido  ferventius  amni 
ingenium,  capsis  quem  fama  eft  esse  librisque 
ambustum  propriis. 

Fuerit  Lucilius,  inquam, 
comis  et  urbanus,^  fuerit  limatior  idem  65 

quam  rudis  et  Graecis  intacti  carminis  auctor 
quamque  poetarum  seniorum  turba  :  sed  ille, 
si  foret  hoc  nostrum  fato  delapsus'  in  aevum, 
detereret  sibi  multa,  recideret  omne  quod  ultra 
^p^fectum  traheretur,  et  in  versu  faciendo  70 

saepe  caput  scaberet,  vivos  et  roderet  unguis. 

Saepe  stilum  vertas,  iterum  quae  digna  legi  sint 
scripturus,  neque  te  ut  miretur  turba  labores, 

1  at  or  adj  et  \l^.  ^  quaero,  /.  ^  minoris  Ooth. 

*  altos  Goth.  *  et  a.  ®  urbanis,  //. 

'  delapsus  V,  adopted  by  Vollmer  and  Lejay :  dilatus  one 
Bland.,  Bentley  and  generally  accepted :  dilapsus  mss. 

"  i.e.  hexameters.  '  On  Cassius  see  p.  277,  note  *. 

«  Cf.  Sat.  1.  4.  90.  The  coincidence  implies  that  there  the 
hie  is  LuciHus.  So  Tenney  Frank  in  A.J.P.  xlvi.  (1925) 
p.  72.        <•  Cf.  Quintihan,  x.  1.  93  "satura  tota  nostra  est." 

•  The  phrase  stilum  verier e  means  to  erase  what  has  been 
written  on  the  wax  tablet,  because  the  blunt  end  of  the 

SATIRES,  I.  X.  50-73 

^  But  I  did  say  his  stream  runs  muddy,  and  often 
carries  more  that  you  would  rather  remove  than 
leave  beliind.  Come,  pray,  do  you,  a  scholar,  criti- 
cize nothing  in  the  great  Homer  ?  Does  your  genial 
Lucihus  find  nothing  to  change  in  the  tragedies  of 
Accius  ?  Does  he  not  laugh  at  the  verses  of  Ennius 
as  lacking  in  dignity,  though  he  speaks  of  himself  as 
no  greater  than  those  he  has  blamed  B'  And  as  we 
read  the  writings  of  Lucihus,  what  forbids  us,  too,  to 
raise  the  question  whether  it  was  his  own  genius, 
or  whether  it  was  the  harsh  nature  of  his  themes  * 
that  denied  him  verses  more  finished  and  easier  in 
their  flow  than  if  one  were  to  put  his  thoughts  into 
six  feet  <»  and,  content  with  thds  alone,  were  proud  • 
of  having  written  two  hundred  hnes  before  and  two 
hundred  after  supping  ?  Such  was  the  gift  of  Tuscan 
Cassius,*"  more  headstrong  than  a  rushing  river,  whose 
own  books  and  cases,  so  'tis  told  us,  made  his  funeral 

^  Grant,  say  I,  that  Lucilius  was  genial  and 
witty  "  :  grant  that  he  was  also  more  polished  than 
you  would  expect  one  to  be  who  was  creating  a  new 
style  quite  untouched  by  the  Greeks,**  and  more 
polished  than  the  crowd  of  older  poets  :  yet,  had 
he  fallen  by  fate  upon  this  our  day,  he  would 
smooth  away  much  of  his  work,  would  prune  oflP  all 
that  trailed  beyond  the  proper  limit,  and  as  he 
wrought  his  verse  he  would  oft  scratch  his  head  and 
gnaw  his  nails  to  the  quick. 

■^  Often  must  you  turn  your  pencil  to  erase/  if  you 
hope  to  write  something  worth  a  second  reading,  and 
you  must  not  strive  to  catch  the  wonder  of  the  crowd, 

stilus  was  used  to  smooth  out  the  surface  traced  by  the 
sharp  end. 

^  121 


contentus  paucis  lectoribus.     an  tua  demens 
vilibus^  in  ludis  dictari  carmina  malis  ?  75 

non  ego  ;    nam  satis  est  equitem  mihi  plaudere,  ut 

contemptis  aliis,  explosa  Arbuscula  dixit. 

Men  moveat  cimex  Pantilius,  aut  cruciet  quod 
vellicet  absentem  Demetrius,  aut  quod  ineptus 
Fannius  Hermogenis  laedat  conviva  Tigelli  ?  O^'*^*^ 
Plotius  et  Varius,  Maecenas  Vergiliusque, 
Valgius  et  probet  haec  Octavius  optimus  atque 
Fuscus  et  haec  utinam  Viscorum  laudet  uterque  ! 
ambitione  relegata  te  dicere  possum, 
Pollio,  te,  Messalla,  tuo  cum  fratre,  simulque  86 

'vos,  Bibule  et  Servi,  simul  his  te,  candide  Furni, 
compluris  alios,  doctos  ego  quos  et  amicos 
prudens  praetereo  ;  quibus  haec,  sint  quaHacumque, 
adridere  vehm,  doUturus,  si  placeant  spe 
deterius  nostra.     Demetri,  teque,  Tigelli,  90 

discipularum^  inter  iubeo  plorare  cathedras. 

I,  puer,  atque  meo  citus  haec  subscribe  libello. 
^  milibus  xj/Xl.       ^  discipularum  uss.  Porph. :  discipulorum. 

"  i.e.  Aristius  Fuscus.  Octavius  is  Octavius  Musa,  poet 
and  historian. 

*  The  phrase  iubeo  plorare  is  a  satiric  substitute  for  iubeo 
valere  ("I  bid  farewell  to").  Cf.  otVcofe  in  Aristophanes,  as 
in  Plut.  257. 

*  In  this  paragraph  Horace  contrasts  writers  of  low 
literary  standards,  represented  by  Tiarellius,  with  members 
of  the  three  circles  of  Maecenas,  Pollio  and  Messalla.  He 
himself,  like  Virgil,  belongs  to  the  circle  of  Maecenas. 
TibuUus,  a  member  of  Messalla's  circle,  is  perhaps  at  this 
time  too  young  to  be  named.  (See  Ullman,  C.P.  x.  (1910) 
pp.  270  ff.) 

■*  The  last  verse,  addressed  to  the  slave  who  acts  as 
secretary,  serves  as  an  epilogue  to  the  whole  book.  "  The 
farewell  (or  rather  *  fare-ill ')  to  Tigellius  is  the  last  shot  in 
the  war,  and  Tigellius  is  never  mentioned  again.  The  last 

SATIRES,  I.  X.  74-92 

but  be  content  with  the  few  as  your  readers.  WTiat, 
would  you  be  so  foolish  as  to  want  your  poems 
dictated  in  common  schools  ?  Not  so  I.  "  'Tis 
enough  if  the  knights  applaud  me  " — to  quote  daunt- 
less Arbuscula's  scornful  remark,  when  the  rest  of 
the  house  hissed  her. 

"*  Am  I  to  be  troubled  by  that  louse  Pantilius? 
Or  tortured  because  Demetrius  carps  at  me  behind 
my  back,  or  because  silly  Fannius,  who  sponges 
on  Hermogenes  TigelUus,  girds  at  me  ?  Let  but 
Plotius  and  Varius  approve  of  these  verses  ;  let 
Maecenas,  Virgil,  and  Valgius  ;  let  Octa\-ius  and 
Fuscus,"  best  of  men  ;  and  let  but  the  Viscus  brothers 
give  their  praise  !  With  no  desire  to  flatter,  I  may 
name  you,  PoUio  ;  you,  Messalla,  and  your  brother  ; 
also  you,  Bibulus  and  Ser\ius  ;  also  you,  honest 
Fumius,  and  many  another  scholar  and  friend,  whom 
I  piu^osely  pass  over.  In  their  eyes  I  should  hke 
these  verses,  such  as  they  are,  to  find  favour,  and  I 
should  be  grieved  if  their  pleasure  were  to  fall  short 
of  my  hopes.  But  you,  Demetrius,  and  you,  TigeUius, 
I  bid  you  go  whine  *  amidst  the  easy  chairs  of  your 
pupils  in  petticoats  !  " 

^^  Go,"*  lad,  and  quickly  add  these  Unes  to  my  Uttle 

line  of  the  first  book  represents  the  triumph  of  an  artistic 
ideal  "  (Ulhnan,  loc.  cit.  p.  279). 

*  In  connexion  with  this  Satire  reference  may  be  made  to 
articles  mentioned  on  p.  61,  as  well  as  to  the  following: 
Hendrickson,  G.  L.,  "  Horace  and  Lucilius.  A  Study  of 
Horace,  Serm.  i.  10,"  in  Gildersleeve  Studies,  pp.  151  ff. ; 
"  Horace  and  Valerius  Flaccus "  (three  articles),  C.P.  xi. 
and  xii. ;  B.  L.  Ullman,  "  Horace,  Catullus  and  Tigellius," 
C.P.  X.  pp.  270  ff.;  E.  K.  Rand,  "Catullus  and  the 
Aagustans,"  Hare.  St.  xvii.  pp.  15  ff.;  C.  F.  Jackson, 
"  MoUe  atque  Facetum."  Harv.  St.  xxiv.  pp.  117  ff. 




This  Satire  continues  the  subject  of  the  fourth  and 
tenth  Satires  of  the  First  Book.  That  book  had 
aroused  much  criticism,  which  the  poet  meets  in  this 
prologue  to  his  Second  Book. 

The  Satire  assumes  the  form  of  an  imaginary 
dialogue  between  Horace  and  C,  Trebatius  Testa,  a 
famous  lawyer  of  Cicero's  time,  whose  legal  advice 
on  the  subject  of  satiric  writing  Horace  is  professedly 
anxious  to  secure.  Trebatius  advises  him  to  give 
up  writing  altogether,  or  if  that  is  impossible,  to 
take  up  epic  poetry  (1-12). 

"  I  have  no  gift  for  the  epic,"  says  Horace,  "  and 
yet  I  must  write,  and  must  write  satire,  even  as 
Lucilius  used  to  do.  I  belong  to  a  frontier  stock 
but  am  armed  for  defence,  not  offence,  using  the 
pen  when  attacked  as  naturally  as  the  bull  its  horns  " 

TREBATIUS.  Then  you  will  come  to  grief.  Some 
of  your  great  friends  will  freeze  you  to  death. 

HORACE.  Did  those  of  Lucilius  desert  him,  when 
he  attacked  great  and  small  ?  Nay,  he  lived  on 
intimate  terms  with  Scipio  and  Laehus,  and  though 



I  fall  short  of  him  in  social  rank  and  ability,  yet  I, 
too,  have  illustrious  friends  (60-79)- 

TRE.  But  let  me  remind  you  of  the  law.  You 
are  forbidden  to  write  bad — that  is,  Ubellous —  verses 
against  anyone. 

HOR.  Of  course  not.  But  what  if  they  are  good, 
hke  mine,  and  win  Caesar's  approval  ? 

TRE.  Then  such  a  charge  will  be  laughed  out  of 
court  (79-86). 

In  view  of  Caesaris  invicti  of  1.  11,  it  would  seem 
that  this  Satire  was  wTitten  after  the  Battle  of 
Actiimi,  and  therefore  shortly  before  the  pubhcation 
of  this  Second  Book  in  30  b.c.  Horace  is  now  thirty- 
five  years  of  age  and  has  won  recognition  and  an 
assured  position  in  Roman  hteratiire.  He  no  longer 
finds  it  necessary  to  defend  his  satire  very  seriously, 
but,  as  Lejay,  in  his  introduction  to  this  Satire,  has 
clearly  sho^^Ti,  "  the  legal  conditions  under  which 
satire  could  be  produced  in  the  Augustan  age 
formed  a  very  real  restriction  upon  the  freedom  of 
speech  traditional  in  satire.  .  .  .  There  is  a  touch  of 
serious  anxiety  beneath  the  jest  upon  the  inala  and 
bona  carmina  with  which  the  Satire  closes  "  (Fiske, 
Lucilius  and  Horace,  p.  370). 



Sunt  quibus  in  satura  videar^  nimis  acer  et  ultra 
legem  tendere  opus  ;   sine  nervis  altera,  quidquid 
composui,  pars  esse  putat  similisque  meorum 
mi  lie  die  versus  deduci^  posse.     Trebati, 
quid  faciam,  praescribe. 

"  Quiescas." 

Ne  faciam,  inquis,  5 

omnino  versus  ? 

"  Aio." 

Peream  male,  si  non  • 
optimum  erat ;   verum  nequeo  dormirey^ 

j^i  Ter  uncti 

transnanto  Tiberim,  somno  quibus  e^  opus  alto, 
irriguumque  mero  sub  noctem  corpus  habento. 
aut  si  tantus  amor  scribendi  te  rapit,  aude  10 

Caesaris  invicti  res  dicere,  multa  laborum 
praemia  laturus." 

Cupidum,  pater  optime,  vires 
deficiunt  :  neque  enim  quivis  horrentia  pilis 
agmina  nee  fracta  pereuntis  cuspide  Gallos 
aut  labentis  equo  describat^  volnera  Parthi.  15 

1  videor  0i/'.  *  diduci,  II. 

»  describat  aEM:  -it  D,  II:  -et  K. 

«  We  may  infer  from  one  letter  of  Cicero's  {Ad/am.  vii.  22) 

Satire  I 

HORACE.  There  are  some  critics  who  think  that  I 
am  too  savage  in  my  satire  and  strain  the  work 
beyond  la^\•ful  bounds.  The  other  half  of  them  hold 
that  all  I  have  composed  is  "  nerveless,"  and  that 
verses  as  good  as  mine  could  be  turned  out  a  thousand 
a  day.    Give  me  advice,  Trebatius.    What  am  I  to  do? 

TREBATius.   Take  a  rest. 

HOR.   Not  write  verses  at  all,  you  mean  ? 

TRE.   Yes. 

HOR.  Confound  me,  if  that  would  not  be  best ! 
But  I  cannot  sleep. 

TRE.  Let  those  who  need  sound  sleep  oil  themselves 
and  swim  across  the  Tiber  thrice ;  then,  as  night 
comes  on,  let  them  steep  themselves  in  wine."  Or 
if  such  a  passion  for  wTiting  carries  you  away,  bravely 
tell  of  the  feats  of  Caesar,  the  unvanquished.  Many 
a  reward  for  your  pains  will  you  gain. 

HOR.  Would  that  I  could,  good  father,  but  my 
strength  fails  me.  Not  everyone  can  paint  ranks 
bristling  with  lances,  or  Gauls  falling  with  spear- 
heads shattered,  or  wounded  Parthian  slipping  from 
his  horse. 

that  Trebatius  was  a  hard  drinker,  and  we  learn  from 
another  (»6.  vii.  10)  that  he  was  fond  of  swimming,s<wdio»m»- 
miM  homo  natandi. 



"  Altamen  et  iustum  poteras  et  scribere  fortem, 
Scipiadam  ut  sapiens  Lucilius." 

Haud  mihi  dero, 
cum  res  ipsa  feret :  nisi  dextro  tempore,  Flacci 
verba  per  attentam  non  ibunt  Caesaris  aurem, 
cui  male  si  palpere,  recalcitrate  undique  tutus.         20 

"  Quanto  rectius  hoc,  quam  tristi  laedere  versu 
Pantolabum  scurram  Nomentanumque^  nepotem, 
cum  sibi  quisque  timet,  quamquam  est  intactus,  et 

Quid  faciam  ?     saltat  Milonius,  ut  semel  icto 
accessit  fervor  capiti  numerusque  lucernis  ;  25 

Castor  gaudet  equis,  ovo  prognatus  eodem 
pugnis  ;  quot  capitum  vivunt,  totidem  studiorum 
milia  :  me  pedibus  delectat  claudere  verba 
Lucili  ritu,  nostrum  melioris  utroque, 
ille  velut  fidis  arcana  sodalibus  olim  30 

credebat  libris,  neque  si  male  cesserat,^  usquam 
decurrens  alio,  neque  si  bene  ;  quo  fit,  ut  omnis 
votiva  pateat  veluti  descripta  tabella 
vita  senis. 

Sequor  hunc,  Lucanus  an  Apulus,  anceps  : 
nam  Venusinus  arat  finem  sub  utrumque  colonus,   35 
missus  ad  hoc,  pulsis,  vetus  est  ut  fama,  Sabellis, 
quo  ne  per  vacuum  Romano  incurreret  hostis, 
sive  quod  Apula  gens  seu  quod  Lucania  bellum 
incuteret  violenta.     sed  hie  stilus  haud  petet  ultro 

1  recalcitret.  *  .que]  -ve,  //,  Porph. 

'  cesserat  K :  gesserat  mss. 

"  A  line  quoted,  with  change  of  case,  from  Sat.  i.  8.  11. 
"  Coming  as  he  doe^  of  frontier  stock,  Horace  humorously 


SATIRES,  II.  I.  16-39 

THE.  But  you  might  write  of  himself,  at  once  just 
and  valiant,  as  -wise  Lucihus  did  of  Scipio. 

HOR.  I  ^Wll  not  fail  myself,  when  the  occasion 
itself  prompts.  Only  at  an  auspicious  moment  will 
the  words  of  a  Flaccus  find  with  Caesar  entrance  to  an 
attentive  ear.  Stroke  the  steed  climisily  and  back 
he  kicks,  at  every  point  on  his  guard. 

^  THE.  How  much  Aviser  tliis  than  with  bitter  verse 
to  wound  "  Pantolabus,  the  parasite,  and  spendthrift 
Nomentanus," "  whereupon  everybody  is  afraid  for 
himself,  though  untouched,  and  hates  you. 

^  HOR.  What  am  I  to  do  ?  Milonius  starts  a-dancing 
once  the  heat  has  mounted  to  his  wine-smitten  brain 
and  the  lamps  twinkle  double.  Castor  finds  joy  in 
horses  ;  his  brother,  born  from  the  same  egg,  in 
boxing.  For  every  thousand  hving  soiils,  there  are 
as  many  thousand  tastes.  My  own  delight  is  to  shut 
up  words  in  feet,  as  did  Lucilius,  a  better  man  than 
either  of  us.  He  in  olden  days  would  trust  his  secrets 
to  his  books,  as  if  to  faithful  friends,  never  turning 
elsewhere  for  recourse,  whether  things  went  well 
with  him  or  ill.  So  it  comes  that  the  old  poet's 
whole  life  is  open  to  view,  as  if  painted  on  a  votive 

**  He  it  is  I  follow — I,  a  Lucanian  or  Apulian,*  I 
know  not  which,  for  the  settlers  in  Venusia  plough 
close  to  the  borders  of  both  lands.  Thither  they 
were  sent,  as  the  old  story  goes,  wlien  the  Samnites 
were  driven  out,  and  to  this  end,  that  no  foe  might 
ever  assail  the  Romans  through  an  open  frontier, 
whether  the  Apuhan  race  or  whether  Lucania  law- 
lessly threatened  any  war.     But  this,  both  my  dagger 

claims  that  this  is  why  he  is  so  pugnacious  and  takes  to 

M.  129 


quemquam  animantem  et  me  veluti  custodiet  ensis  40 
vagina  tectus  ;  quern  cur  destringere^  coner 
tutus  ab  infestis  latronibus  ?     o  pater  et  rex 
luppiter,  ut  pereat  positum  robigine  telum,^ 
nee  quisquam  noceat  cupido  mihi  pacis  !     at  ille, 
qui  me  commorit  (melius  non  tangere,  elamo),  45 

flebit  et  insignis  tota  cantabitur  urbe.  » 

Cervius  iratus  leges  minitatur  et  urnam, 
Canidia  Albuci  quibus  est  inimica  venenum, 
grande  malum  Turius,  si  quid  se  iudice  certes.' 
ut  quo  quisque  valet  suspectos  terreat,  utque  50 

imperet  hoc  natura  potens,  sic  collige  mecum  : 
dente  lupus,  cornu  taurus  petit  ;  unde,  nisi  intus 
monstratum  ?     Scaevae  vivacem  crede  nepoti 
matrem  ;   nil  faciet  sceleris  pia  dextera  :   mirura, 
ut  neque  calce  lupus  quemquam  neque  dente  petit^ 
bos :  55 

sed  mala^  toilet  anum  vitiato  melle  eicuta. 
ne  longum  faciam  :  seu  me  tranquilla  senectus 
exspectat  seu  mors  atris  circumvolat  alis, 
dives,  inops,  Romae,  seu  fors  ita  iusserit,  exsul, 
quisquis  erit  vitae  scribam  color. 

"  O  puer,  ut  sis       60 
vitalis  metuo,  et  maiorum  ne  quis  amicus 
frigore  te  feriat."     quid  ?     cum  est  Lucilius  ausus 
primus  in  hunc  operis  componere  carmina  morem, 
detrahere  et  pellem,  nitidus  qua  quisque  per  ora 

^  distringere,  //. 

*  telum  Mss. :  ferrum  Priscian. 

'  quis  .  .  .  certet  BK,  II.  *  petat  D(f>ipl. 

*  mala  mss.  :  male  E3I. 

"  The  stilus,  a  pointed  instrument,  could  be  used  either 
as  a  pen  or  as  a  weapon.     For  the  latter  sense  cf.  stiletto. 


SATIRES,  II.  I.  40-64 

and  pen,*  shall  never  of  my  free  will  assail  any  man 
alive  but  shall  protect  me,  like  a  sword  laid  up  in  its 
sheath.  Why  should  I  try  to  draw  it,  while  I  am 
safe  from  robbers'  assaults  ?  O  Jupiter,  Sire  and 
King,  let  perish  with  rust  the  discarded  weapon, 
and  let  no  man  injure  me,  a  lover  of  peace  !  But  if 
one  stir  me  up  ("  Better  not  touch  me  !  "  I  shout), 
he  shall  smart  for  it  and  have  his  name  sung  up  and 
do^^■n  the  town. 

*'  Cer\'ius,  when  angry,  threatens  his  foes  with 
laws  and  the  judge's  urn  ;  Canidia  \vith  the  poison 
of  Albucius ;  Turius  with  a  big  fine,  if  you  go  to 
court  when  he  is  judge.  How  everyone,  using  the 
weapon  in  which  he  is  strong,  tries  to  frighten  those 
whom  he  fears,  and  how  this  is  at  Dame  Nature's 
own  command,  you  must  infer — as  I  do — thus  :  the 
wolf  attacks  with  fangs,  the  bull  with  horns — how 
was  each  taught,  if  not  by  instinct  ?  Suppose  you 
entrust  to  the  spendthrift  Scaeva  a  long-lived  mother : 
his  filial  hand  will  commit  no  crime.  How  mar- 
vellous !  no  more  so  than  that  a  wolf  assails  none 
with  his  heels,  nor  an  ox  with  his  teeth  ;  but  deadly 
hemlock  in  drugged  honey  will  carry  the  old  crone 
off.  To  be  brief — whether  peaceful  age  awaits  me, 
or  Death  hovers  round  with  sable  wings,  rich  or 
poor,  in  Rome,  or,  if  chance  so  bid,  in  exile,  whatever 
the  colour  *  of  my  hfe,  write  I  must. 

®*  TRE.  My  lad,  I  fear  your  life  will  be  brief. 
One  of  your  great  friends  will  strike  you  with  a 
killing  frost. 

HOR.   \\'hat  !   when  Lucihus  first  dared  to  compose 
poems  after  this  kind,  and  to  strip  off  the  skin  Avith 
which  each  strutted  all  bedecked  before  the  eyes  of 
*  i-e.  bright  or  dark,  with  good  or  bad  fortune. 



cederet,  introrsum  tiirpis,  num  Laelius  et^  qui         65 
duxit  ab  oppressa  meritum  Karthagine  nomen 
ingenio  ofFensi  aut  laeso  doluere  Metello 
famosisque  Lupo  cooperto  versibus  ?     atqui 
primores  populi  arripuit  populumque  tributim,^ 
scilicet  uni  aequus  Virtuti  atque  eius  amicis.  70 

quin  ubi  se  a  volgo  et  scaena  in  secreta  remorant 
virtus  Scipiadae  et  mitis  sapientia  Laeli, 
nugari  cum  illo  et  discincti  ludere,  donee 
decoqueretur  holus,  soliti.     quicquid  sum  ego,  quam- 

infra  Lucili  censum  ingeniumque,  tamen  me  75 

cum  magnis  vixisse  invita  fatebitur  usque 
invidia,  et  fragili  quaerens  inlidere  dentem 
offendet  solido,  nisi  quid  tu,  docte  Trebati, 

"  Equidem  nihil  hinc  diffindere^  possum. 
sed  tamen  ut  monitus  caveas,  ne  forte  negoti  80 

incutiat  tibi  quid  sanctarum  inscitia  legum  : 
si  mala  condiderit  in  quem  quis  carmina,  ius  est 

Esto,  si  quis  mala  ;  sed  bona  si  quis 
iudice  condiderit  laudatus  Caesare  ?     si  quis 
opprobriis  dignum  latraverit,  integer  ipse  ?  8fi 

"  Solventur  risu  tabulae,  tu  missus  abibis." 

»  etD/T:  aut  aE. 

*  tributim  aK :  tributum  DE. 

'  diffindere  VDM,  II,  Porph.  :  diffingereo:  diffundere  JB? : 

"  The  younger  Scipio  Africanus. 

*  In  1.  82  Horace  uses  the  very  phraseology  of  the  XII. 
Tables  as  cited  by  Pliny,  "  qui  malum  carmen  incantassit" 
{Hist.  Nat.  xxviii.  4.  18),  and  Cicero,  "sive  carmen  condi- 


SATIRES,  II.  I.  65-86 

men,  though  foul  within,  was  Laelius  offended  at 
his  wit,  or  he  who  took  his  well-earned  name  from 
conquered  Carthage  ?  "  Or  were  they  hurt  because 
Metellus  was  smitten,  and  Lupus  buried  under  a 
shower  of  lampooning  verses  ?  Yet  he  laid  hold 
upon  the  leaders  of  the  people,  and  upon  the  people 
in  their  tribes,  kindly  in  fact  only  to  Virtue  and  her 
friends.  Nay,  when  virtuous  Scipio  and  the  wise 
and  gentle  Laelius  withdrew  into  privacy  from  the 
throng  and  theatre  of  life,  they  would  turn  to  folly, 
and  flinging  off  restraint  would  indulge  with  him  in 
sport  while  their  dish  of  herbs  was  on  the  boil.  Such  as 
I  am,  however  far  beneath  Lucilius  in  rank  and  native 
gifts,  yet  Envj",  in  spite  of  herself,  will  ever  admit 
that  I  have  lived  with  the  great,  and,  while  trying 
to  strike  her  tooth  on  something  soft,  will  dash  upon 
what  is  solid.  But  maybe  you,  learned  Trebatius, 

'^  TRE.  Indeed,  I  can  take  no  exception  to  this.  But 
for  all  that,  let  me  warn  you  to  beware,  lest  haply 
ignorance  of  our  sacred  laws  bring  you  into  trouble. 
If  a  man  write  ill  verses  against  another,''  there  is  a 
right  of  action  and  redress  by  law. 

HOR.  To  be  sure,  in  case  of  ill  verses.  But  what 
if  a  man  compose  good  verses,  and  Caesar's  judge- 
ment approve  ?  If  he  has  barked  at  someone  who 
deserves  abuse,  himself  all  blameless  ? 

TRE.  The  case  will  be  dismissed  with  a  laugh." 
You  will  get  off  scot-free. 

disset"  {De  republica,  iv.  10.  12).  Horace  is,  of  course, 
punning  on  the  use  of  malum,  which  can  mean  both 
"  libellous  "  and  "  of  bad  quality." 

*  Literally,  "the  ofScial  rei'ords  will  be  cancelled."  See 
Jefferson  Elmore,  C.R.  xxxiii.  p.  102. 



Horace  puts  the  discourse  in  the  mouth  of  Ofellus, 
an  old  neighbour  of  the  poet's,  and  a  representative 
of  the  simphcity  and  other  sturdy  quahties  of  the 
Apuhan  farmers.  As  a  whole,  however,  the  Satire 
is  mainly  a  collection  of  commonplaces  taken  from 
the  teachings  of  the  various  philosophic  schools, 
though  the  theme  and  even  the  mode  of  handling  it 
were  probably  suggested  by  Lucilius.  It  stands 
midway  between  dialogue  and  monologue,  and 
perhaps  indicates  that  the  author  is  still  experi- 
menting in  regard  to  the  form.  It  is  probably  the 
first  one  of  this  book  in  the  order  of  composition. 

The  argument  is  as  follows  :  Learn  from  me,  or 
rather  from  my  authority,  Ofellus — a  plain  but 
shrewd  countryman — the  value  of  simple  living. 
Let  us  learn  the  lesson  before  we  break  our  fast. 

A  man  never  despises  frugal  fare  after  heavy 
exercise,  because  the  pleasure  of  eating  lies,  not  in 
costly  food,  but  in  oneself.  The  most  tempting 
dainties  lose  their  flavour  for  the  man  who  has  no 
appetite.  People  foolishly  prefer  a  peacock  to  a 
pullet,  simply  because  it  has  a  fine  tail  and  costs 
inore  money.  So,  too,  a  three-pound  mullet  is 
admired,  while  a  big  pike  is  scorned.  The  former 

SATIRES,  II.  11. 

is  an  unnatural  rarity,  the  latter  is  common,  and  the 
well-fed  stomach  scorns  things  common.  Some  day 
we  shall  find  roast  gulls  in  fashion  (1-52). 

Plain  living  is  not  the  same  as  mean  living,  and 
you  must  not  avoid  one  fault  merely  to  fall  into 
another.  There  is  a  happy  mean  between  stinginess 
and  extravagance  (53-69). 

A  simple  fare  means  healtli  of  body,  a  good  diges- 
tion, sound  and  refreshing  sleep,  mental  vigour.  It 
allows  one  to  indulge  himself  occasionally,  as  when 
the  hohdays  come,  or  in  times  of  ill-health,  or  when 
old  age  arrives.  In  the  good  old  days  dainties  were 
reserved  for  hospitality  (70-93). 

A  luxurious  life  leads  to  disgrace  and  ruin.  "  That 
may  be  true  of  others,"  says  one,  "  but  I  can  well 
afford  to  be  extravagant."  Then  why  not  use  your 
money  for  better  ends  ?  And  what  about  the  changes 
and  chances  of  life  ?  Which  of  the  two  will  meet 
them  best,  the  man  accustomed  to  every  comfort,  or 
the  one  who  is  content  with  little  (94'-lll)  ? 

I  knew  Ofellus  in  my  boyhood,  when  he  was  the 
well-to-do  owner  of  the  land  on  which  he  now  pays 
rent.  In  those  days  he  lived  the  same  simple  life 
that  he  does  now,  and  when  misfortunes  came,  he 
faced  them  bravely  and  in  true  philosophic  fashion 

Kiessling  has  pointed  out  how  closely  this  Satire 
reproduces  some  ideas  found  in  the  well-known  letter 
of  Epicurus  to  Menoecus  (Diog.  Laert.  x.  131),  but 
Lejay  has  also  called  attention  to  striking  parallels 
in  Cicero's  philosophical  writings.  Even  the  phrase 
tenuis  victus  (1.  53)  is  Ciceronian  (cf.  Tusc.  Disp.  iii. 
4.9.  5  ;  V.  26.  89,  etc.).  "  Ciceron,"  says  Lejay  (p.  380), 
"  est  peut-etre  encore  plus  completement  I'inspira- 
tion  des  grandes  hgnes  de  la  satire." 



Quae  virtus  et  quanta,  boni,  sit  \avere  parvo 
(nee  meus  hie  sermo  est,  sed  quae  praecepit  Ofellus 
rusticus,  abnormis^  sapiens  crassaque  Minerva), 
discite,  non  inter  lances  mensasque  nitentis, 
cum  stupet  insanis  acies  fulgoribus  et  cum  6 

acclinis  falsis  animus  meliora  recusat, 
verum  hie  impransi  mecum  disquirite.     "  cur  hoc  ?  " 
dicam,  si  potero. 

Male  verum  examinat  omnis 
corruptus  iudex.     leporem  sectatus  equove 
lassus  ab  indomito  vel,  si  Romana  fatigat  10 

militia  adsuetum  graecari,  seu  pila  velox 
moUiter  austerum  studio  fallente  laborem, 
seu  te  discus  agit  (pete  cedentem  aera  disco) — 
cum  labor  extuderit  fastidia,  siccus,  inanis 
sperne  cibum  vilem  ;  nisi  Hymettia  mella  Falerno  15 
ne  biberis  diluta.     foris  est  promus  et  atrum 
defendens  piscis  hiemat  mare  :  cum  sale  panis 
latrantem  stomachum  bene  leniet.     unde  putas  aut 
qui  partum  ?     non  in  caro  nidore  voluptas 

^  abnormi  aEK  Acr. ;  ab  normis  Vollmer  and  Lejay. 

"  For  Romana  militia,  or  training  for  the  Roman  army, 
cf.  Cicero,  De  nat.  deor.  ii.  64,  "  ut  exerceamur  in  venando 
ad  similitudinem  bellicae  disciplinae,"  and  for  the  contrast 
with  Greek  games  see  Odes,  iii.  24.  54  if. 

*  According  to  Macrobius,  Saturn,  vii.  12,  the  besi 

Satire  II 

What  and  how  great,  my  friends,  is  the  virtue  of 
frugal  living — now  this  is  no  talk  of  mine,  but  is  the 
teaching  of  Ofellus,  a  peasant,  a  philosopher  un- 
schooled and  of  rough  mother'-wit — learn,  I  say,  not 
amid  the  tables'  shining  dishes,  when  the  eye  is 
dazed  by  senseless  splendour,  and  the  mind,  turning 
to  vanities,  rejects  the  better  part ;  but  here,  before 
we  dine,  let  us  discuss  the  point  together.  "  Why 
so  ?  "     I  will  tell  you,  if  I  can. 

*  Every  judge  who  has  been  bribed  weighs  truth 
badly.  After  hunting  the  hare  or  wearily  dismount- 
ing from  an  unbroken  horse,  or  else,  if  Roman  army- 
exercises  "  are  fatiguing  to  one  used  to  Greek  ways, 
it  may  be  the  swift  ball  takes  your  fancy,  where  the 
excitement  pleasantly  beguiles  the  hard  toil,  or  it 
may  be  the  discus  (by  all  means  hurl  the  discus 
through  the  yielding  air) — well,  when  toil  has  knocked 
the  daintiness  out  of  you  ;  when  you  are  thirsty  and 
hungry,  despise,  if  you  can,  plain  food  ;  refuse  to 
drink  any  mead,  unless  the  honey  is  from  Hymettus, 
and  the  wine  from  Falernum.''  The  butler  is  out  ; 
the  sea,  dark  and  stormy,  protects  its  fish  ;  bread 
and  salt  will  suffice  to  appease  your  growling  belly. 
Whence  or  how  do  you  think  this  comes  about  ?  The 
chiefest  pleasure  lies,  not  in  the  costly  savour,  but  in 

mead  was  made  of  new  Hymettian  honey  and  old  Falernian 



summa,  sed  in  te  ipso  est.     tu  pulmentaria  quaere  20 
sudando  :  pinguem  vitiis  albumque  neque  ostrea 
nee  scarus  aut  poterit  peregrina  iuvare  lagois. 
Vix  tamen  eripiam,  posito  pavone  velis  quin 
hoc  potius  quam  gallina  tergere  palatum, 
corruptus  vanis  rerum,  quia  veneat  auro  25 

rara  avis  et  picta  pandat  spectacula  cauda  ; 
tamquam  ad  rem  attineat  quicquam.     num  vesceris 

quam  laudas  pluma  ?    cocto  num  adest  honor^  idem  ? 
came  tamen  quamvis  distat  nil,  hac^  magis  illam^ 
imparibus  formis  deceptum  te  petere^  !     esto  :        30 
unde  datum  sentis,  lupus  hie  Tiberinus  an  alto 
captus  hiet,  pontisne  inter  iactatus  an  amnis 
ostia  sub  Tusci  ?     laudas,  insane,  trilibrem 
muUum,  in  singula  quern  minuas  pulmenta  necesse 

ducit  te  species,  video,     quo  pertinet  ergo  35 

proceros  odisse  lupos  ?     quia  scilicet  illis 
maiorem  natura  modum  dedit,  his  breve  pondus. 
ieiunus  raro  stomachus  volgaria  temnit. 

"  Porrectum  magno  magnum  spectare  catino 
vellem,"  ait  Ilarpyiis  gula  digna  rapacibus.     at  vos,  40 
praesentes  Austri,  coquite  horum  obsonia.      quam- 

putet  aper  rhombusque  recens,  mala  copia  quando 

^  color  Goth.  *  haec, 

»  illam  E  Goth.,  Porph.  :   ilia  aD,  II. 

*  petere  aDEK  Porph.  :  patet  D^M,  Orelli. 

*  quamvis,  //. 

»  Cicero  {Ad  fam.  ix.  20.  2)  implies  that  a  peacock  was 
regarded  as  an  essential  feature  of  a  banquet. 


SATIRES,  II.  11.  20-42 

yourself.  So  earn  your  sauce  with  hard  exercise. 
The  man  who  is  bloated  and  pale  from  excess 
will  find  no  comfort  in  oysters  or  trout  or  foreign 

^  Yet,  if  a  peacock  be  served,*  I  shall  hardly  root 
out  your  longing  to  tickle  your  palate  with  it  rather 
than  \\ith  a  pullet.  You  are  led  astray  by  the  vain 
appearance,  because  the  rare  bird  costs  gold  and 
makes  a  brave  show  with  the  picture  of  its  outspread 
tail — as  though  that  had  aught  to  do  >vith  the  case  ! 
Do  you  eat  the  feathers  you  so  admire  ?  Does  the 
bird  look  as  fine  when  cooked  ?  Yet,  though  in 
their  meat  they  are  on  a  par,  to  think  that  you  crave 
the  one  rather  than  the  other,  duped  by  the  difference 
in  appearance  !  Very  well.  But  what  sense  tells 
you  whether  this  pike  gasping  here  was  caught  in  the 
Tiber  or  in  the  sea,  whether  in  the  eddies  between 
the  bridges  ^  or  just  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tuscan" 
river  ?  You  foolish  fellow,  you  praise  a  three-pound 
mullet,  which  you  must  needs  cut  up  into  single 
portions.  'Tis  the  look,  I  see,  that  takes  you.  Why 
then  detest  a  very  long  pike  ?  It  is,  of  course, 
because  nature  has  made  the  pike  large,  and  the 
mullet  hght  of  weight.  Only  a  stomach  that  seldom 
feels  hunger  scorns  things  common. 

^  "But  a  big  fish  on  a  big  dish  outstretched! 
That's  what  I'd  hke  to  see  !  "  cries  a  gullet  worthy  of 
the  greedy  Harpies.  Nay,  come  in  your  might,  ye 
southern  gales,  and  taint  these  gluttons'  dainties ! 
And  yet  they  are  already  rank,  yon  boar  and  fresh 

*  i.e.  oS  the  Ins^ula  Tiberina.  The  two  bridges.  Pons 
Cestius  and  Pons  Fabricius,  connected  the  island  with  the 
right  and  left  banks  of  the  Tiber. 

•  The  Tiber  rises  in  Etruria. 



aegrum  sollicitat  stomachum,  cum  rapula  plenus 

atque  acidas  mavolt  inulas.     necdum  omnis  abacta 

pauperies  epulis  regum  :   nam  vilibus  ovis  45 

nigrisque  est  oleis  hodie  locus,    baud  ita  pridem 

Galloni  praeconis  erat  acipensere  mensa 

infamis.    quid?    tunc^  rhombos  minus  aequor  alebat^? 

tutus  erat  rhombus  tutoque  cieonia  nido, 

donee  vos  auctor  docuit  praetorius.     ergo  50 

si  quis  nunc  mergos  suavis  edixerit  assos, 

parebit  pravi  docilis  Romana  iuventus. 

Sordidus  a  tenui  victu  distabit,^  Ofello 
iudice  ;   nam  frustra  vitium  vitaveris  illud, 
si  te  alio  pravum  detorseris.     Avidienus,  55 

cui  Canis  ex  vero  ductum*  cognomen  adhaeret. 
quinquennis  oleas  est  et  silvestria  corna, 
ac  nisi  mutatum  parcit  defundere^  vinum,  et 
cuius  odorem  olei^  nequeas  perferre,  licebit 
ille  repotia,  natalis  alios ve  dierum  60 

festos  albatus  celebret,  cornu  ipse  bilibri 
caulibus  instillat,  veteris  non  parcus  aceti. 
quali  igitur  victu  sapiens  utetur,  et  horum 
utrum  imitabitur?     hac  urget  lupus,  hac  canis,  aiunt.' 
mundus  erit,  qua^  non  offendat  sordibus,  atque         65 
in  neutram  partem  cultus  miser,     hie  neque  servis, 
Albuci  senis  exemplo,  dum  munia  didit,® 

^  turn,  II.  '  aequora  alebant  EM. 

'  distabit  early  editors  :  distabat  mss. 

*  ductum  V:  dictum  mss. 

5  fundere,  //.  «  olet,  //.  '  angit  D». 

8  qui,  //.  »  dedit  DEAL 

'  Lucilius  had  satirized  Gallonius  for  serving  a  huge 
sturgeon  at  dinner. 

''  According  to  Porphyrion,  the  reference  is  to  one  Rufus, 
who  set  the  fashion  of  eating  storks,  and  who  was  defeated 


SATIRES,  II.  n.  43-67 

turbot,  since  cloying  plenty  worries  the  jaded 
stomach,  which,  sated  as  it  is,  prefers  radishes  and 
tart  pickles  the  while.  Nor  is  the  poor  man's  fare  yet 
wholly  banished  from  the  feasts  of  kings,  for  cheap 
eggs  and  black  olives  still  have  a  place.  'Tis  not  so 
long  ago  that  by  reason  of  a  sturgeon  the  table  of 
Gallonius  the  auctioneer  won  ill  repute."  What  ? 
Was  the  sea  less  a  home  for  turbots  in  those  days  ."* 
The  turbot  was  safe,  and  safe  was  the  nest  of  the 
stork,  till  a  praetor's  sanction  taught  you  the  lesson .'' 
So  now,  should  someone  decree  that  roasted  gulls  are 
delicacies,  our  Roman  youth,  quick  to  learn  ill  ways, 
will  obey. 

^  A  mean  style  of  living  will  differ,  so  Ofellus 
thinks,  from  a  simple  one ;  for  it  ^\^ll  be  idle  for  you 
to  shun  one  fault,  if  you  turn  aside  into  another 
crooked  path.  Avidienus,  to  whom  the  nickname 
"  Dog  "  quite  rightly  clings,  eats  his  olives  five  years 
old  with  cornels  from  the  wood,  and  is  chary  of 
dra\\ing  his  wine  till  it  has  soured ;  as  to  his  oil,  you 
couldn't  bear  its  smell,  yet  even  if  in  his  whitened 
garb  "  he  keeps  a  wedding  or  birthday  feast  or  some 
other  holiday,  he  drops  it  on  the  salad  from  a  two- 
pound  horn  with  his  own  hands,  though  his  old 
vinegar  he  does  not  stint.  What  style  then  will  the 
wise  man  adopt,  and  which  of  these  two  will  he  copy  ? 
On  the  one  side,  as  the  saying  is,  a  wolf  attacks,  on 
the  other  a  dog.  He  will  be  neat,  so  far  as  not  to 
shock  us  by  meanness,  and  in  his  mode  of  living  ■will 
be  unhappy  in  neither  direction.  He  will  neither, 
like  old  Albucius,  be  cruel  to  his  slaves,  as  he  assigns 

for  the  praetorship.  The  word  praetorius  is  therefore  used 
in  irony. 

'  i^.  in  holiday  attire,  and  wearing  a  freshly  cleaned  toga. 



saevus  erit  ;  nee  sic  ut  simplex  Naevius  unctam 
convivis  praebebit  aquam  :   vitium  hoc  quoque  mag- 
num. 69 

Accipe  nunc,  victus  tenuis  quae  quantaque  secum 
adferat.     imprimis  valeas  bene,     nam  variae  res 
ut  noceant  homini  credas,  memor  illius  escae, 
quae  simplex  olim  tibi  sederit  :   at  simul  assis 
miscueris  elixa,  simul  conchylia  turdis, 
dulcia  se  in  bilem  vertent  stomachoque  tumultum   76 
lenta  feret  pituita.     vides  ut  pallidus  omnis 
cena  desurgat  dubia  ?     quin  corpus  onustum 
hesternis  vitiis  animum  quoque  praegravat  una 
atque  adfigit  humo  divinae  particulam  aurae. 
alter,  ubi  dicto  citius  curata  sopori  80 

membra  dedit,  vegetus  praescripta  ad  munia  surgit. 
hie  tamen  ad  melius  poterit  transcurrere  quondam, 
sive  diem  festum  rediens  advexerit  annus, 
seu  recreare  volet  tenuatum  corpus,  ubique 
accedent  anni,^  tractari  mollius  aetas  85 

imbecilla  volet  :   tibi  quidnam  accedet  ad  istam 
quani  puer  et  validus  praesumis  mollitiem,  seu 
dura  valetudo  incident  seu  tarda  senectus  ? 

Rancidum  api'um  antiqui  laudabant,  non  quia  nasus 
illis  nullus  erat,  sed,  credo,  hac  mente,  quod  hospes 
tardius  adveniens  vitiatum^  commodius  quam  91 

1  anni  et  Bentley.  *  vitiaret  VaEM. 

"  The  phrase  cena  dubia  (used  by  Terence,  Phormio,  342) 
had  become  proverbial.  It  means  a  dinner  so  varied  that 
you  don't  know  what  to  take. 

*  Horace  is  usin}?  the  language  of  high  philosophy.  The 
animus  is  a  part  of  the  universal  divine  spirit  imprisoned  in 
the  body;  cf.  Cicero,  De  senectute,  21.  78,  "ex  universa 
mente  delibatos  animos."  In  adfigit  humo  Horace  echoes 
Plato,  who,  in  Phaedo  83  d,  says  that  every  pleasure  and 


SATIRES,  II.  11.  68-91 

their  tasks,  nor,  like  careless  Naevins,  will  he  offer 
greasy  water  to  his  guests:  this  too  is  a  great 

™  Now  learn  what  and  how  great  are  the  blessings 
that  simple  hving  brings  in  its  train.  First  of  all, 
good  health.  For  how  harmful  to  a  man  a  variety  of 
dishes  is,  you  may  realize,  if  you  recall  that  plain  fare 
which  agreed  with  you  in  other  days.  But  as  soon  as 
you  mix  boiled  and  roast,  sheU-fish  and  thrushes,  the 
sweet  wll  turn  to  bile,  and  the  thick  phlegm  will 
cause  intestine  feud.  Do  you  see  how  pale  rises 
each  guest  from  his  "  puzzle  feast  "  *  ?  Nay  more, 
clogged  with  yesterday's  excess,  the  body  drags 
down  with  itself  the  mind  as  well,  and  fastens  to 
earth  a  fragment  of  the  di\'ine  spirit.'  The  other, 
when  after  refreshment  he  has  surrendered  his  limbs 
to  sleep  sooner  than  you  can  speak,*  rises  up  in 
vigour  for  his  appointed  tasks.  Yet  at  times  he  will 
be  able  to  pass  over  to  better  cheer,  whether  the 
revohing  year  brings  some  holiday,  or  he  wants  to 
renew  a  shrunken  frame,  and  when,  as  time  advances, 
the  frailty  of  age  looks  for  more  indulgent  treatment. 
But  as  for  you,  if  ill-health  come,  or  enfeebling  age, 
what  will  you  bring  to  add  to  that  indulgence  wliich, 
while  young  and  hale,  you  thus  forestall  ? 

^  Our  fathers  used  to  praise  a  boar  when  high ; 
not  that  they  had  no  noses,  but  with  this  thought, 
I  suppose,  that  a  guest  arriving  behind  time  could 
more   conveniently  eat   it  when   tainted   than  the 

every  pain  is  a  sort  of  nail,  which  nails  (t/xxtt/XoI)  the  soul 
to  the  body. 

*  The  proverbial  expression  dicto  citius,  "quicker  than 
a  word,"  is  hke  the  English  "  before  you  can  say  Jack 
Robinson."  The  phrase  curare  membra  or  curare  corpus  is 
often  used  of  taking  refreshment. 



integrum  edax  dominus  consumeret.  hos  utinam  inter 
heroas  natum  tellus  me  prima  tulisset  ! 

Das  aliquid  famae,  quae  carmine  gratior  aurem 
occupet^  humanam  :  grandes  rliombi  patinaeque      95 
grande  ferunt  una  cum  damno  dedecus  ;   adde 
iratum  patruum,  vicinos,  te  tibi  iniquum 
et  frustra  mortis  cupidum,  cum  derit  egenti 
as,  laquei  pretium.     "  iure,"  inquit,  "  Trausius  istis 
iui-gatur  verbis  :   ego  vectigalia  magna  100 

divitiasque  habeo  tribus  amplas  regibus."     ergo 
quod  superat  non  est  melius  quo  insumere  possis  ? 
cur  eget  indignus  quisquam,  te  divite  ?     quare 
templa  ruunt  antiqua  deum  ?     cur,  improbe,  carae 
non  aliquid  patriae  tanto  emetiris  acervo  ?  105 

uni  nimirum  recte^  tibi  semper  erunt  res, 
o  magnus  posthac  inimicis  risus  !     uterne 
ad  casus  dubios  fidet  sibi  certius  ?     hie  qui 
pluribus  adsuerit  mentem  corpusque  superbum, 
an  qui  contentus  parvo  metuensque  futuri  110 

in  pace,  ut  sapiens,  aptarit  idonea  bello  ? 

Quo  magis  hiscredaSjpuer"*  huncego  parvus  Ofellum 
integris  opibus  novi  non  latius  usum 
quam  nunc  accisis.     videas  metato*  in  agello 
cum  pecore  et  gnatis  fortem  mercede  colonum,     115 

^  occupat,  II.  *  rectae  V. 

^  puer  X  Goth. :  puerum,  /.         *  metatum,  II. 

<•  Horace  says  that  their  ancestors  kept  the  boar  till  it 
was  "  high,"  a  practice  which  he  attributes  to  their  hospitality, 
or  desire  to  have  something  in  store  should  a  guest  arrive. 

''  In  Latin  literature  the  uncle  is  the  regular  type  of  the 
stern  and  severe  relative. 

"  This  jest,  found  in  Plautus,  e.g.  Pseud.  88,  doubtless 
conies  from  Attic  comedy. 

■*  The  word  means  "measured  off,"  i.e.  for  confiscation. 


SATIRES,  II.  n.  92-115 

greedy  master,  while  still  fresh.  Oh,  that  the  early 
world  had  given  me  birth  among  heroes  such  as 
those  !  <» 

^*  You  set  some  store  by  good  repute,  which, 
sweeter  than  song,  charms  the  human  ear.  Big 
turbots  and  dishes  bring  a  big  scandal  and  loss.  Add 
the  angry  uncle,''  the  angry  neighbours,  your  hatred 
of  self,  your  vain  longing  for  death,  when  in  your  need 
you  lack  a  penny  to  buy  a  halter  ^\ith.''  "  'Tis  all 
right,"  he  answers,  "  for  Trausius  to  be  scolded  in 
such  language,  but  I  have  large  revenues,  and  riches 
ample  for  three  kings."  Well,  is  there  no  better 
object  on  which  you  can  spend  your  surplus  ?  Why 
is  any  worthy  man  in  want,  while  you  are  rich  ? 
Why  are  the  ancient  temples  of  the  gods  in  ruin  ? 
Why,  shameless  man,  do  you  not  measure  out  some- 
tliing  from  that  great  heap  for  your  dear  country  ? 
You  alone,  of  course,  will  always  find  things  go  well. 
Oh,  what  a  laughing-stock  you  will  be  some  day  for 
your  enemies  !  Which  of  the  two,  in  face  of  changes 
and  chances,  will  have  more  self-confidence — he  who 
has  accustomed  a  pampered  mind  and  body  to 
superfluities,  or  he  who,  content  \Wth  httle  and 
fearful  of  the  future,  has  in  peace,  like  a  wise  man, 
provided  for  the  needs  of  war  ? 

^^2  That  you  may  give  more  credit  to  such  words, 
I  will  tell  you  how,  when  I  was  a  little  boy,  this 
Ofellus,  as  I  well  know,  used  his  full  means  on  no 
larger  scale  than  he  does  now,  when  they  are  cut 
down.  You  may  see  him  on  his  little  farm,  now 
assigned  to  others,**  with  his  cattle  and  his  sons,  a 

It  was  assigned  to  the  veteran  Umbrenus  (ii.  133).  Probably 
Ofellus  was  dispossessed  of  his  farm  when  Horace,  like 
Virgil,  lost  his  own  property,  in  -tl  b.c. 

L  145 


"  non  ego,"  narrantem,  "  temere  edi  luce  profesta 
quiequam  praeter  holus  fumosae  cum  pede  pemae. 
ac  mihi  seu  longum  post  tempus  venerat  hospes, 
sive  operum  vacuo  gratus  conviva  per  imbrem 
vicinus,  bene  erat  non  piscibus  urbe  petitis,  120 

sed  pullo  atque  haedo  ;  turn^  pensilis  uva  secundas 
et  nux  ornabat  mensas  cum  duplice  ficu. 
post  hoc  ludus  erat  culpa^  potare  magistra, 
ac  venerata  Ceres,  ita  culmo  surgeret  alto, 
explicuit  vino  contractae  seria  frontis.  125 

saeviat  atque  novos  moveat  Fortuna  tumultus  : 
quantum'  hinc  imminuet  ?     quanto  aut  ego  parcius 

aut  vos, 
o  pueri,  nituistis.'*  ut  hue  novus  incola  venit  ? 
nam  propriae  telluris  erum  natura  neque  ilium 
nee  me  nee  quemquam  statuit  :  nos  expulit  ille  ;   130 
ilium  aut  nequities  aut  vafri  inscitia  iuris, 
postremum  expellet  certe  vivacior  heres.^ 
nunc  ager  Umbreni  sub  nomine,  nuper  Ofelli 
dictus,  erit  nulli  proprius,  sed  cedet  in  usum 
nunc  mihi,  nunc  alii.®     quocirca  vivite  fortes,         135 
fortiaque  adversis  opponite  pectora  rebus." 

*  tunc,  / :  turn,  //,  Priscian. 

*  culpa  MSS.f  Porph. :  cupa  Bentley,  who  also  suggeated 
nulla :  captu  .  .  .  magistro  Housman. 

^  quantum  DM,  II:  Peerlkamp  conjectured  quando. 

*  instituistis  D^cpXl. 

*  From  here  D  is  wanting  up  to  ii.  3.  75.  *  aliis  X. 

"  Instead  of  the  formalities  of  a  banquet,  where  a  magister 
bibendi  prescribed  the  rules,  any  shirking  would  be  punished 
by  a  forfeit. 

'  Usus  is  probably  put  for  usus/ructus,  which  was  the  right 


SATIRES,  II.  11.  116-136 

sturdy  tenant-farmer,  and  tliis  is  his  stor}'-  :  "  I  was 
not  the  man  to  eat  on  a  working  day,  \sithout  good 
reason,  anything  more  than  greens  and  the  shank  of 
a  smoked  ham,  and  if  after  long  absence  a  friend 
came  to  see  me,  or  if  in  rainy  weather,  when  I  could 
not  work,  a  neighbour  paid  me  a  \isit — a  welcome 
guest — we  fared  well,  not  \^-ith  fish  sent  for  from  town, 
but  with  a  pullet  or  a  kid;  by  and  by  raisins  and 
nuts  and  split  figs  set  off  otir  dessert.  Then  we  had 
a  game  of  drinking,  with  a  forfeit  to  rule  the  feast," 
and  Ceres,  to  whom  we  made  our  prayer — "  so  might 
she  rise  on  lofty  stalk  !  " — smoothed  out  with  >\ine 
the  worries  of  a  >vrinkled  brow.  Let  Fortune  storm 
and  stir  fresh  turmoils  ;  how  much  -v^ill  she  take  off 
from  this  ?  How  much  less  sleek  have  I  been,  or 
you,  my  lads,  since  this  new  landlord  came  ?  Nature, 
in  truth,  makes  neither  him  nor  me  nor  anyone  else 
lord  of  the  soil  as  his  ovm.  He  drove  us  out,  and  he 
will  be  driven  out  by  villainy,  or  by  ignorance  of  the 
quirks  of  the  law,  or  in  the  last  resort  by  an  heir  of 
longer  life.  To-day  the  land  bears  the  name  of 
Umbrenus  ;  of  late  it  had  that  of  Ofellus  ;  to  no  one 
will  it  belong  for  good,  but  for  use  it  will  pass,  now 
to  me  and  now  to  another.*  Live,  then,  as  brave 
men,  and  with  brave  hearts  confront  the  strokes  of 

of  using  and  enjoying  property,  but  not  of  owning  it.  The 
latter  was  called  dominium.  For  the  thought  cf.  the  famous 
verse  in  Lucretius  (iii.  971),  "  Life  is  granted  to  none  in  fee- 
simple,  to  all  on  lease," 

vitaque  mancipio  nulli  datur,  omnibus  usu. 




According  to  the  Stoics,  everyone  save  the  wise 
man  is  mad ;  iroii  a</>/>wv  fiaire-ai,.  Horace  makes 
this  paradox  his  text  and  assails  the  folhes  of  the 

The  Satire  takes  the  form  of  a  dialogue  between 
the  poet  and  Damasippus.  Horace  is  at  his  newly 
acquired  Sabine  farm,  to  which  he  has  retired  to 
avoid  the  excitement  of  the  Saturnaha  in  Rome. 
Damasippus,  of  whom  we  hear  in  Cicero's  Epistles, 
is  a  bankrupt  speculator  and  dealer  in  works  of  art, 
who,  having  fallen  into  the  depths  of  despair,  had 
been  rescued  by  the  Stoic  sage  Stertinius,  was  con- 
verted by  him  to  philosophy,  and  so  made  into  the 
M-ise  man  he  has  now  become.  He  reports  a  long 
discourse  of  Stertinius  upon  the  text,  "  all  men,  save 
only  the  wise,  are  mad  "  (1-81). 

The  sermon  of  Stertinius  may  be  divided  into  four 
parts,  dealing  with  avarice  (82-157),  ambition  (158- 
223),  self-indulgence  (225-280),  and  superstition 
(281-295),  all  of  which  are  phases  of  madness. 

The  avaricious  are  the  largest  class  of  madmen. 
They  beheve  poverty  to  be  the  greatest  possible 
disgrace,  and  suppose  that  wealth  can  confer  every 
blessing  (91-97).     Avarice,  as  well  as  its  opposite, 



prodigality,  are  illustrated  by  the  story  of  the  two 
sons  of  Servius  Oppidius  (168-178). 

The  ambitious  are  mad.  Agamemnon,  slaying  his 
daughter  for  the  sake  of  power  and  position,  was 
just  as  mad  as  Ajax,  who  slew  sheep  under  the 
delusion  that  they  were  his  enemies  (193-213). 

The  madness  of  self-indulgence  is  illustrated  by 
the  spendthrift  Nomentanus,  who  wastes  the  fortune 
he  has  inherited  (224-238)  ;  by  the  son  of  Aesopus, 
who  swallows  the  precious  pearl  of  his  mistress 
which  he  has  dissolved  in  vinegar  (239-241)  ;  by  the 
sons  of  Arrius,  who  breakfast  on  costly  nightingales 
(243-246)  ;  and  especially  by  the  follies  of  lovers, 
who  are  often  as  crazy  as  would  be  a  grown-up  man 
if  he  indulged  in  the  sports  of  children  (247-254). 
Better  for  them  to  follow  the  example  of  Polemon, 
who  listened  to  the  voice  of  reason  and  cast  away 
the  tokens  of  his  malady  (254-257).  The  love  passion 
may  even  lead  to  bloodshed,  as  we  saw  the  other 
day  when  Marius  murdered  his  mistress  and  took 
his  own  hfe  (275-280). 

The  madness  of  superstition  is  illustrated  by  the 
old  freedman  who  prayed  for  immortality,  and  by 
the  mother  whose  sick  son  recovers  only  to  be  killed 
through  her  foolish  vow  (281-295). 

"  And  what,"  asks  Horace,  as  Damasippus  brings 
tliis  long  sermon  of  Stertinius  to  a  close,  "  is  my 
madness  ?     I  think  I  am  sane." 

DAMASIPPUS.  So  Agave  thought,  when  she  was 
carrying  in  her  hands  the  head  of  her  unfortunate 

HORACE.   Well,  what  is  my  madness  ? 

DAM.  You  are  aping  the  great,  like  the  frog  in 
the  fable.  You  write  verses,  you  have  a  bad  temper, 

SATIRES,  II.  m. 

you  live  beyond  your  means,  you  are  always  falling 
in  love. 

HOR.  You  greater  madman,  spare  the  lesser ! 

Tliis  is  not  only  the  longest,  but  also  the  best 
constructed  of  Horace's  Satires.  Notwithstand- 
ing the  long  discourse  which  makes  up  the  main 
body  of  the  poem,  the  dialogue-form  serves  as  a 
framework  for  the  whole,  and  allows  the  poet  to 
employ  a  light,  humorous  vein  in  both  beginning 
and  end,  where  he  turns  the  laugh  against  himself. 
Note  that  while  the  ^Titer's  main  aim  throughout  is 
to  portray  striking  forms  of  human  folly,  a  second 
one  is  to  ridicule  the  airs  and  manners  of  the  Stoic 
preachers  of  the  day.  The  Satire  was  probably 
written  in  33  B.C.,  because  in  1.  185  there  is  a  reference 
to  the  curule  aedileship  of  Agrippa,  held  in  that  year 
and  distinguished  by  magnificence  of  display. 



"  Sic*  raro  scribis,^  ut  toto  non  quater  anno 
membranam  poscas,  scriptorum  quaeque  retexens, 
iratus  tibi,  quod  vini  somnique  benignus 
nil  dignum  sermone  canas  ;  quid  fiet  ?     at^  ipsis 
Saturnalibus  hue  fugisti.     sobrius  ergo*  5 

die  aliquid  dignum  promissis  :  ineipe,     nil  est : 
eulpantur  frustra  ealami,  immeritusque  laborat 
iratis  natus  paries  dis  atque  poetis. 
atqui  voltus  erat  multa  et  praeclara  minantis, 
si  vaeuum  tepido  eepisset  villula  teeto.  10 

quorsum  pertinuit  stipare  Platona  Menandro, 
Eupolin,  Archilochum,  eomites  educere  tantos  ? 
invidiam  placare  paras  virtute  relicta  ? 
contemnere,  miser,     vitanda  est  improba  Siren 
desidia,  aut  quidquid  vita  meliore  parasti  15 

ponendum  aequo  animo."   di  te,  Damasippe,  deaeque 
^  sic  :  si  E. 
^  scribis  M:  scribes  aE.     Dentley  read  si  scribes. 

'  at  V,  II :  ah,  I.  *  Bentley  punctuated  after  sohrms. 

"  Parchment  would  be  needed  for  the  final  form  of  his 
words,  after  the  poet  had  written  and  corrected  his  notes 
on  the  tablets. 

*  Horace  is  probably  thinking  of  Penelope's  web. 

"  The  wall  suffers  because  the  poet  pounds  it  in  his  vain 
efforts  at  composition. 

■*  Thougli  Orelli  supposed  that  Plato  the  philosopher  is 
here  meant,  it  seems  certain  that  Horace  is  speaking  of 
Plato  the  poet,  leader  of  the  so-called  Middle  Attic  Comedy. 


Satire  III 

DAMASiPPUS.   So  seldom  do  you  write,  that  not  four 

times  in  all  the  year  do  you  call  for  the  parchment,'^ 
while  you  unweave  the  web  of  all  you  have  written,*" 
and  are  angry  ^^•ith  yourself  because,  while  so 
generous  of  wine  and  of  sleep,  you  turn  out  no  poetry 
worth  talking  about.  What  will  be  the  end  ?  \Miy, 
you  say,  even  in  the  SaturnaUa  you  fled  here  for 
refuge.  Well  then,  in  your  sober  mood,  tell  some- 
tiling  worthy  of  your  promises.  Begin.  Nothing 
comes.  In  vain  you  blame  the  pen  ;  and  the  innocent 
wall,  begotten  when  gods  and  poets  were  angry, 
must  suffer."  Yet  you  had  the  look  of  one  who 
tlireatened  great  and  glorious  things,  if  once  you 
were  care-free  and  your  country  cottage  welcomed 
you  under  its  warm  roof.  What  was  the  use  of 
packing  Plato  <*  with  Menander,  and  of  taking  out 
of  town  Eupolis  and  Archilochus,  such  weighty 
comrades  ?  Think  you  to  lay  Envy  low  by  deserting 
Virtue  ?  You  will  earn  contempt,  poor  wretch. 
You  must  shun  the  ^^^cked  Siren,  Sloth,  or  be  content 
to  drop  whatever  honour  you  have  gained  in  nobler 

HORACE.   May  the  gods  and  goddesses  give  you. 

Thus  he  would  take  with  him  to  the  country  representatives 
of  Old  (Eupolis),  Middle,  and  New  (Menander)  Comedy, 
as  well  as  the  great  iambic  poet,  Archilochus. 



verum  ob  consilium  donent  tonsore.     sed  unde 
tam  bene  me  nosti  ? 

"  Postquam  omnis  res  mea  lanum 
ad  medium  fracta  est,  aliena  negotia  euro, 
excussus  propriis.     olim  nam  quaerere  amabam,     20 
quo  vafer^  ille  pedes  lavisset  Sisyphus  aere, 
quid  sculptum  infabre,  quid  fusum  durius  esset ; 
callidus  huic  signo  ponebam  milia  centum ; 
hortos  egregiasque  domos  mercarier  unus 
cum  lucro  norani  ;   unde  frequentia  Mercuriale       23 
imposuere  mihi  cognomen  compita."     novi, 
et  miror  morbi  purgatum  te  illius.     "  atqui 
emovit  veterem  mire  novus,  ut  solet,  in  cor 
fcraiecto  lateris  miseri  capitisve^  dolore, 
ut  lethargicus  hie  cum  fit  pugil  et  medicum  urget."  30 
dum  ne  quid  simile  huic,  esto  ut  libet.     "  o  bone,  ne  te 
frustrere,  insanis  et  tu  stultique  prope  omnes, 
si  quid  Stertinius  veri^  crepat,  unde  ego  mira 
descripsi  docilis  praecepta  haec,  tempore  quo  me 
solatus  iussit  sapientem  pascere  barbam  35 

atque  a  Fabricio  non  tristem  ponte  reverti. 

^  vafer,  7,  Porph. :  faber,  //. 
•  -ve]  -que  a,  II.  '  verum,  II. 

"  Being  a  philosopher,  Damasippus  grows  a  long  beard. 
See  1.  35  below. 

*  The  temple  of  Janus  stood  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Forum,  at  the  entrance  to  the  street  called  Argiletum. 
This  street,  centre  of  the  banking  business  of  Rome,  is  here 
called  "  Janus  "  after  the  temple,  and  was  probably  lined 
with  a  colonnade  or  arcade.  Horace  elsewhere  uses  the 
expression  lanus  summus  ab  irno  {Epist.  i.  1.  .54). 

*  He  was  a  connoisseur  in  antiques  and  objets  d'art. 


SATIRES,  II.  in.  17-36 

Damasippus,  for  your  sound  advice  — -  a  barber "  ! 
But  how  come  you  to  know  me  so  well  ? 

DAM.  Ever  since  the  ^^Teck  of  all  my  fortunes  at 
the  Central  Arcade, ''  I  have  looked  after  other 
people's  business,  after  being  flung  overboard  from 
my  own.  There  was  a  time  when  my  hobby  '  was 
to  look  out  for  the  bronze  in  which  shrewd  old 
Sisyphus  had  washed  his  feet,  and  to  see  what  work 
of  art  was  crude  in  the  carving,  what  was  too  rough 
in  the  casting.  As  an  expert,  I  valued  this  or  that 
statue  at  a  hundred  thousand.  As  to  gardens  and 
fine  houses,  I  was  the  one  man  that  knew  hoAV  to 
buy  them  at  a  bargain  ;  hence  the  crowded  streets 
gave  me  the  nickname  of  "  Mercury's  pet."<* 

HOR.  I  know  it,  and  am  surprised  to  find  you 
cured  of  that  disorder. 

DAM.  Nay,  what  is  surprising  is  that  a  new  dis- 
order drove  out  the  old,  as  is  the  way  when  the  pain  of 
aching  side  or  head  passes  into  the  stomach,  or  when 
the  lethargic  patient  here  turns  boxer  and  pimimels 
the  doctor. 

HOR.  As  long  as  you  do  nothing  of  that  sort,  be 
it  as  you  please. 

DAM.  My  good  sir,  don't  deceive  yourself;  you, 
too,  are  mad,  and  so,  I  may  say,  are  all  fools,  if 
there  is  any  truth  in  the  preaching  of  Stertinius, 
from  whom  I  took  down  these  wondrous  lessons  that  I 
learned,  the  very  day  that  he  consoled  me,  and  bade 
me  grow  a  wise  man's  beard,  and  go  home  from 
the  Fabrician  bridge,*  no  longer  sad.     For  after  my 

*  Mercury  was  the  god  of  gain  ;  cf.  1.  68. 

•  This  bridge,  between  the  island  in  the  Tiber,  and  the 
old  Campus  Martius,  still  stands.  The  inscription  on  it  says 
that  it  was  built  by  L.  Fabricius,  curator  viarum. 



nam  male  re  gesta  cum  vellem  mittere  operto 
me  capite  in  flumen,  dexter  stetit  et : 

'  Cave  faxis 
te   quicquam  indignum  :    pudor,'  inquit,  *  te  malus 

insanos  qui  inter  vereare  insanus  haberi.  40 

primum  nam  inquiram,  quid  sit  furere  :    hoc  si  erit^ 

in  te 
solo,  nil  verbi,  pereas  quin  fortiter,  addam. 

'  Quem  mala  stultitia  et  quemcumque  inscitia  veri 
caecum  agit,  insanum  Chrysippi  porticus  et  grex  44 
autumat.  haec  populos,  haec  magnos  formula  reges, 
excepto  sapiente,  tenet. 

'  Nunc  accipe,  quare 
desipiant  omnes  aeque  ac  tu,  qui  tibi  nomen 
insano  posuere.     velut  silvis,  ubi  passim 
palantis  error  certo  de  tramite  pellit, 
ille  sinistrorsum,hic  dextrorsum  abit,  unus  utrique^  50 
error,  sed  variis  illudit  partibus  ;  hoc  te 
crede  modo  insanum,  nihilo  ut  sapientior  ille, 
qui  te  deridet,  caudam  trahat.* 

'  Est  genus  unum 
stultitiae  nihilum  metuenda  timentis,  ut  ignis, 
ut  rupes  fluviosque  in  campo  obstare  queratur  :       56 
alterum  et  huic  varum  et  nihilo  sapientius  ignis 
per  medios  fluviosque  mentis,     clamet  amica 
mater,^  honesta  soror  cum  cognatis,  pater,  uxor  : 
"  hie  fossa  est  ingens,  hie  rupes  maxima  :  serva  !  " 

*  angit  4  Bland.  :  urget,  //.  *  si  erit]  siet,  II. 
'  Titrisque  EM,  a  not  legible.  *  trahit. 

*  amica  mater  joined  by  Porph.  Some  editors  separate 

'  The  discourse  of  Stertinius  extends  from  here,  1.  38,  to 
1.  295. 

SATIRES,  II.  III.  37-59 

business  failed,  and  I  wanted  to  cover  up  my  head 
and  fling  myself  into  the  river,  he  stood  at  my  right 
hand  and  said  "  : 

"  Beware  of  doing  anytliing  unworthy  of  yourself. 
Tis  a  false  shame  that  tortures  you,  for  among 
madmen  you  fear  to  be  thought  mad.  For  first  of 
all  I  will  ask,  What  is  madness  ?  If  this  is  found  in 
you  alone,  I  will  not  add  another  word  to  save  you 
from  dying  bravely. 

"  Every  man  whom  perverse  folly,  whom  ignorance 
of  the  truth  drives  on  in  blindness,  the  Porch  ''  of 
Chrysippus  and  his  flock  pronounce  insane.  This 
definition  takes  in  whole  nations,  this  takes  in  mighty 
kings,  all  save  only  the  sage. 

*^  "  Now  learn  why  all,  who  have  given  you  the 
name  of  madman,  are  quite  as  crazy  as  yourself.  Just 
as  in  a  forest,  where  some  error  drives  men  to  wander 
to  and  fro  from  the  proper  path,  and  this  one  goes  off 
to  the  left  and  that  one  to  the  right :  both  are  under 
the  same  error,  but  are  led  astray  in  different  ways  : 
so  believe  yourself  to  be  insane  only  so  far  that  he 
who  laughs  at  you  drags  a  tail  behind  him,  no  whit 
the  wiser  man." 

^  "  One  class  of  fools  fear  where  there  is  nothing  at 
all  to  fear,  crying  out  that  fires,  that  rocks  and  rivers 
stop  their  course  over  an  open  plain.  Another  class, 
diverging  from  this,  but  no  whit  more  wisely,  would 
rush  through  the  midst  of  fire  and  flood.  Though  a 
fond  mother,  a  noble  sister,  father,  wife  and  kindred, 
cry  out :  '  Here's  a  broad  ditch,  here's  a  huge  rock, 

*  Tfie  term  Stoic  is  derived  from  the  <rrod  (  =  porticus)  in 
Athens,  where  Zeno  and  his  successors  taught. 

"  A  reference  to  the  trick  played  by  children  of  tying  a 
tail  to  people  without  their  knowing  it. 



non  magis  audierit  quam  Fufius  ebrius  olim,  60 

cum  Ilionam  edormit,  Catienis  mille  ducentis 
"  mater,  te  appello  !  "  clamantibus.     huic  ego  volgus^ 
errori  similem  cunctum  insanire  docebo. 

'  Insanit  veteres  statuas  Damasippus  emendo  : 
integer  est  mentis  Damasippi  creditor  ?     esto.         65 
"  accipe  quod  numquam  reddas  mihi,"  si  tibi  dicam, 
tune  insanus  eris  si  acceperis  ?     an  magis  excors 
reiecta  praeda,  quam  praesens  Mercurius  fert  ? 
scribe  decem  a  Nerio^  :  non  est  satis  ;  adde  Cicutae 
nodosi  tabulas  centum,  mille  adde  catenas  :  70 

efFugiet  tamen  haec^  sceleratus  vincula  Proteus, 
cum  rapies  in  ius*  malis  ridentem  alienis, 
fiet  aper,  modo  avis,  modo  saxum  et,  cum  volet,  arbor, 
si  male  rem  gerere  insani  est,  contra  bene  sani, 
putidius  multo  cerebrum  est,  mihi  crede,  Perelli      75 
dictantis,  quod  tu  numquam  rescribere  possis. 

'  Audire  atque  togam  iubeo  componere,  quisquis 
ambitione  mala  aut  argenti  pallet  amore, 
quisquis  luxuria  tristive  superstitione 

^  vulgum  a  :  vultum  <p\l/.  *  Anerio  knoicn  to  scholiasts. 

•  hie  E.  *  in  iura  a,  II. 

"  Fufius  played  the  part  of  the  sleeping  heroine  in  the 
Ilione  of  Pacuvius,  but  when  the  ghost  of  her  murdered 
son  (a  part  taken  by  Catienus)  called  upon  her,  he  was  so 
sound  asleep  that  he  did  not  hear,  though  the  audience, 
taking  up  the  actor's  words,  joined  in  the  appeal. 

"  These  words  are  addressed  to  the  creditor,  who  is  shown 
to  be  more  foolish  than  the  borrower,  for  whatever  notes 
or  bonds  are  involved  in  the  transaction,  they  prove  to  be 
worthless  in  the  end.  "With  decem  understand  tabulas, 
Nerius  being,  like  Cicuta  and  Perellius,  a  money-lender. 
They  are  all  supposed  to  be  uncommonly  shrewd.  Many 

SATIRES,  II.  HI.  60-79 

look  out ! '  they  would  no  more  give  ear  than  once  did 
drunken  Fufius,"  as  he  over-slept  the  part  of  Ilione, 
while  twelve  hundred  Catieni  shouted,  '  Mother,  on 
thee  I  call  !  '  Like  such  folly  is  the  madness  of  all 
the  world,  as  I  shall  prove. 

*^*  "  Damasippus  is  mad  in  buying  old  statues  ;  the 
creditor  of  Damasippus,  is  he  sound  of  mind  ?  Be  it 
so  !  But  if  I  sav  to  you,  '  Take  this  sum  which  you 
need  never  return  to  me,'  will  you  be  a  madman  if 
you  take  it  ?  Or  will  you  be  more  senseless  if  you 
spurn  the  booty  which  propitious  Mercury  offers  ? 
'  Write  out  ten  bonds  drawn  up  by  Nerius.'  *  That's 
not  enough  ;  add  a  hundred  of  the  cunning  Cicuta — 
add  a  thousand  fetters  !  yet  your  scoundrelly  Proteus 
will  shp  out  from  all  these  ties.  When  you  drag  him 
to  court,  he  ^vill  laugh  at  your  expense  ; "  he  will 
turn  into  a  boar,  then  into  a  bird,  then  into  a  stone, 
or,  if  he  likes,  a  tree.  If  it  be  the  mark  of  a  madman 
to  manage  an  estate  badly,  but  of  a  sane  man  to 
manage  well,  then  much  more  addled,  believe  me,  is 
the  brain  of  a  Perellius,  who  dictates  the  bond,  which 
you  can  never  pay. 

^  "  Now  give  heed,  I  bid  you,  arrange  your  robes,'* 
and  whoever  of  you  is  pale  with  sordid  ambition  or 
avarice,  whoever  is  feverish   with    extravagance  or 

prefer  to  supply  sestertia  with  decern,  taking  Nerius  to 
be  a  banker  who  pays  out  money  on  an  order  from  the 

"  Horace's  phrase  malls  ridentem  alienis, "  laugh  with  alien 
jaws,"  is  an  echo  of  Homer's  yvadfioiai  yeXoiiiji'  dWoTpioicriv 
(Od.  XX.  347),  which,  however,  referred  to  forced,  unnatural 

**  Stertinius  now  assumes  that  he  is  addressing  a  class, 
and  therefore  bids  his  hearers  prepare  for  a  formal  discourse, 
such  as  Stoic  teachers  frequently  delivered. 



aut  alio  mentis  morbo  calet  :  hue  propius  me,  80 

dum  doceo  insanire  omnis  vos  ordine,  adite. 

'  Danda  est  ellebori  multo  pars  maxima  avaris  ; 
nescio  an  Anticyram  ratio  illis  destinet  omnem. 
heredes  Staberi  summam  incidere  sepulcro, 
ni  sic  fecissent,  gladiatorum  dare  centum  85 

damnati  populo  paria  atque  epulum  arbitrio  Arri, 
frumenti  quantum  metit  Africa.     "  sive  ego  prave 
seu  recte  hoc  volui,  ne  sis  patruus  mihi :  "  credo, 
hoc  Staberi  prudentem  animum  vidisse.     "  quid  ergo 
sensit,  cum  summam  patrimoni  insculpere  saxo      90 
heredes  voluit  ?  "     quoad  vixit,  credidit  ingens 
pauperiem  vitium  et  cavit  nihil  acrius,  ut,  si 
forte  minus  locuples  uno  quadrante  perisset,^ 
ipse  videretur  sibi  nequior      omnis  enim  res, 
virtus,  fama,  decus,  divina  humanaque  pulchris       95 
divitiis  parent ;   quas  qui  construxerit,^  ille 
claruserit,  fortis,iustus.  "sapiensne^?"  etiam,etrex 
et  quidquid  volet.'*     hoc,  veluti  virtute  paratum, 
speravit  magnae  laudi  fore. 

'  Quid  simile  isti 
Graecus  Aristippus,  qui  servos  proicere  aurum      100 
in  media  iussit  Libya,  quia  tardius  irent 
propter  onus  segnes  ?     uter  est  insanior  horum  ? 

^  periret,  /,  adopted  by  Palmer. 
*  contraxerit,  //,  3  Bland. 
»  -ne]  -que  DEM.  *  velut  in,  II. 

"  The  ancient  specific  for  insanity ;  cf.  Ars  Poetica, 
300.     For  Anticyra  see  Index. 

"  This  unusual  number  would  be  exhibited  at  the  funeral 
feast.  Q.  Arrius  entertained  many  thousands  of  people 
at  the  extravagant  funeral  feast  which  he  gave  in  honour 
of  his  father. 

«  Cf.  Sat.  ii.  2.  97.  Staberius  means  that  his  heirs  are 
not  to  criticize  him  for  what  may  seem  to  them  an  idiotic  will. 


SATIRES,  11.  III.  80-102 

gloomy  superstition,  or  some  other  mental  disorder. 
Hither,  come  nearer  to  me,  while  I  prove  that  you 
are  mad,  all  of  you  from  first  to  last. 

82  "  To  tiie  covetous  must  we  give  far  the  largest 
dose  of  hellebore  : "  wisdom,  I  rather  think,  would 
assign  to  them  all  Anticyra.  The  heirs  of  Staberius 
had  to  engrave  upon  his  tomb  the  sum  of  his  estate  : 
should  they  fail  to  do  so,  they  were  bound  to  provide 
for  the  people  a  hundred  pairs  of  gladiators  j**  with  such 
a  feast  as  Arrius  would  direct,  and  as  much  corn  as 
Africa  reaps.  '  Whether  I  am  right  or  -wTong  in  wilhng 
this,'  he  vvTote,  '  don't  play  the  uncle  *  with  me.' 
That, I  take  it,  is  what  Staberius  inhisvvisdom  foresaw. 
'  Well,'  you  ask,  *  what  was  his  intent  when  he 
willed  tliat  his  heirs  should  carve  on  stone  the  sum  of 
his  estate  ?  '  All  his  life  long  he  thought  poverty  a 
monstrous  e\il,  and  shunned  nothing  more  earnestly, 
so  that,  if  haply  he  had  died  less  rich  by  a  single 
penny,  so  far  would  he  have  thought  himself  the  worse 
man.  For  all  things — worth,  repute,  honour,  things 
divine  and  human — are  slaves  to  the  beauty  of  wealth, 
and  he  who  has  made  his  '  pile  '  will  be  famous, 
brave  and  just.  '  And  Mise  too  ?  '  Yes,  wise,  and 
a  king  and  anytliing  else  he  pleases.**  His  riches,  as 
though  won  by  worth,  would  bring  him,  he  hoped, 
great  renown. 

^  ' '  What  is  the  Ukeness  between  such  a  man  and  the 
Greek  Aristippus,  who  in  mid  Libya  bade  his  slaves 
throw  away  his  gold,  because,  said  he,  freighted  vWth 
the  burden,  they  journeyed  too  slowly  ?  Which  of 
the  two  is  the  madder  ?     Useless  is  an  instance  which 

Hoc  in  1.  89  refers  to  this  censorious  attitude,  not  to  the 
substance  of  II.  94  f.,  as  Keightley,  Wickham  and  Lejay  hold. 
*  Cf.  Sat.  i.  3.  124  and  note. 

M  l6l 


nil  agit  exemplum,  litem  quod  lite  resolvit. 
si  quis  emat  citharas,  emptas  comportet  in  unum, 
nee  studio  citharae  nee  Musae  deditus  ulli,  105 

si  scalpra  et  formas  non  sutor,  nautica  vela 
aversus  mercaturis,  delirus  et  amens 
undique  dicatur  merito.     qui^  discrepat  istis,* 
qui  nummos  aurumque  recondit,  nescius  uti 
compositis  metuensque  velut  contingere  sacrum  ?  110 

'  Si  quis  ad  ingentem  frumenti  semper  acervum 
porrectus^  vigilet  cum  longo  fuste,  neque  illinc 
audeat  esuriens  dominus  contingere  granum, 
ac  potius  foliis  parcus  vescatur*  amaris  ; 
si  positis  intus  Chii  veterisque  Falerni  115 

mille  cadis — nihil  est,  tercentum  milibus — acre 
potet  acetum  ;   age,  si  et  stramentis  incubet,  unde- 
octoginta  annos  natus,  cui  stragula  vestis, 
blattarum  ac  tinearum  epulae,  putrescat  in  area  ; 
nimirum  insanus  paucis  videatur,  eo  quod  120 

maxima  pars  hominum  morbo  iactatur  eodem. 
filius  aut  etiam  haec  libertus  ut  ebibat  heres, 
dis  inimice  senex,  custodis  ?     ne  tibi  desit  ? 
quantulum  enim  summae  curtabit  quisque  dierum, 
unguere  si  caulis  oleo  meliore  caputque  125 

coeperis  impexa  foedum  porrigine  ?     quare, 
si  quidvis  satis  est,  periuras,  surripis,  aufers 
undique  ?     tun^  sanus  ! 

'  Populum  si  caedere  saxis 
incipias  servosve  tuos,*  quos  aere  pararis, 

*  quid  DE.  *  iste,  //.  *  proiectus. 

*  vexatur  aE  :  pascatur  M. 
*  tunc  D  :  tu  insanus  M,  II.  *  tuo  Goth. 

'  «  For  1.  122  cf.  Od.  ii.  14.  25 : 

absumet  heres  Caecuba  dignior 
servata  centum  clavibus,  etc. 


SATIRES,  II.  III.  103-129 

solves  puzzle  by  puzzle.  If  a  man  were  to  buy 
harps,  and  soon  as  bought  were  to  pile  them  together, 
though  feeling  no  interest  in  the  harp  or  any  Muse ; 
if,  though  no  cobbler,  he  did  the  same  with  shoe- 
knives  and  lasts  ;  with  ships'  sails,  though  set  against 
a  ti-ader's  hfe — everyone  would  call  him  crazy  and 
mad,  and  rightly  too.  How  differs  from  these  the 
man  who  hoards  up  silver  and  gold,  though  he 
knows  not  how  to  use  his  store,  and  fears  to  touch 
it  as  though  hallowed  ? 

^^  "  If  beside  a  huge  corn-heap  a  man  were  to  lie 
outstretched,  keeping  ceaseless  watch  with  a  big 
cudgel,  yet  never  dare,  hungry  though  he  be  and  the 
o^vner  of  it  all,  to  touch  one  grain  thereof,  but  rather 
feed  like  a  miser  on  bitter  herbs  ;  if,  with  a  thousand 
jars — that's  nothing,  say  three  hundred  thousand — K)f 
Chian  and  old  Falernian  stored  in  his  cellars,  he  were 
to  drink  sharp  \inegar  ;  nay  if,  when  but  a  year  short 
of  eighty,  he  should  lie  on  bed  of  straw,  though  rich 
coverlets,  prey  of  moths  and  worms,  lay  mouldering 
in  his  chest ;  few,  doubtless,  would  think  him  mad, 
because  the  mass  of  men  toss  about  in  the  same  kind 
of  fever.  Is  it  that  a  son  or  even  a  freedman  heir 
may  drink  it  up  that  you,  you  god-forsaken  dotard, 
are  guarding  it  ?  "  Is  it  that  you  fear  want  ?  Why, 
how  tiny  a  smn  will  each  day  dock  off,  if  you  begin 
with  better  oil  to  dress  your  salad,  as  well  as  your 
head,  foul  with  uncombed  scurf  ?  WTiy,  if  anything 
is  enough  for  you,  do  you  perjure,  steal,  plunder  on 
every  side  ?     You  sane  ! 

128  "  If  you  were  to  take  to  pelting  stones  at  the 
crowd,  or  at  your  own  slaves,  for  whom  you've  paid 



insanum  te  omnes  pueri  clamentque  puellae  :        130 
cum  laqueo  uxorem  interemis  matremque  veneno, 
incolumi  capite  es  ?     quid  enim  ?     neque  tu  hoc  facis 

nee  ferro  ut  demens  genetricem  oecidis  Orestes. 
an  tu  reris  eum  occisa  insanisse  parente, 
ac  non  ante  malis  dementem  actum  Furiis  quam    135 
in  matris  iugulo  ferrum  tepefecit  acutum  ? 
quin  ex  quo  est  habitus  male  tutae  mentis  Orestes 
nil  sane  fecit,  quod  tu  reprehendere  possis  : 
non  Pyladen  ferro  violare  aususve  sororem 
Electran,  tantum  maledicit  utrique  vocando  140 

hanc  Furiam,  hunc  aliud,  iussit  quod  splendida  bilis. 

'  Pauper  Opimius^  ai-genti  positi  intus  et  auri, 
qui  Veientanum  festis  potare  diebus 
Campana  solitus  trulla  vappamque  profestis, 
quondam  lethargo  grandi  est  oppressus,  ut  heres  145 
lam  circum  loculos  et  clavis  laetus  ovansque 
curreret.     hunc  medicus  multum  celer  atque  fidelis 
excitat  hoc  pacto  :   mensam  poni  iubet  atque 
effundi  saccos  nummorum,  accedere  pluris 
ad    numerandum.     hominem    sic    erigit,    addit    et 

illud  :  150 

"  ni  tua  custodis,  avidus  iam  haec  auferet  heres." 
"  men  vivo  ?  "     "  ut  vivas  igitur,  vigila.     hoc  age." 

"  quid^  vis  ?  " 
"  deficient^  inopem  venae  te,  ni  cibus  atque 
ingens  accedit*  stomacho  fultura  ruenti. 
^  Opimius  Porph.  :  opimus,  //. 

2  quod  B,  II.         «  deficiant  E.  *  accedat  DX. 

"  The  argument  is  ironical.  Such  an  incident  as  this 
matricide  might  savour  of  high  tragedy,  but,  of  course,  in 
the  tragedy  of  Orestes  both  the  place  and  the  manner  of 
killing  were  different.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  these  differences 
are  quite  unessential. 


SATIRES,  II.  III.  130-154 

in  cash,  all  would  hoot  at  you  as  mad,  lads  and  lasses 
alike.  When  you  strangle  your  -wife  and  poison  your 
mother,  are  you  sound  in  head  ?  Why  not  ?  You're 
not  doing  this  at  Argos,  nor  killing  a  mother  with  a 
sword,  as  mad  Orestes  did."  Or  do  you  suppose  he 
went  mad  after  killing  his  parent,  and  was  not 
spurned  to  frenzy  by  the  wicked  Furies  before  he 
warmed  his  sharp  steel  in  his  mother's  throat  ?  Nay, 
from  the  moment  that  Orestes  was  held  to  be  of 
unsafe  mind,  he  did  nothing  whatever  that  you  can 
condemn.  He  did  not  dare  to  attack  with  the  sword 
Pylades  or  his  sister  Electra.  He  merely  threw  ill 
words  at  both,  calling  her  a  Fmy,  and  him  by  some 
other  name  which  his  gleaming  choler  prompted.* 

"*  "  Opimius,  a  poor  man  for  all  his  gold  and  silver 
hoarded  up  within,  would  on  holidays,  from  ladle  of 
Campanian  ware,"  drink  wine  of  Veii,  and  on  working 
days  soured  wine.  Now  once  he  fell  into  a  lethargy 
so  deep  that  already  his  heir  was  running  in  joy  and 
triumph  round  about  his  keys  and  coffers.  But  his 
physician,  a  man  of  very  quick  vrit  and  a  loyal  friend, 
revives  him  by  this  de\ice.  He  has  a  table  brought  in 
and  bags  of  coin  poured  out,  and  bids  many  draw  near 
to  count  it.  Thus  he  brings  the  man  to,  and  adds, 
'  Unless  you  guard  your  wealth,  your  greedy  heir 
will  be  off  >\ith  it  forthwith.'  '  WTiat,  while  I'm 
alive  ?  '  '  Well,  if  you  mean  to  live,  wake  up.  Come 
now  !  '  '  What  would  you  have  me  do  ?  '  *  You 
are  weak,  and  your  veins  ^^^ll  fail  you,  unless  food  and 
strong  support  be  given  yoiu"  sinking  stomach.     Do 

*  The  expression  here  used  belongs  to  medical  language. 
Black  bile,  which  the  ancients  supposed  to  be  a  cause  of 
madness  {cf.  Mf^a7xo^"i)»  has  a  glittering  appearance. 

«  Cf.  Campana  supellex  {Sat.  L  6.  118). 



tucessas?  agedum,  sumehoctisanariumoryzae."  155 
"  quanti    emptae^  ?  "      "  parvo."      "  quanti   ergo  ?  " 

"  octussibus."     "  eheu  ! 
quid  refert,  morbo  an  furtis  pereamque  rapinis  ?  " 

Quisnam    igitur     sanus  ?  "     qui    non     stultus. 

"  quid  avarus  ?  " 
stultus  et  insanus.     "  quid,  si  quis  non  sit  avarus, 
continue  sanus ? "  minime.  "cur,  Stoice?"  dicam.  160 
non  est  cardiacus  (Craterum  dixisse  putato) 
hie  aeger  :   recte  est  igitur  surgetque  ?     negabit, 
quod  latus  aut  renes  morbo  temptentur^  acuto. 
non  est  periurus  neque  sordidus  :   immolet  aequis 
hie  porcum  Laribus  :  verum  ambitiosus  et  audax  :  165 
naviget  Anticyram.     quid  enim  difFert,  barathrone 
dones  quidquid  habes  an  numquam  utare  paratis  ? 

'  Servius  Oppidius  Canusi  duo  praedia,  dives 
antiquo  censu,  gnatis  divisse  duobus 
fertur  et  hoc^  moriens  pueris  dixisse  vocatis  170 

ad  lectum  :  "  postquam  te  talos,  Aule,  nucesque 
ferre  sinu  laxo,  donare  et  ludere  vidi, 
te,  Tiberi,  numerare,  cavis  abscondere  tristem, 
extimui  ne  vos  ageret  vesania*  discors, 
tu  Nomentanum,  tu  ne  sequerere  Cicutam.  175 

quare  per  divos  oratus  uterque  Penatis, 
tu  cave  ne  minuas,  tu  ne  maius  facias  id 
quod  satis  esse  putat  pater  et  natura  coercet. 
praeterea,  ne  vos  titillet  gloria,  iure 
iurando  obstringam  ambo  :  uter  aedilis  fueritve     180 

*  empti,  II.  2  temptantur  Priscian.  ^  haec. 

*  insania,  /,  adopted  by  Orelli  and  Palmer. 

•  Of.  11.  82,  83,  above. 


SATIRES,  II.  111.  155-180 

you  hold  back  ?  Come  now,  take  this  drop  of  rice- 
gruel.'  '  What's  the  cost  ?  '  '  Oh,  a  trifle.'  '  How 
much,  I  say  ?  '  '  Eight  pence.'  '  Alack  !  what 
matters  it,  whether  I  die  by  sickness,  or  by  theft 
and  robbery  ?  ' 

158  "  '  Who,  then,  is  sane  ?  '     He  who  is  no  fool. 

*  WTiat  of  the  covetous  ?  '     He  is  fool  and  madman. 

*  Well,  if  a  man  is  not  covetous,  is  he  then  and  there 
sane  ?  '  By  no  means.  '  ^^^ly,  good  Stoic  ?  '  I 
will  tell  you.  '  Tliis  patient,'  suppose  Craterus  to 
have  said,  *  is  no  dyspeptic'  He  is  well  then  and 
may  get  up  ?  '  No,'  he  will  say,  '  for  his  lungs  or 
his  kidneys  are  afflicted  -vdth  acute  disease.'  Here's 
one  who  is  no  perjurer  or  miser.  Let  him  slay  a 
hog  to  the  kind  Lares.  But  he  is  ambitious  and 
headstrong.  Let  him  take  ship  for  Anticyra."  For 
what  is  the  difference,  whether  you  throw  all  you 
have  into  a  pit,  or  never  make  use  of  your  sa\ings  ? 

168  "  There's  a  story  that  Ser\ius  Oppidius,  a  rich 
man,  as  incomes  once  were,  divided  his  two  farms  at 
Canusium  between  his  tAvo  sons,  and  on  his  death- 
bed called  them  to  liim  and  said  :  '  Ever  since  I 
saw  you,  Aulus,  carrying  your  taws  and  nuts  in  a 
loose  toga,  giving  and  gambling  them  away — and 
you,  Tiberius,  anxiously  counting  them  and  hiding 
them  in  holes,  I  have  greatly  feared  that  madness 
of  different  kinds  might  plague  you — that  you,  my 
son,  might  follow  after  Nomentanus,  and  you  after 
Cicuta.  I  therefore  adjure  you  both,  by  our  house- 
hold gods,  the  one  not  to  reduce,  the  other  not  to 
increase,  what  your  father  thinks  enough,  and  what 
nature  sets  as  a  limit.  Further,  that  ambition  may 
not  tickle  your  fancy,  I  shall  bind  you  both  by  an 
oath  :   whichever  of  you  becomes  aedile  or  praetor, 



vestrum  praetor,  is  intestabilis  et  sacer  esto. 
in  cicere  atque  faba  bona  tu  pcrdasque  lupinis, 
latus  ut  in  circo  spatiere  aut^  aeneus  ut  stes, 
nudus  agris,  nudus  nummis,  insane,  paternis  ? 
scilicet  ut  plausus,  quos  fert  Agrippa,  feras  tu,     185 
astuta  ingenuum  volpes  imitata  leonem." — 

"  '  Ne  quis  humasse  velit  Aiacem,  Atrida,  vetas 
cur  ?  " 

"Rex  sum." 

"Nil  ultra  quaero^  plebeius." 

"Et  aequam 
rem  imperito  ;  at^  si  cui  videor  non  iustus,  inulto 
dicere  quod*  sentit  permitto." 

"  Maxime  regum,     190 
di  tibi  dent  capta  classem^  reducere^  Troia. 
ergo  consulere  et  mox  respondere  licebit  ?  " 

"  Consule," 

"  Cur  Aiax,  heros  ab  Achille  secundus, 
putescit,  totiens  servatis  clarus  Achivis  ? 
gaudeat  ut  populus  Priami  Priamusque  inhumato,  195 
per  quem  tot  iuvenes  patrio  caruere  sepulcro  ?  " 

"  Mille  ovium  insanus  morti  dedit,  inclitum  Ulixen 
et  Menelaum  una  mecum  se  occidere  damans." 

"  Tu  cum  pro  vitula  statuis  dulcem  Aulide  gnatam 
ante  aras  spargisque  mola  caput,  improbe,  salsa,  200 
rectum  animi  servas  cursum'  ?  insanus  quid  enini  Aiax 

^  et,  //.  *  quaere  V,  Bentley.  ^  at  V:  ac  uss. 

*  quae  D.  *  classem  capta  E.  *  dcducere. 

'  cursum  Bothe  :  quorsum  mss.  and  retainfd  by  Orelli, 
Kiessling,  Wickham,  Morris,  etc.  :   quorum  Goth.,  Porph. 

<•  These  would  be  given  to  the  people  by  way  of  largess 
by  aediles  and  praetors.  Such  an  expense  might  be  serious 
enough  for  people  of  small  fortunes. 

*  The  dialogue  which  begins  here  and  continues  to  1.  207 


SATIRES,  II.  in.  181-201 

let  him  be  outlawed  and  accursed.  Would  you 
waste  your  wealth  on  vetches,  beans,  and  lupines," 
that  you  may  play  the  swell  and  strut  in  the  Circus, 
or  be  set  up  in  bronze,  though  stripped  of  the  lands, 
stripped,  madman,  of  the  money  your  father  left  : 
to  the  end,  oh  yes,  that  you  may  win  the  applause 
which  Agrippa  wins — a  cunning  fox  mimicking  the 
noble  Hon  ?  * 

^*^  "  Son  of  Atreus,''  you  forbid  us  to  think  of 
burying  Ajax.     Why  is  this  ? 

"  '  I  am  king.' 

"  I,  a  common  man,  ask  no  more. 

"  '  And  my  conunand  is  fair,  but  if  anyone  deems 
me  unjust,  I  permit  him  to  say  freely  what  he  thinks.' 

"  Mightiest  of  kings,  may  the  gods  grant  you  to 
take  Troy  and  bring  your  fleet  safe  home  !     May  I 
then  ask  questions  and  answer  in  turn  ? 
Pray,  do.' 

"  Why  does  Ajax,  a  hero  second  only  to  Achilles, 
he  rotting,  though  so  often  he  won  glory  by  sa\ing 
the  Greeks  ?  Is  it  that  Priam  and  Priam's  people 
may  exult  in  that  man's  lacking  burial,  through  whom 
so  many  of  their  sons  were  bereft  of  burial  in  their 
native  land  ? 

The  madman  slew  a  thousand  sheep,  crying  that 
he  was  slaying  famed  Ulysses,  Menelaus,  and  myself.' 

"  And  you,  when  at  Aulis  you  brought  your  sweet 
child  to  the  altar  in  a  heifer's  stead,  and  sprinkled 
her  head  with  salt  meal,  O  shameless  one,  did  you 
keep  your  mind  in  its  sound  course  ?  Why,  what 
did  the  madman  Ajax  do,  when  he  slew  the  flock 

is  between  the  Stoic  Stertinius  and  Agamemnon,  and  is 
suggested  by  the  scene  at  the  end  of  the  Ajax  of  Sophocles, 
where  Menelaus  forbids  Teucer  to  bury  his  brother  Ajax. 



fecit  cum  stravit  ferro  pecus  ?  abstinuit  vim 
uxore  et  gnato  :  mala  multa  precatus  Atridis 
non  ille  aut  Teucrum  aut  ipsum  violavit  Ulixen." 

"  Verum  ego,  ut  haerentis  adverse  litore  navis  205 
eriperem,  prudens  placavi  sanguine  divos." 

"  Nempe  tuo,  furiose." 

"  Meo,  sed  non  furiosus." — 

'  Qui  species  alias  veris  scelerisque'-  tumultu 
permixtas  capiet,  commotus  habebitur,  atque 
stultitiane  erret,  nihilum  distabit,  an  ira.  210 

Aiax  immeritos  cuni^  occidit  desipit  agnos  : 
cum  prudens  scelus  ob  titulos  admittis  inanis, 
stas  animo  et  purum  est  vitio  tibi,  cum  tumidum  est, 

cor  ? 
si  quis  lectica  nitidam  gestare  amet  agnam,  214 

huic  vestem,  ut  gnatae,  paret  aneillas,  paret  aurum, 
Rufam  aut^  Posillam^  appellet  fortique  marito 
destinet  uxorem,  interdicto  huic  omne  adimat  ius 
praetor  et  ad  sanos  abeat  tutela  propinquos. 
quid  ?     si  quis  gnatam  pro  muta  devovet  agna, 
integer  est  animi  ?     ne  dixeris.     ergo  ubi  prava     220 
stultitia,  hie  summa  est  insania  ;  qui  sceleratus, 
et  furiosus  erit ;  quem  cepit  vitrea  fama, 
hunc  circumtonuit  gaudens  Bellona  cruentis. 

'  Nunc  age,  luxuriam  etNomentanumarripemecum : 

^  Mss.  have  veri  sceleris  or  veris  celeris  (  V) :  (veris  sceleris 
Goth.).  "  cum  immeritos  D,  //. 

'  et  F.  *  posillam  V :  pusillam  uss. 

"  Adverse  litore  :  the  shore  refused  to  let  the  ships  depart. 

''  The  species  ( =  (j>avTa<TLas)  are  ideas  or  mental  concepts, 
which  may  be  true  or  false,  and  become  confused  when 
some  guilty  impulse  causes  disturbance.  At  1.  208  Stertinius 
still  addresses  Agamemnon,  but  gradually  slides  into  a 
continuation  of  his  lecture. 

*  Like  Agamemnon.  •*  Like  Ajax. 


SATIRES,  II.  ni.  202-224 

with  the  sword  ?  He  withheld  violence  from  wife 
and  child.  His  curses  on  the  Atridae  were  copious, 
but  no  harm  did  he  do  either  to  Teucer  or  even  to 

But  I,  in  order  to  free  the  ships  that  clung  to 
a  hostile  **  shore,  purposely  appeased  the  gods  with 

"  Yes,  with  your  own,  maniac. 

My  own  blood  ;   but  no  maniac  I.' 

^'^  "  He  who  conceives  ideas  that  are  other  than 
true,  and  confused  by  the  turmoil  due  to  sin,**  will 
be  held  distraught  and,  whether  he  go  astray  from 
folly  "  or  from  rage,**  it  will  not  matter.  Ajax,  when 
he  slays  harmless  lambs,  is  insane.  When  you  pur- 
posely conmnit  a  crime  for  empty  glory,  are  vou 
sound  of  mind,  and  is  your  heart,  when  swollen  with 
pride,  free  from  fault  ?  Suppose  one  chose  to  carry 
about  in  a  litter  a  pretty  lamb,  and,  treating  it  as  a 
daughter,  provided  it  with  clothes,  maids,  gold, 
called  it  '  Goldie  '  or  '  Teenie,'  and  planned  to  have 
it  wed  a  gallant  husband  :  the  praetor  by  injunction 
would  take  from  him  all  control,  and  the  care  of  him 
would  pass  to  his  sane  relations.  Well,  if  a  man 
offers  up  his  daughter,  as  if  she  were  a  dumb  lamb, 
is  he  sound  of  mind  ?  Say  not  so.  Thus,  where 
there  is  perverse  folly,  there  is  the  height  of  madness. 
The  man  who  is  criminal,  will  also  be  a  maniac  ;  he 
who  is  caught  by  the  glitter  of  fame  has  about  his 
head  the  thunder  of  Bellona,  who  delights  in  blood- 

^^  "  Now,  come,  arraign  with  me  extravagance 
and  Nomentanus  ;  for  Reason  will  prove  that  spend- 

•  Bellona's  votaries  were  fanatics,  who  gashed  their 
bodies  with  knives. 



vincet^  enim  stultos  ratio  insanire  nepotes.  225 

hie  simul  accepit  patrimoni  mille  talenta, 
edicit,  piscator  uti,  pomarius,  auceps, 
unguentarius  ac  Tusci  turba  impia  vici, 
cum  scurris  fartor,  cum  Velabro  omne  macellum 
mane  domum  veniant.       quid  tum  ?       venere  fre- 
quentes.  230 

verba  facit  leno  :  "  quidquid  mihi,  quidquid  et  horum 
cuique  domi  est,  id  crede  tuum  et  vel  nunc  pete  vel 

accipe  quid  contra  haec  iuvenis  respondent  aequus  : 
"  tu^  nive  Lucana  dermis  ocreatus,  ut  aprum 
cenem  ego  ;  tu  piscis  hiberno  ex  aequore  verris.^  235 
segnis  ego,  indignus  qui  tantum  possideam  :   aufer  ! 
sume  tibi  deciens  ;  tibi  tantundem  ;  tibi  triplex, 
unde  uxor  media  currit  de  nocte  vocata.^  " 

'  Filius  Aesopi  detractam  ex  aure  Metellae, 
scilicet  ut  deciens  solidum  absorberet,^  aceto  240 

diluit  insignem  bacam  :  qui  sanior  ac  si 
illud  idem  in  rapidum  flumen  iaceretve  cloacam  ? 
Quinti  progenies  Arri,  par  nobile  fratrum, 
nequitia  et  nugis,  pravorum  et  amore  gemellum, 
luscinias  soliti  impenso  prandere  coemptas,  245 

quorsum  abeant  ?     sani  ut®  creta,  an  carbone  notati  ? 

'  Aedificare  casas,  plostello  adiungere  mures, 
ludere  par  impar,  equitare  in  harundine  longa, 
si  quem  delectet^  barbatum,  amentia  verset. 
si^  puerilius  his  ratio  esse  evincet  amare,  250 

*  vincit,  //.  *  tu  Bentley  for  in  of  mss. 

^  vellis,  /,  Acron. 

*  citata  Porph.,  who  knows  also  vocata. 

*  obsorberet  a :  exsorberet,  //. 

*  sani  ut]  sani  or  sanii,  //.         '  dclectat,  //.         *  sic  E. 

«  Cf.  Sat.  ii.  2.  51. 

SATIRES,  II.  III.  225-250 

thrifts  are  fools  and  madmen.  This  man,  soon  as 
he  received  his  patrimony  of  a  thousand  tiilents, 
decreed,  in  praetor-fashion,"  that  fishmonger,  fruit- 
seller,  fowler,  perfumer,  the  Tuscan  Street's  vile 
throng,  cooks  and  parasites,  the  whole  market  and 
Velabrum,  should  come  to  him  next  morning.  What 
next  ?  They  came  in  crowds.  A  pimp  was  spokes- 
man. '  Whatever  I  have,  whatever  any  of  these 
have  at  home,  beUeve  me,  is  at  your  service.  Send 
for  it  to-day  or  to-morrow.'  Hear  the  honest  youth's 
reply  :  '  Amid  Lucanian  snows  you  sleep  well- 
booted,  that  I  may  have  a  boar  for  dinner.  You 
sweep  the  stormy  seas  for  fish.  I  am  lazy  and  un- 
worthy to  possess  so  much.  Away  with  it.  You 
take  a  milhon — you,  the  same — and  you,  from  whose 
house  your  wife  comes  running  when  called  at 
midnight,  thrice  that  srnn.' 

239  a  'j'f^g  gQjj  Qf  Aesopus  took  from  Metella's  ear 
a  wondrous  pearl,  and  meaning,  forsooth,  to  swallow 
a  million  at  a  gulp,  steeped  it  in  vinegar.**  How 
was  he  more  sane  than  if  he  had  flung  that  same 
thing  into  a  running  river  or  a  sewer  ?  The  sons  of 
Quintus  Arrius,  a  famous  pair  of  brothers,  twins  in 
wickedness,  folly,  and  perverted  fancies,  used  to 
breakfast  on  nightingales,  bought  up  at  vast  cost. 
Into  which  hst  are  they  to  go  ?  Marked  with  chalk 
as  sane,  or  with  charcoal  ?  " 

2"*^  "  Building  toy-houses,  harnessing  mice  to  a  wee 
cart,  playing  odd  and  even,  riding  a  long  stick — if 
these  things  delighted  a  bearded  man,  lunacy  would 
plague  him.     If  reason  prove  that  being  in  love  is 

^  The  same  absurd  story  is  told  of  Cleopatra.  See  Pliny, 
N.U.  ix.  58.  117. 

«  White  was  associated  with  good  fortune,  black  with  ill- 



nee  quiequam  differre,  utrumne  in  pulvere,  trimus^ 
quale  prius,  ludas  opus,  an  meretricis  amore 
sollicitus  plores  :   quaero,  faciasne  quod  olim 
mutatus  Polemon  ?     ponas  insignia  morbi, 
fasciolas,  cubital,^  focalia,  potus  ut  ille  255 

dicitur  ex  collo  furtim  carpsisse  coronas, 
postquam  est  impransi  correptus  voce  magistri  ? 
porrigis  irato  puero  cum  poma,  recusat  : 
"  sume,  catelle  !  "    negat  ;  si  non  des,  optet.    amator 
exclusus  qui  distat,  agit  ubi  secum,  eat  an  non,     260 
quo  rediturus  erat  non  arcessitus,  et  haeret 
invisis  foribus  ?    "  nee  nunc,  cum  me^  vocet*  ultro, 
accedam  ?     an  potius  mediter  finire  dolores  ? 
exclusit  ;  revocat  :  redeam  ?     non,  si  obsecret."  ecce 
servus  non  paulo  sapientior  :   ''  o  ere,  quae  res      265 
nee  modum  habet  neque  consilium,  ratione  modoque 
tractari  non  volt,     in  amore  haec  sunt  mala,  bellum, 
pax  rursum  :  haec  si  quis  tempestatis  prope  ritu 
mobilia  et  caeca  fluitantia  sorte  laboret 
reddere  certa  sibi,  nihilo  plus  explicet  ac  si  270 

insanire  paret  certa  ratione  modoque." 
quid  ?     cum  Picenis  excerpens  semina  poinis 
gaudes,  si  cameram  percusti  forte,  penes  te  es  ? 
quid  ?     cum  balba  feris  annoso  verba  palato, 

*  primus  V.  ^  cubital  PorpA.  V:  cubitale  ifS5. 

2  ne  Goth.  *  vocat. 

"  Only  eflPeminate  men  would  wear  these  things. 

*  This  was  Xenocrates,  whose  lecture  on  temperance 
converted  the  young  profligate  to  a  sober,  philosophic  life, 
so  that  he  afterwards  succeeded  his  master  as  head  of  the 

*  Horace  here  reproduces,  almost  literally,  a  scene  from 
the  Eicnnchus  (46-63)  of  Terence,  where  Phaedria  debates 
with  Parmeno,  his  slave,  whether  he  is  to  go  back  to  Thais. 


SATIRES,  II.  in.  251-274 

more  childish  than  such  ways,  that  it  makes  no 
difference  whether  you  play  at  building  in  the  sand, 
as  you  did  when  three  years  old,  or  whine  in  anxiety 
for  love  of  a  mistress,  I  ask  you,  will  you  do  as  once 
Polemon  did,  when  converted  ?  Will  you  lay  aside 
the  tokens  of  your  malady,  garters,  elbow-cushion, 
neck- wrap,"  even  as  he,  'tis  said,  stealthily  plucked 
the  chaplets  from  his  neck  after  a  carouse,  the  moment 
he  was  arrested  by  the  voice  of  his  fasting  master  ?  ^ 
When  you  offer  apples  to  a  sulky  child,  he  refuses 
them.  '  Take  them,  pet.'  He  says,  '  No.'  Were 
you  not  to  offer  them,  he  would  crave  them.  How^ 
differs  the  lover  who,  when  shut  out,  debates  with 
himself  whether  to  go  or  not  to  where,  though  not 
invited,  he  meant  to  return,  and  hangs  about  the 
hated  doors  ?  *  '  Shall  I  not  go  even  now,  when  she 
inxates  me  of  her  own  accord  ?  Or  rather,  shall  I  think 
of  putting  an  end  to  my  affliction  ?  She  shut  me  out. 
She  calls  me  back.  Shall  I  return  ?  No — not  if  she 
implores  me.'  Now  hsten  to  the  slave,  wiser  by 
far  of  the  two  :  '  My  master,  a  thing  that  admits  of 
neither  method  nor  sense  cannot  be  handled  by  rule 
and  method.  In  love  inhere  these  evils — first  war, 
then  peace  :  things  almost  as  fickle  as  the  weather, 
shifting  about  by  blind  chance,  and  if  one  were  to 
try  to  reduce  them  to  fixed  rule  for  himself,  he  would 
no  more  set  them  right  than  if  he  aimed  at  going 
mad  by  fixed  rule  and  method.'  Why,  when  you 
pick  the  pips  from  Picenian  apples,**  and  are  glad  if 
by  chance  you  have  hit  the  vaulted  roof,  are  you 
master  of  yourself  }     Why,  when  on  your  old  palate 

■*  If  a  lover  could  hit  the  ceiling  with  an  apple-seed,  shot 
from  between  his  thumb  and  finger,  he  supposed  his  love 
was  returned. 



aedificante  casas  qui  sanior  ?     adde  cruorem  276 

stultitiae,  atque  ignem  gladio  scrutare.      modo,  in- 

Hellade  percussa  Marius  cum  praecipitat  se 
cerritus  fuit ;  an  commotae  crimine  mentis 
absolves  hominem  et  seeleris  damnabis  eundem, 
ex  more  imponens  cognata  vocabula  rebus  ?  280 

'  Libertinus  erat,  qui  eircum  compita  siccus 
lautis  mane  senex  manibus  cun-ebat  et,  "  unum," 
("  quid  tam  magnum  ?  "  addens)  "  unum  me  surpite 

dis  etenim  facile  est !  "  orabat  ;  sanus  utrisque 
auribus  atque  oculis  :  mentem,  nisi  litigiosus,         285 
exciperet  dominus,cum  venderet.  hoc  quoque  volgus'^ 
Chrysippus  ponit  fecunda  in  gente  Meneni. 
"  luppiter,  ingentis  qui  das  adimisque  dolores," 
mater  ait  pueri  mensis  iam  quinque  cubantis, 
"  frigida  si  puerum  quartana  reliquerit,  illo  290 

mane^  die,  quo  tu  indicis  ieiunia,  nudus 
in  Tiberi  stabit."     casus  medicusve^  levarit 
aegrum  ex  praecipiti,  mater  delira  necabit 
in  gelida  fixum  ripa  febremque  reducet. 
quone  malo  mentem  concussa  ?    timore  deorum.'   295 
Haec  mihi  Stertinius,  sapientum  octavus,  amico 
^  vulgo,  //.         "  magne  aD  :  magno  E.         *  -que,  //. 

"  Horace  gives  his  own  turn  to  the  Pythagorean  rule, 
irvp  /Maxaipt}  fir]  (TKaXeveiv,  which  probably  means,  "  excite 
not  an  angry  man  to  violence." 

*  See  Index  under  Hellas. 

"  According  to  the  Stoics,  crime  and  madness  were 
identical  (see  1.  221).  The  different  names  given  to  them 
{e.g.  insania  and  scelus)  were  thus  synonyms. 

<*  He  would  follow  the  ritual  of  fasting  and  ceremonial 
washing,  and  pray  at  the  shrines  of  the  Lares  of  the  crossways, 
the  Lares  Compitales. 


SATIRES,  II.  III.  275-296 

you  strike  out  baby-talk,  how  are  you  wiser  than 
the  child  that  builds  toy-houses  ?  Add  blood  to  folly, 
and  stir  the  fire  with  a  sword."  The  other  day,  for 
instance,  when  Marius  killed  Hellas  and  then  flung 
himself  headlong,  was  he  crazy  ? ''  Or  will  you 
acquit  the  man  of  a  disordered  mind  and  condann 
him  for  crime,  giving  to  things,  as  we  often  do, 
names  of  kindred  meaning  ?  * 

^^  "  A  freedman  there  was  who  in  old  age,  fasting 
and  with  washed  hands,  would  in  early  hours  run  to  all 
street-shrines  and  pray  :  <*  '  Save  me,  me  alone 
("  Is  it  not  a  httle  boon  ?  "  he  would  add),  save  me 
alone  from  death.  'Tis  an  easy  matter  for  the  gods.' 
The  man  was  sound  in  both  ears  and  eyes  ;  but  as  to 
his  mind,  his  master,  if  selling  him,  would  no^  have 
vouched  for  that,  unless  bent  on  a  lawsuit.  All  this 
crowd  *  also  Chrysippus  will  place  in  the  prohfic 
family  of  Menenius.  '  O  Jupiter,  who  givest  and 
takest  away  sore  afflictions,'  cries  the  mother  of  a 
child  that  for  five  long  months  has  been  ill  abed,  '  if 
the  quartan  chills  leave  my  child,  then  on  the  morning 
of  the  day  on  which  thou  appointest  a  fast,'  he  shall 
stand  naked  in  the  Tiber.'  Should  chance  or  the 
doctor  raise  the  sick  lad  up  from  his  peril,  his  crazy 
mother  will  kill  him  by  planting  him  on  the  cold  bank 
and  bringing  back  his  fever.  What  is  the  malady 
that  has  stricken  her  mind  ?      Fear  of  the  gods.*  " 

*•*  Such  were  the  weapons  which  my  friend  Ster- 
tinius,  eighth  of  the  wise  men,  put  in  my  hands,  that 

•  i.e.  the  superstitious  who  are  also  insane,  like  Menenius, 
of  whom,  however,  nothing  is  known. 

'  This  would  be  dies  lovis,  corresponding  to  our  Thursday 
(Thor's  day).  The  Jews,  whose  practices  are  here  referred 
to,  fasted  on  this  day. 

N  177 


arma  dedit,  posthac  ne  compellarer  inultus. 
dixerit  insanum  qui  me,  totidem  audiet  atque 
respicere  ignoto  discet  pendentia  tergo." 

Stoice,  post  damnum  sic  vendas  omnia  pluris,     300 
qua  me  stultitia,  quoniam  non  est  genus  unum, 
insanire  putas  ?     ego  nam  videor  mihi  sanus. 

"  Quid  ?     caput    abscisum    manibus    cum    portat^ 
gnati  infelicis,  sibi  tunc^  furiosa  videtur  ?  " 

Stultum  me  fateor  (liceat  concedere  veris)  305 

atque  etiam  insanum  :   tantum  hoc  edissere,  quo  me 
aegrotare  putes  animi  vitio. 

"  Accipe.     primum 
aedificas,  hoc  est,  longos  imitaris,  ab  imo 
ad  summum  totus  moduli  bipedahs,  et  idem 
corpore  maiorem  rides  Turbonis  in  armis  310 

spiritum  et  incessum  :   qui  ridiculus  minus  illo  ? 
an  quodcumque  facit  Maecenas,  te  quoque  veruni  est 
tantum^  dissimilem  et  tanto  certare  minoi'era  ? 

Absentis  ranae  pullis  vituli  pede  pressis, 
unus  ubi  efFugit,  matri  denarrat,  ut  ingens  315 

belua  cognatos  eliserit :   ilia  rogare, 
quantane  ?    num  tantum,*  sufflans  se,  magna  fuisset  ? 

^  abscissum  manibus  cum  portat  Goth. :  manibus  portavit 
V:  demens  cum  portat  Mss.  Bentley  restored  manibus  to 

^  tum,  II.  '  tantum  V  -.  tanto  MSS. 

*  tantum  VE  Porph.  :  tandem  aD'^31,  omitted  in  D'. 

"  A  reference  to  the  fable  of  the  two  wallets.  We  see 
only  the  one  in  front  which  holds  our  neighbours'  faults. 
But  cf.  1.  53  above. 

*  In  the  Bacchae  of  Euripides,  Agave  appears  with  the 
head  of  her  son  Pentheus,  whom  she  and  the  other  frenzied 
Maenads  have  torn  to  pieces. 


SATIRES,  II.  HI.  297-317 

no  one  thereafter  might  call  me  names  \\ith  impunity. 
Whoso  dubs  me  madman  shall  hear  as  mucli  in  reply, 
and  shall  learn  to  look  behind  on  what  is  hanging 
from  his  back,  that  is  never  noticed." 

^'^  HORACE.  Good  Stoic — as  I  pray  that  after  your 
losses  you  may  sell  all  you  have  at  a  profit  ! — in  what 
folly,  since  there  are  so  many  kinds,  do  you  think  my 
madness  appears  ?     For  to  myself  I  seem  sane. 

DAMASiPPUs.  What  ?  When  Agave  is  carrying  in 
her  hands  the  head  of  her  luckless  son,*  which  she 
has  cut  off,  does  she  even  then  tliink  herself  mad  ? 

HOR.  I  confess  my  folly — let  me  yield  to  the  truth 
— and  my  madness  too.  This  only  unfold  :  from 
what  mental  failing  do  you  think  I  suffer  ? 

DAM.  Listen.  First,  you  are  building,*  which 
means,  you  try  to  ape  big  men,  though  from  top  to 
toe  your  full  height  is  but  two  feet  ;  **  and  yet  you 
laugh  at  the  strut  and  spirit  of  Turbo  in  his  armour, 
as  though  they  were  too  much  for  his  body.  How 
are  you  less  foolish  than  he  ?  Is  it  right  that  what- 
ever Maecenas  does,  you  also  should  do,  so  unlike 
him  as  you  are  and  such  a  poor  match  for  him  ? 

^^*  A  mother  frog  *  was  away  from  home  when  her 
young  brood  were  crushed  under  the  foot  of  a  calf. 
One  only  escaped  to  tell  the  tale  to  his  mother,  how 
a  huge  beast  had  dashed  liis  brothers  to  death.  "  How 
big  was  it  .-^  "  she  asks  ;  "  as  big  as  this  ?  "  puffing 
herself  out.  "  Half  as  big  again."  "  Was  it  big 
like  this  ?  "  as  she  swelled  herself  out  more  and  more. 

«  Probably  on  his  Sabine  farm. 

'  For  Horace's  short  stature  see  Epist.  i.  20.  24,  corporis 

*  Horace  reproduces,  with  variations,  the  well-known 
Aesopian  fable  of  the  Ox  and  the  Frogs. 



'  maior  dimidio.'    '  num  tanto^  ?  '    cum  magis  atque 

se  magis  inrlaret,  '  non,  si  te  ruperis,'  inquit, 

'  par  eris.'    haec  a  te  non  multum  abludit  imago.     320 

adde  poemata  nunc,  hoc  est,  oleum  adde  camino 

quae  si  quis  sanus  fecit,  sanus  facis  et^  tu. 

non  dico^  horrendam  rabiem," 

lam  desine  ! 

"  Cultum 
maiorem  censu," 

Teneas,  Damasippe,  tuis  te  ! 
"  Mille  puellarum,  puerorum  mille  furores."      325 
O  maior  tandem  parcas,  insane,  minori ! 

^  tanto  Mss.  :  tantum. 
2  facis  et]  facies  D,  3  Bland.  *  dicam  D. 


SATIRES,   II.  III.  318-326 

"  Though  you  burst  yourself,"  said  he,  "  you'll  never 
be  as  large."  Not  badly  does  this  picture  hit  you 
off.  Now  throw  in  your  verses — that  is,  throw  oil 
on  the  fire.  If  any  man  ever  wrote  verses  when  sane, 
then  you  are  sane  in  writing  yours.  I  say  nothing 
of  your  awful  temper — 

HOR.    Stop  now  ! 

DAM.   Your  style  beyond  your  means — 

HOR.    Mind  your  own  business,  Damasippus. 

DAM.   Your  thousand  passions  for  lads  and  lasses. 

HOR.  O  greater  one,  spare,  I  pray,  the  lesser 
madman  I 




"  Where  is  the  man  that  can  live  without  dining?" 
In  the  Rome  of  the  Augustan  Age  cookery  seems 
to  have  held  the  place  it  had  occupied  in  Greece  in 
the  degenerate  days  of  the  Middle  and  New  Attic 
GDraedy,  when,  as  Mahaffy  says,"  "  it  was  no  mere 
trade,  but  a  natural  gift,  a  special  art,  a  school  of 
liigher  philosophy."  This  false  importance  given  to 
the  subject  is  gently  satirized  by  Horace,  who  repre- 
sents himself  as  meeting  one  Catius,  just  as  the  latter 
is  hurrying  home  to  arrange  his  notes  upon  a  wonder- 
ful lecture  on  gastronomy,  which  he  has  just  heard, 
and  of  which  Horace  induces  him  to  repeat  the  main 
points.  Horace  professes  profound  admiration  for  so 
much  learning,  and  begs  his  friend  to  take  him  to 
hear  the  lecturer  himself,  who  must  be  what  Epicurus 
was  to  Lucretius,  the  fountain-head  of  wisdom  in 
regard  to  right  hving. 

There  has  been  much  speculation,  both  as  to  who 
Catius  was  or  represents  and  as  to  the  main  purport 
of  this  Satire.  Among  the  Saturae  of  Ennius  there 
was  one  with  the  formidable  title  Heduphagetica, 
which  dealt  with  gastronomical  matters  and  was  based 
on  the  'H8inra^€ia  of  Archestratus  of  Gela.  It  is  clear 
«  Social  Life  in  Greece,  p.  299. 



from  his  fragments  that  LuciHus  handled  the  same 
topic,  and  we  find  among  the  titles  of  Vario's 
Menippean  Satires  that  of  Uepl  eSecr/xaTotv.  It  is 
probable  therefore  that  Horace  is  simply  trying  his 
hand  upon  a  traditional  satiric  theme. 

But  it  is  possible  that  the  Satire  has  a  greater 
significance  than  this.  In  the  preceding  Satire 
Horace  deals  in  his  own  humorous  fashion  with  the 
Stoics  ;  in  this  he  seems  to  be  playing  Avith  the 
Epicureans.  In  the  concluding  verses  the  reference 
to  Lucretius  is  unmistakable,  while  scattered  through 
the  Satire  are  philosophical  terms,  such  as  7iatura 
(7,  21,  45,  64),  praecepta  (11),  ratio  (36),  and  ingenitim 
(47),  which  are  conspicuous  in  Lucretius's  great  poem. 
Palmer  can  see  no  reference  to  Epicureanism  here, 
because  Horace  was  himself  an  Epicurean,  but  Horace 
was  never  firmly  wedded  to  any  school.  He  was  a 
free  lance, 

nullius  addictus  iurare  in  verba  magistri 

{Epist.  i.  1.  14), 

and  even  if  he  was  an  orthodox  Epicurean,  what  was 
there  to  prevent  his  satirizing  those  of  the  school 
whose  idea  of  the  vita  beaia  was  to  have  good  things 
to  eat  and  drink  ?  Even  Metrodorus,  intimate  friend 
of  Epicurus,  is  reported  to  have  said  that  "  it  is  our 
business,  not  to  seek  crowns  by  saving  the  Greeks, 
but  to  enjoy  ourselves  in  good  eating  and  drinking  " 
(Plutarch,  Adv.  Col.  1125  d). 

As  to  Catius,  the  scholiasts  tell  us  that  he  was  an 
Epicurean  and  (like  Lucretius)  the  author  of  a  De 
rerum  natura,  but  in  commenting  on  1.  47  they  also 
refer  to  another  Catius  who  had  written  a  book  on  the 
baker's  art.  There  is  a  Catius,  an  Insubrian  and  an 


Epicurean,  spoken  of  by  Cicero  as  lately  dead  (Ad 
fnm.  XV.  16;  cf.  Quintilian,  x.  1.  124),  and  it  is 
highly  probable  that  for  this  dramatic  purpose  Horace 
here  introduces  a  person  of  an  earher  generation  in 
much  the  same  way  in  which  he  uses  Trebatius  in 
the  first,  and  Damasippus  in  the  third,  Satires  of 
this  book. 



Unde  et  quo  Catius  ? 

"  Non  est  mihi  tempus  aventi 
ponere  signa  novis  praeceptis,  qualia  vincent^ 
Pythagoran  Anytique  reum  doctiimque  Platona." 

Peccatum  fateor,  cum  te  sic  tempore  laevo 
interpellarim^  ;  sed  des  veniam  bonus,  oro.  5 

quod  si  interciderit  tibi  nunc  aliquid,  repetes  mox, 
sive  est  naturae  hoc  sive  artis,  mirus  utroque. 

"  Quin  id  erat  curae,  quo  pacto  cuncta  tenerem, 
atpote  res  tenuis,  tenui  sermone  peractas." 

Edehominisnomen,simulet,  Roman  us  anhospes.  10 

"  Ipsa^  memor  praecepta  canam,  celabitur*  auctor. 

Longa  quibus  facies  ovis  erit,  ilia  memento, 
ut  suci  melioris  et  ut  magis  alba  rotundis, 
ponere  ;   namque  marem  cohibent  callosa  vitellum. 
caule  suburbano  qui  siccis  crevit  in  agris  15 

dulcior  ;  irriguo  nihil  est  elutius  horto. 

Si  vespertinus  subito  te  oppresserit  hospes, 

^  Vincent  V,  II :  vincunt,  I :  vincant. 

*  interpellarem.  *  ipse  2).  *  celebrabitur,  II. 

"  Socrates. 

*  The  word  canam  suggests  that  the  rules  that  follow  are 
to  be  treated  like  an  oracle.  They  may  be  grouped  roughly 
under  four  heads  :  (a)  the  antepast,  or  gustatio  (12-34) ; 
(6)  the  main  dinner,  or  mensa  prima  (35-69) ;  (c)  the  dessert, 
or  mensa  secunda  (70-75) ;  (d)  details  of  service  (76-87). 


Satire  IV 

HORACE.   Whence  and  whither,  Catius  ? 

CATius.  I  have  no  time  to  stop,  so  keen  am  I  to 
make  a  record  of  some  new  rules,  such  as  will  surpass 
Pythagoras,  and  the  sage  "  whom  Anytus  accused, 
and  the  learned  Plato. 

HOR.  I  confess  my  fault  in  thus  breaking  in  on 
you  at  an  awkward  moment,  but  kindly  pardon  me, 
I  pray.  If  aught  has  shpped  from  you  now,  you 
will  soon  recover  it  ;  whether  your  memory  is  due 
to  nature  or  to  art,  in  either  case  you  are  a  marvel. 

CAT.  Nay,  I  was  just  thinking  how  to  keep  all  in 
mind,  for  it  was  a  subtle  theme  handled  in  subtle 

HOR.  Tell  me  the  man's  name,  whether  he  is  a 
Roman  or  a  stranger. 

^^  CAT.  The  rules  themselves  I  will  recite  *  from 
memory  ;   the  professor's  name  must  be  withheld. 

Give  good  heed  to  serve  eggs  of  an  oblong  shape,  for 
they  have  a  better  flavour  and  are  whiter  than  the 
round  ;  they  are  firm  and  enclose  a  male  yoke. 
Cabbage  grown  on  dry  lands  is  sweeter  than  from 
farms  *  near  the  city  ;  nothing  is  more  tasteless 
than  a  watered  garden's  produce. 

If  a  friend   suddenly   drops   in   upon   you   of  an 

°  These  would  be  irrigated  artificially. 



ne  gallina  malum  responset^  dura  palato, 
doctus  eris  vivam  mixto^  mersare  Falerno  ; 
hoc  teneram  faciet. 

Pratensibus  optima  fungis  20 

natura  est ;  aliis  male  creditur. 

lUe  salubris 
aestates  peraget,^  qui  nigris  prandia  moris 
finiet,  ante  gravem  quae  legerit  arbore  solem. 

Aufidius  forti  miscebat  mella  Falerno, 
mendose  ;    quoniam  vacuis  committere  venis  25 

nil  nisi  lene  decet ;  leni  praecordia  mulso 
prolueris  melius,     si  dura  morabitur  alvus, 
mitulus  et  viles  pellent  obstantia  conchae 
et  lapathi  brevis  herba,  sed  albo  non  sine  Coo. 

Lubrica  nascentes  implent  conehylia  lunae  ;         30 
sed  non  omne  mare  est  generosae  fertile  testae  : 
murice  Baiano  melior  Lucrina  peloris, 
ostrea  Circeiis,  Miseno  oriuntur  echini, 
pectinibus  patulis  iactat  se  molle  Tarentum. 

Nee  sibi  cenarum  qui  vis  temere  arroget  artem,    35 
non  prius  exacta  tenui  ratione  saporum. 
nee  satis  est  cara  piscis  averrere*  mensa 
ignarum  quibus  est  ius  aptius  et  quibus  assis 
languidus  in  cubitum  iam  se  conviva  reponet.^ 

Umber  et  iligna  nutritus  glande  rotundas  40 

curvat  aper  lances  carnem  vitantis^  inertem  ; 
nam  Laurens  malus  est,  ulvis  et  harundine  pinguis. 
^  respondet  DEM  :  responsat  a. 
*  mixto  Mss.  :  niusto  Bentley,  widely  adopted. 
'  peragit,  /.  *  avertere  DM. 

*  rcponit,  II.  *  vitiantis. 

"  i.e.,  to  continue  eating.  This  is  more  probable  than,  as 
taken  by  Palmer,  "  which  ones  being  broiled,  the  guest,  after 
eating  his  fill  of  them,  shall  at  length  replace  himself  on  his 


SATIRES,  II.  IV.  18-42 

evening,  and  you  fear  that  a  tough  fowl  may  answer 
ill  to  his  taste,  you  will  be  wise  to  plunge  it  ahve 
into  diluted  Falernian  :   this  will  make  it  tender. 

Mushrooms  from  the  meadows  are  best ;  others 
are  not  to  be  trusted. 

A  man » will  pass  his  summers  in  health,  who  will 
finish  his  luncheon  with  black  mulberries  which  he 
has  picked  from  the  tree  before  the  sun  is  trying. 

Aufidius  used  to  mix  his  honey  with  strong 
Falernian— unwisely  ;  for  when  the  veins  are  empty 
one  should  admit  nothing  to  them  that  is  not  mild. 
With  mild  mead  you  will  do  better  to  flood  the 
stomach.  If  the  bowels  be  costive,  limpet  and 
common  shell-fish  will  dispel  the  trouble,  or  low- 
growing  sorrel — but  not  without  white  Coan  wine. 

New  moons  swell  the  shppery  shell-fish,  but  it  is  not 
every  sea  that  yields  the  choicest  kind.  The  Lucrine 
mussel  is  better  than  the  Baian  cockle.  Oysters  come 
from  Circeii,  sea-urchins  from  Misenum,  luxurious 
Tarentum  plumes  herself  on  her  broad  scallops. 

^  It  is  not  everyone  that  may  lightly  claim  skill 
in  the  dining  art,  without  first  mastering  the  subtle 
theory  of  flavours.  Nor  is  it  enough  to  sweep  up 
fish  from  the  expensive  stall,  not  knowing  which 
are  better  with  sauce,  and  which,  if  broiled,  will 
tempt  the  tired  guest  to  raise  himself  once  more 
upon  his  elbow.** 

From  Umbria,  fed  on  holm-oak  acorns,  comes  the 
boar  that  makes  the  round  dish  bend,  when  the  host 
would  shun  tasteless  meat ;  for  the  Laurentian  is  a 
poor  beast,  being  fattened  on  sedge  and  reeds.* 

*  Cf.  Macaulay,  "  Battle  of  Lake  Regillus  "  : 

From  the  I-aurentian  jungle. 
The  wild  hog's  reedy  home. 



Vinea  submittit  capreas  non  semper  edulis. 
fecundae^  leporis  sapiens  sectabitur  armos. 
piscibus  atque  avibus^  quae  natura  et  foret  aetas,    45 
ante  meum  nulli  patuit  quaesita  palatum. 

Sunt    quorum    ingenium    nova    tantum^    crustula 
nequaquam  satis  in  re  una  consumere  curam  ; 
ut  si  quis  solum  hoc,  mala  ne  sint  vina,  laboret, 
quali  perfundat^  piscis  securus  olivo.  60 

Massica  si  caelo  suppones  vina  sereno, 
nocturna,  si  quid  crassi  est,  tenuabitur  aura, 
et  decedet  odor  nervis  inimicus  ;  at  ilia 
integrum  perdunt  lino  vitiata  saporem. 
Surrentina  vafer  qui  miscet  faece  Falerna  65 

vina,^  columbino  limum  bene  colligit  ovo, 
quatenus  ima  petit  volvens  aliena  vitellus. 

Tostis  marcentem  squillis  recreabis  et  Afra 
potorem  coclea  ;  nam  lactuca  innatat  acri 
post  vinum  stomacho  ;  perna  magis  et^  magis  hillis  60 
flagitat  immorsus  refici,  quin  omnia  malit 
quaecumque  immundis  fervent  allata  popinis. 

Est  operae  pretium  duplicis  pernoscere  iuris 
naturam.     simplex  e  dulci  constat  olivo, 
quod  pingui  miscere  mero  muriaque  decebit  65 

non  alia  quam  qua'  Byzantia  putuit  orca. 

1  fecundae  V:  feciindi  Mss. 

*  atque  pavis.  '  tamen,  II. 

*  profundat.  *  vinum. 

"^  ac  EM.  '  quae  oD,  //. 

"  The  ius  duplex,  or  compound  sauce,  consists  of  (1)  the 
simplex,  viz.  sweet  olive  oil,  and  (2)  the  other  ingredients 
named  in  11.  65  if.  The  passage,  however,  is  not  clear. 
Some  prefer  to  take  ius  duplex  as  meaning  two  kinds  of 
sauce,  one  of  which,  the  simplex,  described  in   11.  64-66, 


SATIRES,  II.  IV.  4.3-66 

Roes  bred  in  a  vineyard  are  not  always  eatable 
The  connoisseur  will  crave  the  ^\^ngs  of  a  hare 
when  in  young.  As  to  fish  and  fowl,  what  their 
qualities  and  age  should  be  is  a  question  never  made 
clear  to  any  palate  before  mine. 

Some  there  are  whose  talent  lies  only  in  finding 
new  sweets  ;  'tis  by  no  means  enough  to  spend  all 
one's  care  on  a  single  point — ^just  as  if  someone  were 
anxious  only  that  his  wines  be  good,  but  cared  not 
what  oil  he  poured  upon  his  fish. 

If  you  set  Massic  wine  beneath  a  cloudless  sky, 
all  its  coarseness  will  be  toned  do^^•n  by  the  night 
air,  and  the  scent,  unfriendly  to  the  nerves,  will  pass 
off;  but  the  same  wine,  when  strained  through 
linen,  is  spoiled,  losing  its  full  flavour.  Surrentine 
vrine  a  knowing  man  mixes  ^^'ith  lees  of  Falernian, 
and  carefully  collects  the  sediment  -with  pigeons' 
eggs,  for  the  yolk  sinks  to  the  bottom,  carrying  with 
it  all  foreign  matter. 

A  jaded  drinker  you  will  rouse  afresh  by  fried 
prawns  and  African  snails  ;  for  after  wine  lettuce 
rises  on  the  acid  stomach.  By  ham  and  by  sausages 
rather  does  it  crave  to  be  pricked  and  freshened. 
Nay,  it  would  prefer  any  viands  brought  smoking 
hot  from  untidy  cookshops. 

It  is  worth  while  to  study  well  the  nature  of  the 
compound  sauce."  The  simple  consists  of  sweet 
olive  oil,  which  should  be  mixed  with  thick  wine  and 
with  brine,  such  as  that  of  which  your  Byzantine  jar 

consists  of  oil,  wine,  and  brine,  while  the  compound  adds 
to  these  the  chopped  herbs,  saffron,  and  \'enafran  oil  of 
11.  67-69. 



hoc  ubi  confusum  sectis  inferbuit  herbis 
Corycioque  croco  sparsum  stetit,  insuper  addes^ 
pressa  Venafranae  quod  baca  remisit  olivae. 

Picenis  cedunt  pomis  Tiburtia  suco  ;  70 

nam  facie  praestant,     Venucula  convenit  ollis  ; 
rectius  Albanam  fumo  duraveris  uvam. 
banc  ego  cum  malis,  ego  faecem  primus  et  allec, 
primus  et  invenior^  piper  album  cum  sale  nigro 
incretum  puris  circumposuisse  catillis.  75 

immane  est  vitium  dare  milia  terna  macello 
angustoque  vagos  piscis  urgere  catino. 
magna  movet^  stomacho  fastidia,  seu  puer  unctis 
tractavit  calicem  manibus,  dum  furta  ligurrit, 
sive  gravis  veteri  craterae*  limus  adhaesit.  80 

vilibus  in  scopis,  in  mappis,  in  scobe  quantus 
consistit  sumptus  ?     neglectis,  flagitium  ingens. 
ten  lapides  varios  lutulenta^  radere  palma 
et  Tyrias  dare  circum  illuta  toralia  vestis, 
oblitum,  quanto  curam  sumptumque  minorem         85 
haec  habeant,  tan  to  reprehendi  iustius  illis, 
quae  nisi  divitibus  nequeunt^  contingere  mensis  !  " 

Docte  Cati,  per  amicitiam  divosque  rogatus, 
ducere  me  auditum,  perges  quocumque,  memento, 
nam  quamvis  memori  referas  mihi  pectore  cuncta,   90 
non  tamen  interpres  tantundem  iuveris.     adde 
voltum  habitumque  hominis,  quem  tu  vidisse  beatus 

^  addens,  //.  ^  inveni  aM :  inventor  E. 

•  movent,  /.  *  creterrae  V(p\l/. 

^  luculenta,  (l)\j/l.  ^  nequeant  Bentley. 

*  Byzantium  was  an  important  centre  for  the  fishing 
industry  of  the  Black  Sea,  and  the  brine  in  which  the  fish 
were  sent  was  held  in  high  esteem. 


SATIRES,  11.  IV.  67-92 

smells  so  strong."  When  this,  mixed  with  chopped 
herbs,  has  been  boiled,  and,  after  being  sprinkled 
with  Corj'cian  saffron,  has  been  left  to  stand,  you 
are  to  add  besides  some  of  the  juice  yielded  by  the 
pressed  berry  of  the  Venafran  olive. 

Apples  from  Tibur  yield  to  the  Picenian  in  flavour, 
but  in  look  are  finer.  The  Venuculan  grape  suits 
the  preserving  jar  ;  the  Alban  you  had  better  dry 
in  the  smoke.  This  last  you  will  find  that  I  was  the 
first  to  ser\"e  round  the  board  vriih  apples,  as  I  was 
the  first  to  serve  up  wine-lees  and  caviare,  white 
pepper  and  black  salt  sifted  on  to  dainty  Uttle  dishes. 
It  is  a  monstrous  sin  to  spend  three  thousand 
on  the  fish  market,  and  then  to  cramp  those  ro\ing 
fishes  in  a  narrow  dish.  It  strongly  turns  the 
stomach,  if  a  slave  has  handled  the  drinking  cup 
■with  hands  greasy  from  licking  stolen  snacks  ;  or  if 
vile  mould  clings  to  your  ancient  bowl.*  Common 
brooms,  napkins,  and  sawdust,  how  httle  do  they 
cost  !  But  if  neglected,  how  shocking  is  the 
scandal  !  To  think  of  your  sweeping  mosaic  pave- 
ments with  a  dirty  palm-broom,  or  putting  unwashed 
coverlets  over  TjTian  tapestries,  forgetting  that  the 
less  care  and  cost  these  things  involve,  the  more 
just  is  blame  for  their  neglect  than  for  things  which 
only  the  tables  of  the  rich  can  afford  ! 

HOR.  O  learned  Catius,  by  our  friendship  and  by 
the  gods  I  beg  you,  remember  to  take  me  to  a 
lecture,  wherever  you  go  to  one.  For  however 
faithful  the  memory  Asith  which  you  tell  me  all,  yet 
as  merely  reporting  you  cannot  give  me  the  same 
pleasure.     And  there  is  the  man's  look  and  bearing  I 

*  If  the  bowl  was  an  antique  and  therefore  valuable,  there 
was  all  the  more  reason  for  its  being  kept  clean. 

o  193 


non  magni  pendis,  quia  contigit  :  at  mihi  cura 

non  mediocris  inest,  fontis  ut  adire  remotos 

atque  haurire  queam  vitae  praecepta  beatae.  95 

"  Horace  here  parodies  a  famous  passage  in  Lucretius  : 
iuvat  integros  accedere  fontes  atque  haurire. 

[De  rerum  nat.  i.  927-8.) 


SATIRES,  II.  IV.  93-95 

You  think  little  of  having  seen  him,  lucky  fellow, 
because  you  have  had  that  good  fortune,  but  I  have 
no  shght  longing  to  be  able  to  draw  near  to  the 
sequestered  fountains,  and  to  drink  in  the  rules  for 
living  happily .<J 



The  practice  of  seeking  legacies,  especially  from 
those  who  had  no  family  connexions,  seems  to  have 
been  common  in  Rome  at  the  beginning  of  the 
Imperial  period.  Horace,  therefore,  in  true  satiric 
fashion,  undertakes  to  lay  down  rules  for  the  guidance 
of  those  who  may  need  advice  in  playing  the  game. 

The  Satire  takes  the  form  of  a  dialogue,  and  is  a 
burlesque  continuation  of  a  fjimous  scene  in  the 
Eleventh  Odyssey  (90-149),where  Odysseus  (Ulysses), 
in  the  lower  world,  learns  from  the  Theban  seer 
Tiresias  that  he  will  return  to  his  home  in  Ithaca, 
but  only  when  reduced  to  poverty.  The  hero,  there- 
fore, desires  to  ascertain  how  he  may  again  enrich 
himself,  and  the  seer  instructs  him  in  the  lucrative 
ways  of  fortune-hunting. 

From  the  obvious  reference  to  Actium  in  tellure 
marique  magjius  (1.  63)  we  infer  that  the  Satire  was 
not  composed  before  30  b.c.  The  skilful  parody  of 
epic  style  shows  Horace's  satiric  power  at  its  best, 
and  it  is  well  to  recall  the  fact  that  the  travestying 
of  heroic  themes  is  traditional  in  both  satire  and 
comedy.  The  Amphitryo  of  Plautus,  based  on  some 
play  of  the  New  Attic  Comedy,  is  a  good  example. 
Both  Lucilius  and  Varro  made  use  of  parody,  and  it  is 



a  prominent  feature  of  the  prose  satire  of  Lucian,  upon 
which  many  modern  satires  have  been  modelled,  such 
as  Disraeli's  Ixion  in  Heaven  and  The  Infernal 
Marriage,  and  Bangs's  Houseboat  on  the  Styx.  Lucian's 
resemblances  to  Horace,  which,  according  to  Lejay, 
are  due  to  a  direct  knowledge  of  the  Roman  poet  on 
the  part  of  Lucian,  may  really  be  the  result  of  their 
common  indebtedness  to  Menippus  of  Gadara  {cf. 
Fiske,  Lucilius  and  Horace,  p.  401).  Sellar  describes 
the  poem  before  us  as  "  the  most  trenchant  of  all 
the  Satires  "  of  Horace,  who  doubtless  conceived  the 
utmost  contempt  for  the  fortune-hunters  of  his  day. 
No  analysis  is  necessary. 



Hoc  quoque,  Teresia,^  praeter  narrata  petenti 
responde,  quibus  amissas  reparare  queam  res 
artibus  atque  modis.     quid  rides  ? 

"  lamne  doloso 
non  satis  est  Ithacam  revehi  patriosque  Penates 
adspieere  ?  " 

O  nulli  quicquam  mentite,  vides  ut         5 
nudus  inopsque  domum  redeam^  te  vate,  neque  illic 
aut  apotheca  procis  intacta  est  aut  pecus  ;  atqui^ 
et  genus  et  virtus,  nisi  cum  re,  vilior  alga  est. 

"  Quando  pauperiem  missis  ambagibus  horres, 
accipe  qua  ratione  queas  ditescere. 

"  Turdus  10 

sive  aliud  privum  dabitur  tibi,  de volet  illuc, 
res  ubi  magna  nitet  domino  sene  ;  dulcia  poma 
et  quoscumque  feret  cultus  tibi  fundus  honores, 
ante  Larem  gustet  venerabilior  Lare  dives  ; 
qui  quamvis  periurus  erit,  sine  gente,  cruentus        15 
sanguine  fraterno,  fugitivus,  ne  tamen  illi 
tu  comes  exterior,  si  postulet,  ire  recuses." 

Utne*  tegam  spurco  Damae  latus  ?    haud  ita  Troiae 

*  Tiresia  M.         ^  redeat.         *  aut  qui,  II.         *  visne. 

"  By  doloso  Horace  translates  iroXvTpoiros,  or  one  of  the 
several  Homeric  epithets  such  as  iroMfj.rjTis,  To\vii.r)xo-voi, 
ToiKi\6fxr]Tis,  applied  to  Odysseus. 


Satire  V 

ULYSSES.  One  more  question  pray  answer  me, 
Tiresias,  besides  what  you  have  told  me.  By  what 
ways  and  means  can  I  recover  my  lost  fortune  ?  Why 
laugh  ? 

TIRESIAS.  What !  not  enough  for  the  man  of  wiles  "  to 
sail  back  to  Ithaca  and  gaze  upon  his  household  gods  ? 

ULY.  O  you  who  have  never  spoken  falsely  to  any 
man,  you  see  how  I  am  returning  home,  naked  and  in 
need,  as  you  foretold  ;  and  there  neither  cellar  nor 
herd  is  unrifled  by  the  suitors.  And  yet  birth  and 
worth,  without  substance,  are  more  paltry  than 

TiR.  Since,  in  plain  terms,  'tis  poverty  you  dread, 
hear  by  what  means  you  can  grow  rich. 

Suppose  a  thrush  or  other  dainty  be  given  you  for 
your  o\vn,  let  it  wing  its  way  to  where  grandeur 
reigns  and  the  owner  is  old.  Your  choice  apples  or 
whatever  glories  your  trim  farm  bears  you,  let  the 
rich  man  taste  before  your  Lar  ;  more  to  be  rever- 
enced than  the  Lar  is  he.''  However  perjured  he 
may  be,  though  low  of  birth,  stained  \vith  a  brother's 
blood,  a  runaway  slave,  yet,  if  he  ask  you  to  walk 
with  him,  do  not  dechne  to  take  the  outer  side. 

VhY.  What !  give  the  wall  to  some  dirty  Dama  ? 

*  First-fruits  were  oflfered  to  the  Lares. 



me  gessi,  certans  semper  melioribus. 

"  Ergo 
pauper  eris." 

Fortem  hoc  animum  tolerare  iubebo  ;    20 
et  quondam  maiora  tuli.     tu  protinus,  unde 
divitias  aerisque  ruam^  die,  augur,  acervos. 

"  Dixi  equidem  et  dico  :  captes  astutus  ubique 
testamenta  senum,  neu,^  si  vafer  unus  et  alter 
insidiatorem  praeroso  fugerit  hamo,  25 

aut  spem  deponas  aut  artem  illusus  omittas. 
magna  minorve  foro  si  res  eertabitur  olim, 
vivet  uter  locuples  sine  gnatis,  improbus,  ultro 
qui  meliorem  audax  vocet  in  ius,  illius  esto 
defensor  ;   fama  civem  causaque  priorem  30 

sperne,  domi  si  gnatus  erit  fecundave  coniunx. 
'  Quinte,'    puta,  aut  '  Publi '    (gaudent  praenomine 

auriculae),  "  tibi  me  virtus  tua  fecit  amicum  ; 
ius  anceps  novi,  causas  defender e  possum  ; 
eripiet  quivis  oculos  citius  mihi  quam  te  35 

contemptum  cassa^  nuce  pauperet ;  haec  mea  cura  est, 
ne  quid  tu  perdas  neu  sis  iocus."     ire  domum  atque 
pelliculam  curare  iube  ;   fi  cognitor  ipse  ; 
persta  atque  obdura,  seu  rubra  Canicula  findet 
infantis  statuas,  seu  pingui  tentus  omaso  40 

Furius  hibernas  cana  nive  conspuet  Alpis. 
"  nonne  vides,"  aliquis  cubito  stantem  prope  tangens 

1  eruam  E.  *  seu.  ^  cassa  Acr. :  quassa  mss. 

"  Cf.  Kpticraoffiv  l(pi  fidxecrdai  {Iliad,  xxi.  486),  one  of  the 
Homeric  echoes  in  the  Satire.   Dama  is  a  common  slave  name. 

*  So  Odysseus  speaks  in  Od.  xx.  18  : 

rdrXadi  87]  Kpadirj'  Kal  Kvvrepov  SXKo  wot   ^tXt;?. 

•  Horace  makes  satiric  use  of  some  verses  from  Furius 
Bibaculus  {cf.  Sat.  i.  10.  36,  with  note).     In  Bibaculus,  as 


SATIRES,  II.  V.  19-42 

Not  so  at  Troy  did  I  bear  myself,  but  ever  was 
matched  with  my  betters." 

TiR.   Then  you  will  be  a  poor  man. 

ULY.  I'll  bid  my  valiant  soul  endure  this.  Ere  now 
worse  things  have  I  bome.^  Go  on,  O  prophet,  and  tell 
me  how  I  am  to  rake  up  wealth  and  heaps  of  money. 

TIR.  Well,  I  have  told  you,  and  I  tell  you  now. 
Fish  craftily  in  all  waters  for  old  men's  ^^•ills,  and 
though  one  or  two  shrewd  ones  escape  your  ^\iles 
after  nibbling  off  the  bait,  do  not  give  up  hope,  or 
drop  the  art,  though  baffled.  If  some  day  a  case, 
great  or  small,  be  contested  in  the  Forum,  whichever 
of  the  parties  is  rich  and  childless,  villain  though  he 
be,  who  ^Wth  wanton  impudence  calls  the  better 
man  into  court,  do  you  become  his  advocate  ;  spurn 
the  citizen  of  the  better  name  and  cause,  if  he  have 
a  son  at  home  or  a  fruitful  wife.  Say  :  "  Quintus  " 
it  may  be,  or  "  Pubhus  "  (sensitive  ears  delight  in  the 
personal  name),  "  your  worth  has  made  me  your 
friend.  I  know  the  mazes  of  the  law  ;  I  can  defend 
a  case.  I  ^v^ll  let  anyone  pluck  out  my  eyes  sooner 
than  have  him  scorn  you  or  rob  you  of  a  nutshell. 
This  is  my  concern,  that  you  lose  nothing,  and  become 
not  a  jest."  Bid  him  go  home  and  nurse  his  precious 
self ;  become  yourself  his  counsel.  Carry  on,  and 
stick  at  it,  whether 

"  the  Dog-star  red 
Dumb  statues  split,"  • 

or  Fm-ius,  stuffed  with  rich  tripe, 

"  With  hoary  snow  bespew  the  wintry  Alps." 

"  Do  you  not  see,"  says  someone,  nudging  a  neighbour 

we  know  from  Quintilian,  viii.  6.  17,  the  second  citation 
opened  with  luppiter  as  subject. 



inquiet,  *  ut  patiens,  ut  amicis  aptus,  ut  acer  ?  * 
plures  adnabunt  thynni  et  cetaria  crescent. 

"  Si  cui  praeterea  validus  male  filius  in  re  45 

praeclara  sublatus  aletur,  ne  manifestum 
caelibis  obsequium  nudet  te,  leniter  in  spem 
adrepe^  officiosus,  ut  et^  scribare  secundus 
heres  et,  si  quis  casus  puerum  egerit  Oreo, 
in  vacuum  venias  :  perraro  haec  alea  fallit.  50 

"  Qui  testamentum  tradet  tibi  cumque  legendum, 
abnuere  et  tabulas  a  te  removere  memento, 
sic  tamen,  ut  limis  rapias,  quid  prima  secundo 
cera  velit  versu  ;  solus  multisne  coheres, 
veloci  percurre  oculo.     plerumque  recoctus  55 

scriba  ex  quinqueviro  corvum  deludet  hiantem, 
captatorque  dabit  risus  Nasica  Corano." 

Num  furis  ?    an  prudens  ludis  me  obscura  canendo  ? 

"  O  Laertiade,  quidquid  dicam,  aut  erit  aut  non  : 
divinare  etenim  magnus  mihi  donat  Apollo."  60 

Quid  tamen  ista  velit  sibi  fabula,  si  licet,^  ede. 

"  Tempore,  quo  iuvenis  Parthis  horrendus,  ab  alto 
demissum  genus  Aenea,  tellure  marique 

^  arripe  a,  //.  *  ut  et]  ut  Goth.  :  uti  Heindorf. 

'  si  licet]  scilicet  aD. 

•  Cf.  Epist.  i.  1.  79,  "  excipiantque  senes  quos  in  vivaria 
mittant."  The  ceCaria  were  artificial  preserves.  The  tunnies 
represent  the  rich  fools  who  may  be  caught  when  needed, 
cf.  captes  1.  23,  and  captator  in  1.  57. 

*  It  was  an  old  Roman  custom  for  fathers  to  take  up  in 
their  arms  such  new-born  children  as  they  wished  to  rear. 
Sublatus,  therefore,  might  be  rendered  as  "  recognized." 

'  i.e.  as  substitute  heir,  to  be  called  to  the  inheritance 
in  case  the  heir  first  named  dies. 

■*  The  will,  it  is  supposed,  would  be  written  on  wax  tablets 
and  sealed.     On  the  inside  of  the  first  tablet  would  appear 
the  name  of  the  testator,  followed  in  the  second  line  by  the 
name  of  the  heir. 

SATIRES,  II.  V.  43-63 

with  his  elbow,  "  how  steady  he  is,  how  helpful  to  his 
friends,  how  keen  ?  "  More  tunnies  will  s^^^m  up, 
and  your  fish-ponds  swell." 

*^  Again,  if  one  with  a  fine  fortune  rears  a  sickly 
son  whom  he  has  taken  up,''  then  for  fear  lest  open 
devotion  to  a  childless  man  betray  you,  by  your  atten- 
tions worm  your  way  to  the  hope  that  you  may  be 
named  as  second  heir,*  and  if  some  chance  send  the 
child  to  his  grave,  you  may  pass  into  his  place. 
Seldom  does  this  game  fail. 

*'  Suppose  someone  gives  you  his  \n\\  to  read,  be 
sure  to  decline  and  push  the  tablets  from  you  ;  yet 
in  such  a  way  that  with  a  side  glance  you  may  catch 
the  substance  of  the  second  line  on  the  first  page.** 
Swiftly  run  your  eye  across  to  see  whether  you  are 
sole  heir  or  share  with  others.  Quite  often  a  constable, 
new-boiled  into  a  clerk,  will  dupe  the  gaping  raven, 
and  Nasica  the  fortune-hunter  will  make  sport  for 

ULY.  Are  you  mad  ?  or  do  you  purposely  make 
fun  of  me  wth  your  dim  oracle  ? 

TiR.  O  son  of  Laertes,  whatever  I  say  will  or  Mill 
not  be  f  ;  for  prophecy  is  great  Apollo's  gift  to  me. 

ULY.  But  what  means  that  story  ?  Tell  me,  if 
you  may. 

TIR.  In  the  days  when  a  youthful  hero,"  the 
Parthian's  dread,  scion  of  high  Aeneas 's  hneage,  shall 

'  In  recocfus  there  is  a  reference  to  the  legend  of  Medea, 
who  restored  his  youth  to  Aeson  by  boiling  him  in  a  caldron. 
The  quinqueviri  were  very  humble  police  officials.  Coranus 
had  been  one  of  these,  but  later  had  become  a  public  clerk, 
like  Horace  himself  {Sat.  ii.  6.  36).  In  corvum  hiantem, 
there  is  a  reference  to  the  fable  of  the  raven  which  the  fox 
flattered  for  its  singing,  and  so  caused  it  to  drop  the  cheese, 

'  A  burlesque  on  oracular  utterances. 

'  i.e.  the  young  Octavius,  born  63  B.C. 



magnus  erit,  forti  nubet  procera  Corano 

filia  Nasicae,  metuentis  reddere  soldura.  65 

turn  gener  hoc  faciet  :   tabulas  socero  dabit  atque 

ut  legat  orabit  ;  multum  Nasica  negatas 

accipiet  tandem  et  tacitus  leget,  invenietque 

nil  sibi  legatum  praeter  plorare  suisque. 

"  Illud  ad  haec  iubeo  :   mulier  si  forte  dolosa       70 
libertusve  senem  delirum  temperet,  illis 
accedas  socius  ;  laudes,  lauderis  ut  absens  ; 
adiuvat  hoc  quoque,  sed  vincit^  longe  prius  ipsum 
expugnare  caput,     scribet^  mala  carmina  vecors  : 
laudato,     scortator  erit  :   cave  te  roget ;   ultro        75 
Penelopam  facilis  potiori  trade." 

perduci  poterit  tarn  frugi  tamque  pudica, 
quam  nequiere^  proci  recto  depellere  cursu  ? 

"  Venit  enim  magnum  donandi  parca  iuventus, 
nee  tantum  Veneris  quantum  studiosa  culinae.        80 
sic  tibi  Penelope  frugi  est  ;  quae  si  semel  uno 
de  sene  gustarit  tecum  partita  lucellum, 
ut  canis  a  corio  numquam  absterrebitur  uncto. 

"Me  sene  quod  dicam  factum  est.     anus  improba 
ex  testamento  sic  est  elata  :  cadaver  ■  85 

unctum  oleo  largo  nudis  umeris  tulit  heres, 

1  vincet  a  Goth.  *  scribit. 

*  nequivere  MSS. 

"  The  story,  which  was  doubtless  familiar  to  the  readers 
of  Horace's  own  day,  is  now  obscure.  Nasica  probably 
owed  money  to  Coranus,  and  gave  him  his  daughter  in 
marriage,  hoping  that  the  son-in-law  would  by  will  free  him 
from  his  debt.  This  would  seem  to  imply  that  the  son-in-law 
was  older  than  the  father-in-law. 

SATIRES,  II.  V.  64-86 

be  mighty  by  land  and  sea,  the  tall  daughter  of 
Nasica,  who  dreads  paying  up  in  full,  shall  wed 
gallant  Coranus.  Then  shall  the  son-in-law  thus 
proceed  :  to  his  father-in-law  he  shall  give  the  tablets 
of  his  will,  and  pray  him  to  read  them.  After  many 
a  refusal  at  length  Nasica  shall  take  them,  and  read 
them  to  himself,  and  shall  find  that  nothing  is  left  to 
him  and  his  but — to  whine." 

''<'  Here's  another  hint  I  give  you.  If  it  so  chance 
that  some  crafty  dame  or  freedman  sways  an  old 
dot-ard,  make  common  cause  \\ith  them.  Praise 
them,  that  they  may  praise  you  behind  your  back. 
This  too  helps  ;  but  far  better  is  it  to  storm  the 
citadel  itself.  Will  the  idiot  write  poor  verses  ? 
Praise  them.  Is  he  a  libertine  ?  See  that  he  has 
not  to  ask  you  ;  yourself  obligingly  hand  over 
Penelope  to  your  better. 

ULV.  You  think  so  !  Can  she  be  tempted, — she 
so  good,  so  pure,  whom  the  suitors  could  not  turn 
from  the  straight  course  ? 

TiR.  Yes,  for  the  young  suitors  who  came  were 
sparing  of  their  gifts  ;  their  thoughts  were  not  so 
much  on  loving  as  on  eating.  So  it  is  your  Penelope 
is  virtuous  ;  but  if  just  once  she  gets  from  one  old 
man  a  taste  of  gain  in  partnership  with  you,  then  she 
will  be  like  the  hound,  which  can  never  be  frightened 
away  from  the  greasy  hide.'' 

^*  I  will  tell  you  something  that  happened  when  I 
was  old.''  A  M-icked  old  crone  at  Thebes,  by  the 
terms  of  her  will,  was  buried  thus  :  her  corpse,  well 
oiled,  her  heir  carried  on  his  bare  shoulders.     She 

*  i.e.  a  hide  to  which  pieces  of  fat  still  cling. 
•  The  speaker,  now  long  dead,  is  a  shade  in  the  lower  world. 



scilicet  elabi  si^  posset  mortua  ;  credo, 
quod  nimium  institerat^  viventi. 

"  Cautus  adito : 
neu  desis  operae  neve  immoderatus  abundes. 
difficilem  et  morosum  offendet^  garrulus  ;   ultra*     90 
non  etiam  sileas.    Davus  sis  comicus  atque 
stes  capite  obstipo,  multum  similis  metuenti. 
obsequio  grassare  ;   mone,  si  increbruit  aura, 
cautus  uti  velet  carum  caput ;   extrahe  turba 
oppositis  umeris  ;   aurem  substringe  loquaci.  95 

importunus  amat  laudari  :   donee  '  ohe  iam  !  * 
ad  caelum  manibus  sublatis  dixerit,  urge, 
crescentem  tumidis  infla  sermonibus  utrem. 

"  Cum  te  servitio  longo  curaque  levarit, 
et  certum  vigilans,  '  quartae  sit  partis  Ulixes,*      100 
audieris,  '  heres  '  :   ergo  nunc  Dama  sodalis 
nusquam    est  ?     unde    mihi    tam    fortem    tamque 

fidelem  ?  ' 
sparge  subinde  et,  si  paulum  potes,  illacrimare  ;   est* 
gaudia  prodentem^  voltum'  celare.     sepulcrum 
permissum  arbitrio  sine  sordibus  exstrue  :  funus    105 
egregie  factum  laudet  vicinia.     si  quis 
forte  coheredum  senior  male  tussiet,  huic  tu 
die,  ex  parte  tua  seu  fundi  sive  domus  sit 
emptor,  gaudentem  nummo  te  addicere. 

"  Sed  me 
imperiosa  trahit  Proserpina  :  vive  valeque."  110 

1  si]  ut  sic  V.  *  extiterat.  '  offendit  <p\pl. 

*  ultro.  *  est  deleted  in  a. 

«  prudentem.  '  multum  (pxj^l. 

«  Cf.  "  Davoque  Chreraeta  eludente,"  Sat.  i.  10.  40. 

SATIRES,  J  I.  V.  87-110 

wanted,  of  course,  to  see  whether  she  could  give  him 
the  slip  when  dead.  I  suppose,  when  she  was  Uving, 
he  had  borne  too  hard  upon  her. 

^  Be  cautious  in  your  approach ;  neither  fail  in 
zeal,  nor  show  zeal  beyond  measure.  A  chatterbox 
will  offend  the  peevish  and  morose  ;  yet  you  must 
not  also  be  silent  beyond  bounds.  Act  the  Davus  of 
the  comedy,"  and  stand  with  head  bowed,  much  hke 
one  overawed.  With  flattery  make  your  advances  ; 
warn  him,  if  the  breeze  stiffens,  carefully  to  cover  up 
his  precious  pate  ;  shoulder  a  way  and  draw  him  out 
of  a  crowd ;  make  a  trumpet  of  your  ear  when  he 
is  chattering.  Does  he  bore  you  with  his  love  of 
praise  ?  Then  ply  him  with  it  till  with  hands  uplifted 
to  heaven  he  cry  "  enough  !  "  and  blow  up  the 
swelling  bladder  with  turgid  phrases. 

^  And  when  from  your  long  care  and  ser\'itude  he 
sets  you  free,  and  wide  awake  you  hear  the  words, 
"  To  one-fourth  let  Ulysses  be  heir,"  then,  now  and 
again,  scatter  about  such  words  as  these,  "Ah!  is  my 
old  friend  Dama  now  no  more  ?  VV^here  shall  I  find 
one  so  firm,  so  faithful  ?  "  and  if  you  can  do  a  bit  of 
it,  drop  in  some  tears.  If  your  face  betray  joy, 
you  can  hide  it.  If  the  tomb  is  left  to  your  discretion, 
build  it  in  style  :  let  the  neighbours  praise  the  hand- 
some funeral.  If  one  of  your  co-heirs  happens  to  be 
older  than  you,  and  has  a  bad  cough,  say  to  him  that 
if  he  would  hke  to  buy  land  or  a  house  that  is  in  your 
share,  you  would  gladly  knock  it  down  to  him  for  a 

But  Proserpine,  our  queen,  calls  me  back.  Live 
and  fare  well  1 




This  famous  Satire,  which  has  been  so  happily 
imitated  by  Pope,  contrasts  the  annoyances  and 
discomforts  of  hfe  in  Rome  with  the  peace  and 
happiness  enjoyed  by  the  poet  on  his  beloved  Sabine 

It  is  probably  owing  to  its  peculiarly  personal  tone 
that  for  this  Satire  Horace  does  not  set  up  a  dialogue 
framework,  but  reverts  to  the  monologue  form  of 
the  First  Book,  although  a  large  portion  of  the  poem, 
viz.  the  fable  of  the  Town  and  the  Country  Mouse, 
is  put  into  the  mouth  of  another  speaker. 

Kiessling  has  pointed  out  how  the  hours  of  morning 
(1-23)  and  of  evening  (60-76),  as  spent  in  the  country, 
suggest  the  two  side-pictures  of  a  triptych,  which 
enclose  the  central  and  larger  picture,  that  of  a  day 
passed  in  Rome  (23-59).  The  contrast  thus  pre- 
sented between  the  peacefulness  of  rural  life  and 
the  restlessness  of  city  life  is  then  summed  up  in 
the  delightful  allegory  with  which  the  Satire  con- 
cludes (79-117).  Nothing  could  be  more  artistic 
than  such  an  arrangement. 

Besides  being  one  of  the  most  charming  of  Horace's 
compositions,  this  Satire  is  important  for  settling 
some  of  the  chronology  of  Horace's  life.     Thus  1.  38 



seems  to  refer  to  the  time  which  included  the  Battle 
of  Actium  and  succeeding  events,  when  Maecenas, 
in  the  absence  of  Octa\-ian,  had  full  control  in  Rome 
and  Italy.  The  mention  of  the  Dacians  in  1.  53 
reminds  us  that  these  people  wavered  between 
Octa\ian  and  Antony  and  that  Crassus  was  sent 
against  them  in  30  b.c.  Again,  the  assignment  of 
lands  to  the  veterans,  referred  to  in  1.  55,  is  doubtless 
the  reward  promised  for  ser\-ices  at  Actium.  In  this 
connexion  some  of  the  soldiers  mutinied  in  the  winter 
of  31  B.C.  The  Satire  therefore  was  composed  late 
in  31  B.C.  or  early  in  30  b.c,  and  it  follows  from 
11.  40  ff.  that  Horace  entered  the  circle  of  Maecenas 
in  39  or  38  b.c.  The  Sabine  farm  was  given  to  the 
poet  some  six  years  later. 



Hoc  erat  in  votis  :  modus  agri  non  ita  magnus, 
hortus  ubi  et  tecto  vicinus  iugis  aquae  fons 
et  paulum  silvae  super  his  foret.     auctius  atque 
di  melius  fecere.     bene  est.     nil  amplius  ore, 
Maia  nate,  nisi  ut  propria  haec  mihi  munera  faxis.    6 
si  neque  maiorem  feci  ratione  mala  rem 
nee  sum  facturus  vitio  culpave^  minorem, 
si  veneror  stultus  nihil  horum  :  "  o  si  angulus  ille 
proximus  accedat,  qui  nunc  denormat  agellum  ! 
o^  si  urnam  argenti  fors  quae  mihi  monstret,  ut  illi,   10 
thesauro  invento  qui  mercennarius  agrum 
ilium  ipsum  mercatus  aravit,  dives  amico 
Hercule  !  "  si  quod  adest  gratum  iuvat,  hac  prece  te 

oro  : 
pingue  pecus  domino  facias  et  cetera  praeter 
ingenium,  utque  soles,  custos  mihi  maximus  adsis  !  15 

Ergo  ubi  me  in  montes  et  in  arcem  ex  urbe  removi, 
quid  prius  illustrem  saturis  Musaque  pedestri  ? 
nee  mala  me  ambitio  perdit  nee  plumbeus  Auster 
autumnusque  gravis,  Libitinae  quaestus  acerbae. 
^  -ve]  -que  a  Goth.  *  heu  0i/'. 

"  In  the  opening  words  Horace  gives  utterance  to  a  feeling 
of  deep  satisfaction  as  he  contemplates  the  scene  before  him 
in  the  morning  sunshine.  His  former  prayer  has  been 
realized.     Hence  the  past  tense  of  erat. 

*  Mercury  was  god  of  luck  and  gain  ;   Hercules  the  god 
of  treasure-trove  (see  11.  12,  13  below). 

Satire  VI    '-^ 

This  is  what  I  prayed  for  !  " — a.  piece  of  land  not 
so  very  large,  where  there  would  be  a  garden,  and 
near  the  house  a  spring  of  ever-floving  water,  and 
up  above  these  a  bit  of  woodland.  More  and  better 
than  this  have  the  gods  done  for  me.  I  am  content. 
Nothing  more  do  I  ask,  O  son  of  Maia,**  save  that 
thou  make  these  blessings  last  my  hfe  long.  If  I 
have  neither  made  my  substance  larger  by  evil  ways, 
nor  mean  to  make  it  smaller  by  excesses  or  neglect  ; 
if  I  offer  up  no  such  foolish  prayers  as  these  :  "  O  if 
there  could  be  added  that  near  comer,  which  now 
spoils  the  shape  of  my  httle  farm  !  O  that  some 
lucky  strike  would  disclose  to  me  a  pot  of  money,  like 
the  man  who,  having  found  a  treasure-trove,  bought 
and  ploughed  the  self-same  ground  he  used  to  work 
on  hire,  enriched  by  favour  of  Hercules  "  I— if  what  I 
have  gives  me  comfort  and  content,  then  thus  I  pray  to 
thee  :  make  fat  the  flocks  I  own,  and  all  else  save  my 
wit,  and,  as  thou  art  wont,  still  be  my  chief  guardian  I 

"  So,  now  that  from  the  city  I  have  taken  myself 
off  to  my  castle  in  the  hills,  to  what  should  I  sooner 
give  renown  in  the  Satires  of  my  prosaic  Muse  ?  Here 
no  wTctched  place-hunting  worries  me  to  death,  nor 
the  leaden  scirocco,  nor  sickly  autumn,  that  brings 
gain  to  hateful  Libitina.* 

*  The  old  Italian  goddess  Libitina,  sometimes  identified 
with  Persephone,  presided  over  funerals. 



Matutine  pater,  seu  "  lane  "  libentius  audis,        20 
unde  homines  operum  primes  vitaeque  labores 
instituunt  (sic  dis  placitum),  tu  carminis  esto 
prineipium.     Romae  sponsoi'em  me  rapis  :   "  heia, 
ne  prior  officio  quisquam  respondeat,  urge." 
sive  Aquilo  radit  terras  seu  bruma  nivalem  25 

interiore  diem  gyro  trahit,  ire  necesse  est. 
postmodo,  quod  mi  obsit,  clare  certumque  locuto 
luctandum  in  turba  et  facienda  iniuria  tardis. 
"  quid  tibi  vis,  insane,  et  quam  rem^  agis  ?  "  improbus 

iratis  precibus  :   "  tu  pulses  omne  quod  obstat,        30 
ad  Maecenatem  memori  si  mente  recurras." 

Hoc  iuvat  et  melli^  est,  non  mentiar.    at  simul  atras 
ventum  est  Esquilias,  aliena  negotia  centum 
per  caput  et  circa  saliunt  latus.     "  ante  secundam 
Roscius  orabat  sibi  adesses  ad  Puteal  eras."  36 

"  de  re  communi  scribae  magna  atque  nova  te 
orabant  hodie  meminisses,  Quinte,  reverti." 
"  imprimat  liis,  cura,  Maecenas  signa  tabellis." 
dixeris,  "  experiar  "  :  "  si  vis,  potes,"  addit  et  instat 

Septimus  octavo  propior^  iam  fugerit  annus,         40 

^  quam  rem  Bentley :  mss,  show  quas  res,  which  can  be 
kept  if  tibi  or  agis  is  deleted.     Thus  Orelli,  Wickham,  Lejay. 
^  mel,  II.  '  propior  E  :  proprior  o. 

"  Cf.  Milton's  "  Or  hear'st  thou  rather  pure  ethereal 
stream  "  {Par.  Lost,  iii.  6).  The  language  is  mock  heroic, 
and  the  apostrophe  of  the  god  of  the  morn,  or  of  beginnings, 
indicates  the  time  of  day  when  Horace  was  writing. 

''  Horace  gives  an  illustration  of  early  morning  duties  in 

"  The  circles  apparently  traced  by  the  sun  get  smaller 
up  to  the  winter  solstice. 

•*  Probably  the  sponsor  was  directed  by  the  court  to  speak 

'  i,e.  this  recognition  of  his  intimacy  with  Maecenas. 


SATIRES,  II.  VI.  20-40 

^  O  Father  of  the  dawn,  or  Janus,  if  so  thou 
hearest  rather,"  from  whom  men  take  the  beginnings 
of  the  work  and  toil  of  hfe — such  is  Heaven's  >nll — 
be  thou  the  prelude  of  my  song  !  At  Rome  thou 
hurriest  me  off  to  be  surety  ''  :  "  Come  !  bestir 
yourself,  lest  someone  answer  duty's  call  before  vou." 
Whether  the  North-A^nd  sweeps  the  earth,  or  ^vinter 
drags  on  the  snowy  day  in  narrower  circle,"  go  I 
must.  Later,  when  I  have  said  in  clear  and  certain 
tones  **  what  may  work  me  harm,  I  must  battle  in 
the  crowd  and  do  damage  to  the  slow  of  pace. 
"  What  do  you  mean,  madman  ?  What  are  you 
driving  at  ?  "  So  some  ruffian  assails  me  with  angry 
curses  :  "  You  would  jostle  everything  in  your  way, 
should  you  be  posting  back  to  Maecenas,  thinking 
only  of  him." 

32  That"  gives  pleasure  and  is  like  honey,  I'll 
not  deny.  But  as  soon  as  I  come  to  the  gloomy/ 
Esquihne,  a  hundred  concerns  of  others  dance 
through  my  head  and  all  about  me  :  "  Roscius  begs 
you  to  meet  him  to-morrow  at  Libo's  Wall"  before 
seven  o'clock."  "  The  clerks  beg  you,  Quintus,  to 
be  sure  to  return  to-day  on  some  fresh  and  important 
business  of  common  interest.*  "  "  Have  Maecenas 
put  his  seal  to  these  papers."  If  you  say,  "  I'll  try," 
"  You  can,  if  you  will,"  he  adds  insistently. 

*°  The  seventh  year — nay,  nearer  the  eighth — wiU 

'  "  Gloomy,"  because  of  the  old  associations  of  the  place. 
See  Satire  i.  8.  14,  note  c. 

»  The  praetor's  tribunal  was  near  the  Puteal  Lihonis,  a 
place  in  the  Forum,  which,  having  been  struck  by  lightning, 
was  enclosed  by  a  wall,  and  regarded  as  sacred. 

*  Horace,  being  himself  a  member  of  the  guild  of  scribae, 
is  addressed  on  familiar  terms.  He  had  been  a  member 
of  the  quaestor's  staff. 



ex  quo  Maecenas  me  coepit  habere  suorum 

in  numero,  dumtaxat  ad  hoc,  quern  tollere  raeda 

vellet  iter  faciens,  et  cui  concredere  nugas 

hoc    genus  :     "  hora    quota    est  ?  "     "  Thraex    est 

GalHna  Syro  par  ?  " 
"  matutina  parum  cautos  iam  frigora  mordent  ;  "    45 
et  quae  rimosa  bene  deponuntur^  in  aure. 
per  totum  hoc  tempus  subiectior  in  diem  et  horam 
invidiae  noster.     ludos  spectaverat^  una, 
luserat^  in  Campo  :  "  Fortunae  filius  !  "  omnes. 
frigidus  a  rostris  manat  per  compita  rumor  :  60 

quicumque  obvius  est  me  consuht :  "  o  bone,  nam  te 
scire,  deos  quoniam  propius*  contingis,  oportet, 
numquid  de  Dacis  audisti  ?"  '^nil  equidem."  "ut  tu 
semper  eris  derisor  !  "  "  at^  omnes  di  exagitent  me, 
si  quicquam."  "quid?  militibus  promissa  Triquetra 
praedia  Caesar  an  est  Itala  tellure  daturus  ?  "  56 
iurantem  me  scire  nihil  mirantur^  ut  unum 
scilicet  egregii  mortalem  altique  silenti. 

Perditur  haec  inter  misero  lux  non  sine  votis  : 
o  rus,  quando  ego  te  aspiciam  !  quandoque  licebit   60 
nunc  veterum  libris,  nunc  somno  et  inertibus  horis,' 
ducere  sollicitae  iucunda  oblivia  vitae  ! 
o  quando  faba  Pythagorae  cognata  simulque 
^  disponunturiJ.      ^  spectaverit.      ^  luserit.     ^proprius^^X. 

*  at  Goth.  :  ad  Mss.  *  miratur  4>->j/.  '  hortis  (p\f/. 

"  The  reference  is  to  some  sporting  event  of  the  day. 
The  men  mentioned  were  gladiators,  one  being  armed  like 
a  Thracian. 

^  This  colloquial  use  of  noster  ="I  ",  for  which  we  have 
examples  in  Plautus,  enables  the  writer  to  avoid  a  tone  of 
egoism.     Cf.  dvijp  oSe. 

"  Sicily.  After  the  battle  of  Actium  the  soldiers  who  had 
served  with  Octavius  had  lands  allotted  to  them.  The 
expression  used  for  Sicily  is  probably  an  echo  of  Lucretius 
(i.  717)  "  insula  .  .  .  triquetris  terrarum  .  .  .  in  oris." 


SATIRES,  II.  VI.  41-63 

soon  have  sped,  since  Maecenas  began  to  count  me 
among  his  friends — merely  thus  far,  as  one  he  would 
hke  to  take  in  his  carriage  when  on  a  journey,  and 
confide  to  liis  ears  trifles  hke  this  :  "  What's  the 
time  ?  "  "Is  the  Tlrracian  Chicken  a  match  for 
Syrus  ?  "  **  "  The  morning  frosts  are  nipping  now, 
if  people  are  careless,"  and  such  chat  as  is  safely 
dropped  into  a  leaky  ear.  For  all  these  years,  every 
day  and  hour,  our  friend  *  has  been  more  and  more 
the  butt  of  en\y,.  Has  he  viewed  the  games,  or 
played  ball  in  the  Campus  ^^'ith  Maecenas  ?  "  For- 
tune's favourite  !  "  all  cry.  Does  a  chilly  rumour 
run  from  the  Rostra  through  the  streets  ?  Whoever 
coiaaes  my  way  asks  my  opinion  :  "  My  good  sir, 
you  must  know — you  come  so  much  closer  to  the 
gods  :  you  haven't  heard  any  news  about  the 
Dacians,  have  you  ?  "  "  None  whatever."  "  How 
you  will  always  mock  at  us  !  "  But  heaven  confound 
me,  if  I  have  heard  a  word  !  "  Well,  is  it  in  the 
three-cornered  isle,"  or  on  Italian  soil,  that  Caesar 
means  to  give  the  soldiers  their  promised  lands  ?  " 
When  I  swear  I  know  nothing,  they  marvel  at  me 
as,  forsooth,  the  man  of  all  men  remarkably  and 
profoundly  reticent. 

^  Amid  such  trifling,  alas  !  I  waste  my  day,  pray- 
ing the  while  :  O  rural  home :  when  shall  I  behold 
you  !  When  shall  I  be  able,  now  with  books  of  the 
ancients,  now  ^vith  sleep  and  idle  hours,  to  quaff" 
sweet  forgetfulness  of  hfe's  cares  !  O  when  shall 
beans,  brethren  of  Pythagoras,**  be  serv'ed  me,  and 

<*  Pv'thasroras  forbade  the  eating  of  beans  as  well  as  of 
the  flesh  of  animals,  in  the  latter  case  because  of  his  doctrine 
of  transmigration  of  souls.  Horace  humorously  applies 
this  doctrine  to  beans  as  welL     C/.  Gellius,  iv.  11. 



uncta  satis  pingui  ponentur  holuscula  lardo  ! 

o  noctes  cenaeque  deum  !   quibus  ipse  meique         65 

ante  Larem  proprium  vescor  vernasque  procaces 

pasco  libatis  dapibus.     prout  cuique  libido  est, 

siccat  inaequalis  calices  conviva,  solutus 

legibus  insanis,  seu  quis  capit  acria  fortis 

poeula,  seu  modicis  uveseit^  laetius.     ergo  70 

sermo  oritur,  non  de  villis  domibusve  alienis, 

nee  male  necne  Lepos  saltet  ;  sed  quod  magis  ad  nos 

pertinet  et  nescire  malum  est,  agitamus  :  utrumne 

divitiis  homines  an  sint  virtute  beati  ; 

quidve  ad  amicitias,  usus  rectumne,  trahat  nos  ;     75 

et  quae  sit  natura  boni  summumque  quid  eius. 

Cervius  haec  inter  vicinus^  garrit  anilis 
ex  re  fabellas.  si  quis  nam  laudat  ArelU 
sollicitas  ignarus  opes,  sic  incipit :  "  olim 
rusticus  urbanum  murem  mus  paupere  fertur  80 

accepisse  cavo,  veterem  vetus  hospes  amicum, 
asper  et  attentus  quaesitis,  ut  tamen  artum 
solveret  hospitiis  animum.     quid  multa  ?     neque  ille 
sepositi  ciceris  nee  longae  invidit  avenae, 
aridum  et  ore  ferens  acinum  semesaque  lardi  85 

frusta^  dedit,  cupiens  varia  fastidia  cena 
vincere  tangentis  male  singula  dente  superbo  ; 
cum  pater  ipse  domus  palea  porrectus  in  horna 
esset  ador  loliumque,  dapis  meliora  relinquens. 
tandem  urbanus  ad  hunc,  "  quid  te  iuvat,"  inquit, 
"  amice,  90 

1  humescit  E.  *  vicino  E  :  vicinos  V. 

'  frustra  E<f>\  Goth.  :  furta  Peerlkamp. 

"  Another  plausible  interpretation  of  libatis  dapibus  is 
"  after  due  offering,"  i.e.  to  the  Lares,  before  the  mensa 
secunda  with  its  wine-drinking  began. 


SATIRES,  II.  VI.  64-90 

with  them  greens  well  larded  with  fat  bacon  !  O 
nights  and  feasts  divine  !  When  before  my  own 
Lar  we  dine,  my  friends  and  I,  and  feed  the 
saucy  slaves  from  the  barely  tasted  dishes."  Each 
guest,  as  is  his  fancy,  drains  cups  big  or  small,  not 
bound  by  crazy  laws,  ^  whether  one  can  stand  strong 
bumpers  in  gallant  style,  or  with  mild  cups  mellows 
more  to  his  Uking.  And  so  begins  a  chat,  not  about 
other  men's  homes  and  estates,  nor  whether  Lepos 
dances  well  or  ill  ;  but  we  discuss  matters  which 
concern  us  more,  and  of  which  it  is  harmful  to  be  in 
ignorance — whether  wealth  or  virtue  makes  men 
happy,  whether  self-interest  or  uprightness  "  leads 
us  to  friendship,  what  is  the  nature  of  the  good  and 
what  is  its  highest  form. 

"  Now  and  then  oiu*  neighbour  Cervius  rattles  oflF 
old  wives'  tales  that  fit  the  case.  Thus,  if  anyone, 
blind  to  its  anxieties,  praises  the  wealth  of  Arellius, 
he  thus  begins  :  "  Once  on  a  time — such  is  the  tale 
— a  country  mouse  welcomed  a  city  mouse  in  his 
poor  hole,  host  and  guest  old  friends  both.  Roughly 
he  fared,  frugal  of  his  store,  yet  could  open  his  thrifty 
soul  in  acts  of  hospitahty.  In  short,  he  grudged  not 
his  hoard  of  vetch  or  long  oats,  but  bringing  in  his 
mouth  a  dried  raisin  and  nibbled  bits  of  bacon  he 
served  them,  being  eager  by  varying  the  fare  to 
overcome  the  daintiness  of  a  guest,  who,  \vith  squeam- 
ish tooth,  would  barely  touch  each  morsel.  Mean- 
while, outstretched  on  fresh  straw,  the  master  of 
the  house  himself  ate  spelt  and  darnel,  lea%'ing  the 
titbits  to  his  friend.  At  last  the  city  mouse  cries 
to  him  :    "  What  pleasure  can  you  have,  my  friend, 

"  Cf.  Sat.  ii.  2.  123  and  note. 
<^  Fundamental  questions  of  ethical  philosophy. 



praerupti  nemoris  patientem  vivere  dorso  ? 

vis  tu  homines  urbemque  feris  praeponere  silvis  ? 

carpe  viam,  mihi  crede,  comes,     terrestria  quando 

mortalis  animas  vivunt  sortita,  neque  ulla  est 

aut  magno  aut  parvo  leti  fuga,  quo,  bone,^  circa,     95 

dum  licet,  in  rebus  iucundis  vive  beatus  ; 

vive  memor,  quam  sis  aevi  brevis."     haec  ubi  dicta 

agrestem  pepulere,  domo  levis  exsilit ;  inde 

ambo  propositum  peragunt  iter,  urbis  aventes 

moenia  nocturni  subrepere. 

lamque  tenebat  100 

nox  medium  caeli  spatium,  cum  ponit  uterque 
in  locuplete  domo  vestigia,  rubro  ubi  cocco 
tincta  super  lectos  canderet  vestis  eburnos, 
multaque  de  magna  superessent  fercula  cena, 
quae  procul  exstructis  inerant  hesterna  canistris.    105 
ergo  ubi  purpurea  porrectum  in  veste  locavit 
agrestem,  veluti  succinctus  cursitat  hospes 
continuatque  dapes,  nee  non  verniliter^  ipsis' 
fungitur  officiis,  praelambens  omne  quod  adfert.^ 
ille  Cubans  gaudet  mutata  sorte  bonisque  110 

rebus  agit  laetum  convivam,  cum  subito  ingens 
valvarum  strepitus  lectis  excussit  utrumque. 
currere  per  totum  pavidi  conclave,  magisque 
exanimes  trepidare,  simul  domus  alta  Molossis 
personuit  canibus.     tum  rusticus,  "  baud  mihi  vita  115 
est  opus  hac,"  ait  "  et  valeas  :  me  silva  cavusque 
tutus  ab  insidiis  tenui  solabitur  ervo." 

^  bene  E.  *  vernaliter. 

3  ipse  Lambinue.  *  afflat  ^^X, 


SATIRES,  II.  VI.  91-117 

in  living  so  hard  a  life  on  the  ridge  of  a  steep  wood  ? 
Wouldn't  you  put  people  and  the  city  above  these 
wild  woods  ?  Take  my  ad\ice  :  set  out  -with  me. 
Inasmuch  as  all  creatures  that  hve  on  earth  have 
mortal  souls,  and  for  neither  great  nor  small  is  there 
escape  from  death,  therefore,  good  sir,  while  you 
may,  live  happy  amid  joys  ;  live  mindful  ever  of  how 
brief  yom*  time  is  !  "  These  words  struck  home  with 
the  rustic,  who  hghtly  leaped  forth  from  his  house. 
Then  both  pursue  the  journey  as  planned,  eager  to 
creep  under  the  city  walls  by  night. 

^^  And  now  night  was  holding  the  mid  space  of 
heaven,  when  the  two  set  foot  in  a  wealthy  palace, 
where  covers  dyed  in  scarlet  glittered  on  ivory 
couches,  and  many  courses  remained  over  from  a 
great  dinner  of  the  evening  before,  in  baskets  piled 
up  hard  by.  So  when  the  town  mouse  has  the 
rustic  stretched  out  on  purple  covers,  he  himself 
bustles  about  in  waiter-style,  serWng  course  after 
course,  and  doing  all  the  duties  of  the  home-bred 
slave,  first  tasting  everj'thing  he  serves.  The  other, 
lying  at  ease,  enjoys  his  changed  lot,  and  amid  the 
good  cheer  is  playing  the  happy  guest,  when  of  a 
sudden  a  terrible  banging  of  the  doors  tumbled  them 
both  from  their  couches.  In  panic  they  run  the 
length  of  the  hall,  and  still  more  terror-stricken  were 
they,  as  the  lofty  palace  rang  with  the  barking  of 
Molossian  hounds.  Then  says  the  rustic  :  "  No  use 
have  I  for  such  a  hfe,  and  so  farewell  :  my  wood 
and  hole,  secure  from  alarms,  will  solace  me  with 
homely  vetch." 




The  scene  is  laid  in  Rome  during  the  Saturnalia,  when 
slaves  were  treated  ^\■ith  great  indulgence  (1.  4  and 
Sat.  ii.  3.  5).  Davus,  the  slave  of  Horace,  is 
therefore  permitted  to  speak  his  mind  freely  to  his 
master  (1-5). 

He  remarks  that  some  men  are  consistent  in  their 
vices,  others  waver  between  vice  and  \irtue.  Horace 
is  an  inconsistent  man.  He  praises  the  good  old 
times,  but  would  not  go  back  to  them  if  he  could. 
In  town  he  pines  for  the  country,  in  the  country  he 
longs  for  the  town.  If  not  in\ited  out,  he  pretends 
to  be  glad,  but  if  an  in%atation  from  Maecenas  comes 
at  a  late  hour,  off  he  runs  in  great  excitement,  lea\ing 
his  expectant  parasites  in  the  lurch,  and  proving  that 
he  is  no  better  than  they  (6-42). 

"  WTiat,"  asks  Davus,  "  if  you,  the  master,  be 
found  to  be  a  greater  fool  than  I,  your  slave  ?  " 
Such  an  audacious  remark  provokes  Horace's  wTath, 
but  Davus  is  allowed  to  report  the  lessons  of  wsdom, 
which  a  servant  of  Crispinus  had  overheard  at  the 
door  of  his  master's  lectiure-room,  and  had  passed  on 
to  him  (42-45). 

The  so-called  master,  victim  of  his  passions, 
pursues  intrigues,  stoops  to  mean  devices  to  gain  his 



ends,  runs  all  sorts  of  risks,  and  sacrifices  character 
and  everything  else  that  he  has.  He  is  a  real  slave, 
whom  no  manumission  can  free,  and  his  Davus  is  but 
his  fellow-slave.  He  is  a  mere  puppet,  worked  by 
wires  that  others  pull  (46-82). 

Who,  then,  is  free  ?  Only  the  wise  man,  who  is 
complete  master  of  himself.  He  who  is  subject  to 
passion  is  never  that  (83-94). 

Again,  the  so-called  master  is  not  above  his  slave 
in  other  faults.  The  latter  wastes  time  gazing  on 
crude  posters,  the  former  is  crazy  over  some  great 
artist's  paintings.  The  slave  likes  pasties  and  gets 
a  thrashing,  the  master  loves  grand  suppers  and 
suffers  from  indigestion.  The  slave  swaps  the  brush 
he  has  stolen  for  a  bunch  of  grapes,  the  master  sells 
off  his  estates  to  fill  his  belly.  Why,  this  master 
cannot  bear  his  own  company.  He  is  a  runaway  and 
vagabond,  ever  seeking,  though  in  vain,  to  baffle  care 

This  is  too  much  for  the  angered  master,  who 
threatens  to  send  his  slave  out  to  liis  Sabine  farm 

This  Satire  is  a  close  companion  of  the  third,  and 
deals  with  another  Stoic  paradox,  viz.  that  only  the 
philosopher  is  free,  on  (lovos  6  aocfih'i  kXevdepo<;.  Both 
Satires  have  the  Saturnalia — a  time  of  free  speech — 
as  their  setting,  and  are  much  alike  in  substance, 
both  dealing  with  the  follies  of  mankind,  and  handling 
the  theme  in  a  very  similar  dramatic  fashion.  Here 
the  Stoic  teacher  Crispinus  corresponds  to  Stertinius. 
The  slave  Davus,  who  finds  that,  being  -wise,  he  is 
free,  takes  the  place  of  the  social  outcast  Damasippus, 
who  discovered  that  he  was  no  more  mad  than  other 
men.  In  both  Satires  Horace  is  the  auditor  of  the 

SATIRES,  II.  vn. 

sermon,  the  lessons  of  which  he  must  apply  to  himself. 
In  both  he  feigns  an  outburst  of  anger. 

Though  Horace  thus  allows  his  own  name  to  be 
used,  the  dialogue  is  really  between  any  slave  and 
any  master.  It  is  true  that,  to  heighten  the  humour 
of  the  scene,  he  introduces,  at  the  beginning  and 
perhaps  at  the  end  of  the  criticism  of  the  master 
(so  11.  22-35  ;  111-115),  some  of  the  atmosphere  of 
reality,  but  so  far  as  the  main  features  of  the  master's 
portrait  are  concerned,  it  would  be  more  correct  to 
regard  the  slave  Da\Tis,  the  preacher  of  \visdom,  as 
the  Horace  of  real  life.  That  the  poet  is  not  describ- 
ing himself  with  any  consistency  is  clear  from  11.  102, 
ff.,  where  he  is  accused  of  gluttony,  whereas  we 
know  that  he  was  very  abstemious  (cf.  Sat.  i.  5.  7-9)- 
The  seeming  self-accusation  as  to  serious  offences, 
therefore,  we  may  put  down  to  dramatic  necessity  or 
to  comic  exaggeration. 

The  dialogue  form  is  maintained  throughout, 
though  during  the  delivery  of  Crispinus's  lecture  it 
is  held  in  suspense. 



"  lamdudum  ausculto  et  cupiens  tibi  dicere  servus 
pauca  reformido."    Davusne  ?    "  ita,  Davus,  amicum 
mancipium  domino  et  frugi  quod  sit  satis,  hoc  est, 
ut  vitale  putes."     age,  libertate  Decembri, 
quando  ita  maiores  voluerunt,  utere  ;  narra.  6 

"  Pars  hominum  vitiis  gaudet  constanter  et  urget 
propositum  ;  pars  multa  natat,  modo  recta  capessens, 
interdum  pravis  obnoxia.     saepe  notatus 
cum  tribus  anellis,  modo  laeva  Priscus  inani, 
vixit  inaequalis,  clavum  ut  mutaret  in  horas,  10 

aedibus  ex  magnis  subito  se  conderet,  unde 
mundior  exiret  vix  libertinus  honeste  ; 
iam  moechus  Romae,  iam  mallet  doctus^  Athenis 
vivere,  Vertumnis,  quotquot  sunt,  natus  iniquis. 
scurra  Volanerius,  postquam  illi  iusta  cheragra        15 
contudit  articulos,  qui  pro  se  tolleret  atque 
mitteret  in  phimum^  talos,  mercede  diurna 

^  The  Bland,  uss.  make  no  division  between  this  and  the 
previous  Satire  ;  so  too  Bentley  :  not  so  aE\  or  Porph. 

*  doctor  V,  II;  so  Lejay. 

*  pyrgum  Goth. ;  no  doubt  a  gloss. 

"  The  Satire  begins  like  a  scene  in  comedy.  The  slave 
has  had  to  listen  to  his  master's  preaching,  and  now  would 
like  to  have  his  turn  at  fault-finding. 

*  Alluding  to  the  familiar  saying  that  the  good  die  young. 

*  During  the  Saturnalia,  which  came  in  December,  slaves 
were  allowed  great  freedom,  because,  in  the  age  of  Saturn, 
all  men  were  equal. 

**  As  senator,  Priscus  would  wear  a  broad  stripe  ;  as  eques, 


Satire  Vll 

DAvus.  I've  been  listening  some  time,  and  ^^ishing 
to  say  a  word  to  you,  but  as  a  slave  I  dare  not." 

HORACE,   Is  that  Da\^s  ? 

DAV.  Yes,  Davus,  a  slave  loyal  to  his  master,  and 
fairly  honest — that  is,  so  that  you  need  not  think 
him  too  good  to  live.*" 

HOR.  Come,  use  the  licence  December  allows,*' 
since  our  fathers  willed  it  so.     Have  your  say. 

DAV.  Some  mtn  persist  in  their  love  of  vice  and 
stick  to  their  purpose  ;  the  greater  number  waver, 
now  aiming  at  the  right,  at  times  giving  way  to  evil. 
Thus  Priscus,  who  often  attracted  notice  by  wearing 
three  rings,  but  once  in  a  while  by  wearing  none, 
was  so  fickle  in  his  Ufe,  that  he  would  change  his 
stripe  every  hour.**  Passing  from  a  stately  mansion, 
he  would  bury  himself  in  a  den,  from  which  a  decent 
freedman  could  scarcely  emerge  without  shame. 
Now  he  would  choose  to  hve  in  Rome  as  a  rake,  now 
as  a  sage  in  Athens — a  man  born  when  every  single 
V'ertumnus  was  out  of  sorts.*  Volanerius,  the  jester, 
when  the  gout  he  had  earned  crippled  his  finger- 
joints,  kept  a  man,  hired  at  a  daily  wage,  to  pick 

a  narrow  one.     Rings  were  worn  on  the  left  hand  {laeva) ; 
only  a  fop  would  wear  more  than  one. 

•  Vertumnus,  god  of  the  changing  year,  could  assume 
any  shape  he  pleased.  For  the  form  of  expression  ef. 
"lymphis  iratis,"  Sat.  i.  5.  97. 

Q  225 


conductum  pavit ;    quanto  constantior  isdem^ 
in  vitiis,  tanto  levius^  miser  ac  prior^  illo,* 
qui  iam  contento,  iam^  laxo  fune  laborat.'  20 

Non  dices  hodie,  quorsum  haec  tarn  putida  tendant, 
furcifer  ?     "  ad  te,  inquam."     quo  pacto,  pessime  ? 

fortunam  et  mores  antiquae  plebis,  et  idem, 
si  quis  ad  ilia  deus  subito  te  agat,  usque  recuses, 
aut  quia  non  sentis  quod  clamas  rectius  esse,  26 

aut  quia  non  firmus  rectum  defendis,  et  haeres 
nequiquam  caeno  cupiens  evellere  plantam. 
Romae  rus  optas  ;   absentem  rusticus  urbem 
tollis  ad  astra  levis.     si  nusquam  es  forte  vocatus 
ad  cenam,  laudas  securum  holus  ac,  velut  usquam   30 
vinctus  eas,  ita  te  felicem  dicis  amasque, 
quod  nusquam  tibi  sit  potandum.    iusserit  ad  se 
Maecenas  serum  sub  lumina  prima  venire 
convivam  :   '  nemon  oleum  feret^  ocius  ?     ecquis' 
audit  ? '  cum  magno  blateras  clamore  fugisque.^     35 
Mulvius  et  scurrae,  tibi  non  referenda  precati, 
discedunt.     '  etenim  fateor  me,'  dixerit  ille, 
*  duci  ventre  levem,  nasum  nidore  supinor,^ 

^  idem  E\.  *  levius]  est  melius,  //. 

*  ac  prior]  acrior  aE  Goth. 

*  illo  <t>^  one  Bland. :  ille  best  ass.,  yet  an  error. 

*  iam  .  .  .  iam]  tarn  .  .  .  quam  (p^p :  second  iam  omitted 
E  ;  becomes  quam  a. 

*  fert  El  Vollmer.  '  et  quis  E. 

*  furisque  V.  "  supino,  //. 

'  The  source  of  the  figure  is  probably  an  animal  tied  by 
a  rope,  and  pulled  up  with  a  jerk,  as  it  tries  to  get  free. 

''  We  are  to  suppose  that  Horace,  who  is  already  dining 
at  home,  gets  a  late  invitation  from  Maecenas  to  fill  a  vacant 
place.  The  oil  he  calls  for  is  needed  for  the  lantern  to  light 
him  through  the  streets. 


SATIRES,  II.  viT.  18-38 

up  the  dice  for  him  and  put  them  in  the  box.  As  he 
was  the  more  persistent  in  his  \-ices,  so  he  was  the 
less  unhappy  and  the  better  man,  than  the  one  who, 
with  rope  now  taut,  now  loose,  is  in  distress." 

HOR.  Are  you  to  take  all  day,  you  scape-gallows, 
in  telling  me  the  point  of  such  rot  ? 

DAV.    'Tis  you,  I  say. 

HOR.    How  so,  villain  ? 

DAV.  You  praise  the  fortune  and  manners  of  the 
men  of  old  ;  and  yet,  if  on  a  sudden  some  god  were 
for  taking  you  back  to  those  days,  you  would  refuse 
every  time  ;  either  because  you  don't  really  think 
that  what  you  are  ranting  is  sounder,  or  because  you 
are  wobbly  in  defending  the  right,  and,  though  vainly 
longing  to  pull  your  foot  from  the  filth,  yet  stick 
fast  in  it.  At  Rome  you  long  for  the  country  ;  in 
the  country,  you  extol  to  the  stars  the  distant  town, 
you  fickle  one  !  If  so  it  be  that  you  are  asked  out 
nowhere  to  supper,  you  praise  your  quiet  dish  of 
herbs,  and,  as  though  you  were  in  chains  when  you 
do  go  anywhere,  you  call  yourself  lucky,  and  hug 
yourself,  because  you  have  not  to  go  out  for  some 
carousal.  Let  but  Maecenas  bid  you  at  a  late  hour 
come  to  him  as  a  guest,  just  at  lamp-lighting  time  : 
"  Won't  someone  bring  me  oil  this  instant  ?  *  Does 
nobody  hear  me  ?  "  So  you  scream  and  bawl,  then 
tear  off.  Muhius  and  his  fellow-jesters  sneak  off 
with  curses  for  you  that  I  cannot  repeat."  "  Yes," 
he  would  say,  "  'tis  true  that  I'm  a  fickle  creature, 
led  by  my  stomach.     I  curl  up  my  nose  for  a  savoury 

*  Mulvius  was  a  parasite,  who  had  come  to  share  Horace's 
dinner  and  is  now  disappointed.  His  quoted  remarks  show 
that  Davus  looked  upon  Horace  himself  as  a  parasite  at  the 
table  of  Maecenas. 



imbecillus,  iners,  si  quid  vis,  adde,  popino. 

tu  cum  sis  quod  ego  et  fortassis  nequior,  ultro  40 

insectere  velut  melior  verbisque  decoris 

obvolvas  vitium  ?  '     quid,  si  me  stultior  ipso^ 

quingentis  empto  drachmis  deprenderis  ?     aufer 

me  voltu  terrere  ;  manum  stomachumque  teneto, 

dum  quae  Grispini  docuit  me  ianitor  edo.  45 

"  Te  coniunx  aliena  capit,  mieretricula  Davum. 
peccat  uter  nostrum  cruce  dignius  ?     acris  ubi  me 
natura  intendit,^  sub  clara  nuda  lucerna 
quaecumque  excepit  turgentis  verbera  caudae, 
clunibus  aut  agitavit  equum  lasciva  supinum,  50 

dimittit  neque  famosum  neque  sollicitum  ne 
ditior  aut  formae  melioris  meiat  eodem. 
tu^  cum  proiectis  insignibus,  anulo  equestri 
Romanoque  habitu,  prodis  ex  iudice  Dama 
turpis,  odoratum  caput  obscurante  lacerna,^  55 

non  es  quod  simulas  ?     metuens  induceris  atque 
altercante^  libidinibus  tremis  ossa  pavore. 
quid  refert,  uri  virgis  ferroque  necari 
auctoratus  eas,  an  turpi  clausus  in  area, 
quo  te  demisit^  peccati  conscia  erilis,  60 

contractum  genibus  tangas  caput  ?     estne  marito 
matronae  peccantis  in  ambo'^  iusta  potestas  ? 
in  corruptorem  vel  iustior.     ilia  tamen  se 

^  ipse  E.        2  incendit  Goth.        '  te,  //.         *  lucerna  E. 
*  alternante  Goth.  *  dimisit,  II.  '  ambos. 

"  Roughly  equivalent  to  £20,  or  $100,  a  low  price  for  a 

*  Davus  is  a  (nrep/xoKoyoi,  "  a  picker  up  of  learning's 
crumbs,"  and  he  has  picked  them  up,  not  from  the  Stoic 
Crispinus  himself,  but  at  second-hand  from  his  door-keeper, 
who  would  be  in  a  position  to  catch  some  scraps  of  the 
lectures  delivered  in  the  school-room. 

"  The  term  index  implies  a  citizen  of  good  standing. 



SATIRES,  II.  vTi.  39-63 

smell.  I  am  weak,  lazy,  and,  if  you  like  to  add,  a 
toper.  But  you,  since  you  are  just  the  same  and 
maybe  worse,  would  you  presume  to  assail  me,  as 
though  you  were  a  better  man,  and  would  you  throw 
over  your  own  vices  a  cloak  of  seemly  words  ?  " 
What  if  you  are  found  to  be  a  greater  fool  than  even 
I,  who  cost  you  five  hundred  drachmas  ?  <*  Don't  try 
to  scare  me  by  your  looks.  Hold  back  your  hand 
and  temper,  while  I  set  forth  the  lessons  taught  me 
by  the  porter  of  Crispinus.^ 

^  You  are  the  slave  of  another  man's  wife  ;  Davus 
of  a  poor  harlot.  Which  of  us  commits  a  sin  more  de- 
serving of  the  cross  ?  When  vehement  nature  drives 
me, she  who  satisfies  mypassion  sends  me  awayneither 
disgraced  nor  anxious  lest  some  richer  or  naore 
handsome  man  possess  her.  You,  when  you  have  cast 
aside  your  badges,  the  ring  of  knighthood  and  your 
Roman  dress,  and  step  forth,  no  longer  a  judge,"  but 
a  low  Dama,  with  a  cape  hiding  your  perfumed  head, 
are  you  not  what  you  pretend  to  be  ?  Full  of  fear, 
you  are  let  into  the  house,  and  you  tremble  with  a 
terror  that  clashes  with  your  passions.  What  matters 
it,  whether  you  go  off  in  bondage,**  to  be  scourged 
and  slain  with  the  sword,  or  whether,  shut  up  in  a 
shameful  chest,  where  the  maid,  conscious  of  her 
mistress's  sin,  has  stowed  you  away,  you  touch  your 
crouching  head  with  your  knees  ?  Has  not  the 
husband  of  the  erring  matron  a  just  power  over 
both  ?     Over  the  seducer  a  still  juster  ?     Yet  she 

See  note  on  Sat.  i.  4.  123.  That  Horace  could  claim 
equestrian  rank,  and  was  even  a  "  potential  senator,"  is 
maintained  by  Lilv  Ross  Tavlor  in  an  article  on  "  Horace's 
Equestrian  Career'"  in  A.J.'P.  xlvi.  (1925)  pp.  161  ff.  So, 
too,  Haight,  Horace,  etc.  p.  38. 

''  The  word  aitctoratus  is  technical,  being  applicable  to 
one  who  sold  himself  as  a  gladiator. 



non  habitu  mutatve  loco  peccatve^  superne, 
cum  te  formidet  mulier  neque  credat  amanti.  68 

ibis  sub  furcam  prudens,  dominoque  furenti 
committesrem  omnemetvitam  at  cum  corpora famam. 

"  Evasti  :   credo,  metues  doctusque  cavebis  ; 
quaeres,^  quando  iterum  paveas  iterumque  perire 
possis,  o  totiens  servus  !     quae  belua  ruptis,  70 

cum  semel  efFugit,  reddit  se  prava  catenis  ? 
"  non  sum  moechus,"  ais  :    neque  ego,  hercule,  fur, 

ubi  vasa^ 
praetereo  sapiens  argentea.     tolle  periclum  : 
iam  vaga  prosiliet  frenis  Natura  remotis. 
tune  mihi  dominus,  rerum  imperiis  hominumque       75 
tot  tantisque  minor,  quern  ter  vindicta  quaterque 
imposita  baud  umquam  misera  formidine  privet  ? 
adde  super*  dictis  quod  non  levius  valeat  :   nam 
sive  vicarius  est,  qui  servo  paret,  uti^  mos 
vester  ait,  seu  conservus,  tibi  quid*  sum  ego  ?    nempe 
tu,  mihi  qui  imperitas,  alii'^  servis  miser  atque  81 

duceris  ut  nervis  alienis  mobile  lignum. 

"  Quisnam  igitur  liber?  sapiens,  sibiqui*  imperiosus, 
quem  neque   pauperies  neque  mors  neque   vincula 

responsare  cupidinibus,  contemnere  honores  85 

fortis,  et  in  se  ipso  totus,^  teres  atque  rotundas, 

^  peccatque,  //.  ^  quaeres  El :  quaeris,  //. 

■  visa  V.  *  supra,  //.  "  uti]  ut  est,  II. 

•  quid  Goth.  :  quod  MSS.  '  aliis,  //. 

*  sibi  qui  I,  Bentley  :  sibiqne  V,  mss. 

'  Bentley  first  punctuated  after  totus. 

<*  As  the  man  had  done,  11.  53,  54. 

'  i.e.  like  an  unbridled  horse. 

«  The  vindicta  is  the  rod  used  in  the  formal  manumission 
of  a  slave  in  the  presence  of  the  praetor. 

SATIRES,  II.  vn.  64-86 

does  not  change  either  garb  or  position,"  and  she 
is  not  the  chief  sinner,  since  she  is  in  dread  of 
you  and  does  not  trust  her  lover.  You  with  eyes 
open  will  pass  under  the  yoke,  and  hand  over  to  a 
furious  master  your  fortune,  your  Ufe,  your  person 
and  repute. 

^  Suppose  you  have  escaped  :  then,  I  take  it,  you 
will  be  afraid  and  cautious  after  your  lesson.  No, 
you  will  seek  occasion  so  as  again  to  be  in  terror, 
again  to  face  ruin,  O  you  slave  many  times  over  ! 
But  what  beast,  having  once  burst  its  bonds  and 
escaped,  perversely  returns  to  them  again  ?  "I  am 
no  adulterer,"  you  say.  And,  in  faith,  I  am  no  thief 
either,  when  I  wisely  pass  by  your  silver  plate. 
Take  away  the  risk,  set  aside  restraint,  and  Nature  will 
spring  forward,  to  roam  at  \vill.''  Are  you  my  master, 
you,  a  slave  to  the  dominion  of  so  many  men  and 
things — you,  whom  the  praetor's  rod,  though  placed 
on  your  head  three  or  four  times  over,"  never  frees 
from  base  terror  ?  And  over  and  above  what  I  have 
said,  add  something  of  no  less  weight  :  whether  one 
who  obeys  a  slave  is  an  underslave,''  as  the  custom 
of  your  class  names  him,  or  a  fellow-slave,  what  am 
I  in  respect  of  you  ?  Why,  you,  who  lord  it  over 
me,  are  the  MTCtched  slave  of  another  master,  and 
you  are  moved  like  a  wooden  puppet  by  wires  that 
others  pull. 

®3  Who  then  is  free  ?  The  wise  man,  who  is  lord 
over  himself,  whom  neither  poverty  nor  death  nor 
bonds  affright,  who  bravely  defies  his  passions,  and 
scorns  ambition,  who  in  himself  is  a  whole,  smoothed 
and  rounded,  so  that  nothing  from  outside  can  rest 

■*  The  vicar ius  was  a  slave  bought  by  another  out  of  his 
peculium  to  help  him  in  his  work. 



externi  ne  quid  valeat  per  leve  morari, 
in  quem  manca  ruit  semper  Fortuna. 

ex  his  ut  proprium  quid  noscere  ?  quinque  talenta 
poscit  te  mulier,  vexat  foribusque  repulsum  90 

perfundit  gelida,  rursus  vocat  :   eripe  turpi 
colla  iugi,  '  liber,  liber  sum,'  die  age  !     non  quis  : 
urget  enim  dominus  mentem  non  lenis  et  acris 
subiectat  lasso  stimulos  versatque  negantem. 

Vel  cum  Pausiaca  torpes,  insane,  tabella,  95 

qui  peccas  minus  atque  ego,  cum  Fulvi  Rutubaeque 
aut  Pacideiani  contento  poplite  miror 
proelia  rubrica  picta  aut  carbone,  velut  si 
re  vera  pugnent,  feriant  vitentque  moventes^ 
arma  viri  ?    nequam  et^  cessator  Davus  ;  at  ipse   100 
subtilis  veterum  index  et  callidus  audis. 

"  Nil  ego,  si  ducor  libo  fumante  :  tibi  ingens 
virtus  atque  animus  cenis  responsat  opimis  ? 
obsequium  ventris  mihi  perniciosius  est  cur  ? 
tergo  plector  enim.     qui  tu*  impunitior  ilia,  105 

quae  parvo  sumi  nequeunt,  obsonia  captas  ? 
nempe  inamarescunt  epulae  sine  fine  petitae, 
illusique  pedes  vitiosum  ferre  recusant 
corpus,     an  hie  peccat,  sub  noctem  qui  puer  uvam 
furtiva  mutat  strigili  ?   qui  praedia  vendit,  110 

'  potestne,  //.  ^  morientes,  II. 

3  et  omitted,  II.  *  qui  dum  (t>\pl. 

"  The  wise  man  of  the  Stoics  is  self-contained  or  in- 
dependent of  externals,  avrapKrii,  and  is  like  the  perfect 
sphere  of  the  k6<tij.os  itself  (c/.  Plato,  Tim.  33).  In  the 
Protagoras  339  d,  Plato  also  makes  use  of  a  figure  of 
Simonides,  who  calls  the  truly  good  man  a  square,  rerpd- 
yuvos.      So  too  Aristotle,  Ehet.  iii.  11. 

*  These  are   names   of  gladiators.     The   last   named   is 


SATIRES,  II.  vn.  87-110 

on  the  polished  surface,  and  against  whom  Fortune 
in  her  onset  is  ever  maimed." 

^  Of  these  traits  can  you  recognize  any  one  as 
your  own  ?  A  woman  asks  of  you  five  talents, 
worries  you,  shuts  her  door  in  your  face,  drenches 
you  in  cold  water,  then— calls  you  back.  Rescue 
your  neck  from  the  yoke  of  shame  ;  come,  say,  "  I 
am  free,  am  free."  You  cannot ;  for  you  have  a 
master,  and  no  gentle  one,  plaguing  your  soul, 
pricking  your  weary  side  with  the  sharp  spur,  and 
driving  you  on  against  your  will. 

^^  Or  when,  madman,  you  stand  dazed  before  a 
picture  of  Pausias,  how  do  you  offend  less  than  I, 
when  I  marvel  at  the  contests  of  Fuhdus,  Rutuba, 
or  Pacideianus,*  ^\ith  their  straining  legs,  drawn  in 
red  chalk  or  charcoal,  just  as  lifehke  as  if  the  heroes 
were  really  waving  their  weapons,  and  fighting, 
striking,  and  parrying  ?  Davus  is  a  "  rascal  and 
dawdler,"  but  you  are  called  a  "  fine  and  expert  critic 
of  antiques." 

102  jf  j'jjj  tempted  by  a  smoking  pasty,  I'm  a  good- 
for-naught :  but  ^ow— does  your  heroic  virtue  and 
spirit  defy  rich  suppers  ?  Why  is  it  more  ruinous  for 
me  to  obey  the  stomach's  call  ?  My  back,  to  be  sure, 
pays  for  it.  But  how  do  you  escape  punishment 
more  than  I,  when  you  hanker  for  those  dainties 
which  cannot  be  bought  at  small  cost  ?  Why,  that 
feasting,  endlessly  indulged,  turns  to  gall,  and  the 
feet  you've  duped  refuse  to  bear  up  your  sickly 
body.  Is  the  slave  guilty,  who  at  fall  of  night  swaps 
for  grapes  the  flesh-brush  he  has  stolen  ?     Is  there 

borrowed  from  Lucilius  ;  the  other  two  may  be  contemporary 
with  Horace.  Pictures  of  gladiators  were  drawn  on  walls, 
and  served  the  purpose  of  modern  posters. 



nil  servile  gulae  parens  habet  ?     adde,  quod  idem 
non  horam  tecum  esse  potes,  non  otia  recte 
ponere,  teque  ipsum  vitas  fugitivus  et^  erro, 
iam  vino  quaerens,  iam  somno  fallere  Curam  ;        114 
frustra:  namcomesatrapremitsequiturquefugacem." 
Unde  mihi  lapidem  ? 

"  Quorsum  est  opus  ?  " 

Unde  sagittas  ? 
"  Aut  insanit  homo  aut  versus  facit." 

Ocius  hinc  te 
ni  rapis,  accedes  opera  agro  nona  Sabino. 
1  ut. 


SATIRES,  II.  VII.  111-118 

nothing  of  the  slave  about  one  who  sells  his  estates 
at  his  belly's  bidding  ?  And  again,  you  cannot 
yourself  bear  to  be  in  your  own  company,  you 
cannot  employ  your  leisure  aright,  you  shun  yourself, 
a  runaway  and  vagabond,  seeking  now  ^\-ith  wine, 
and  now  ^\•ith  sleep,  to  baffle  Care."  In  vain  :  that 
black  consort  dogs  and  follows  your  flight. 

HOR.   Where  can  I  find  a  stone  ? 

DAVus.   What's  it  for  ? 

HOR.   Or  where  arrows  ? 

DAVUS.   The  man's  ra\ing,  or  else  verse-making. 

HOR.  If  you  don't  take  yourself  off  in  a  jiff)',  you'll 
make  the  ninth  labourer  on  my  Sabine  farm. 

•  Cy.  OcUt  iii.  1.  40. 




The  poet  describes  a  dinner  at  which  Maecenas  was 
the  guest  of  honour.  Three  men  of  letters  were 
also  in  the  company — Fundanius,  Viscus,  and  Varius. 
The  rest  of  the  guests  are  undistinguished,  and  are 
probably  imaginary  characters  who  could  not  be 
identified.  Porcius,  for  instance,  true  to  his  name, 
eats  like  a  pig.  Balatro  is  a  buffoon,  and  Nomen- 
tanus  is  one  of  the  traditional  characters  of  satire. 
Moreover,  the  host,  Nasidienus  Rufus,  is  otherwise 
quite  unknown. 

These  facts  warrant  us  in  acquitting  Fundanius 
(and  therefore  the  author  who  introduced  him)  on 
the  charge  of  extremely  bad  taste  in  heaping  ridicule 
on  a  host  whose  hospitality  had  been  accepted. 
Horace,  in  fact,  adopts  a  principle,  which  is  illustrated 
in  the  previous  Satire,  of  securing  a  certain  amount 
of  verisimilitude  through  the  use  of  known  facts, 
and  of  drawing  on  his  imagination  for  the  rest  of 
his  material.  The  Satire  is  directed,  partly  against 
the  ostentation  and  vulgarity  sometimes  displayed 
by  wealth,  and  partly  against  the  curious  and 
affected  erudition  of  pronounced  epicures.  In  this 
latter  respect  it  resembles  the  fourth  Satire  of  this 


The  party  was  arranged  according  to  the  following 
plan : 

Medius  Lectus 

1.  Fundanius  ;  2.  Viscus  ;  3.  Varius  ;  4.  Balatro  ;  5. 
Vibidius;  6.  Maecenas;  7.  Nomentanus  ;  8.  Nasidienus ; 
9.  Porcius. 

Fiske  has  sho^^•n  that  Lucilius  was  "the  first  to 
estabhsh  the  traditions  of  the  Sd-n-vov  in  Latin 
Satire,"  and  that  in  this  Eighth  Satire  Horace  keeps 
in  fairly  close  touch  with  the  twentieth  book  of 
LuciUus,  where  a  banquet  given  by  the  praeco 
Granius  was  reported  to  the  satirist  by  L.  Licinius 
Crassus  (Lucilius  and  Horace,  pp.  408  ff.).  But,  as 
Lucihus  ^\Tote  at  least  five  satires  on  banquets,  it 
is  not  surprising  to  find  that  Lejay  (p.  580)  regards 
his  fifth  book  as  the  chief  model  followed  here  by 



Ut  Nasidieni  iuvit  te  cena  beati  ? 
nam  mihi  quaerenti  convivam  dictiis  here  illic 
de  medio  potare  die. 

"  Sic,  ut  mihi  numquam 
in  vita  fuerit  melius." 

Da,^  si  grave  non  est, 
quae  prima  iratum  ventrem  pacaverit^  esca.  6 

"  In  primis  Lucanus  aper  ;  leni  fuit  Austro 
captus,  ut  aiebat  cenae  pater  ;   acria  circum 
rapula,  lactucae,  radices,  quaha  lassum 
pervellunt  stomachum,  siser,  allec,  faecula  Coa. 
his  ut^  sublatis  puer  alte  cinctus  acernam  10 

gausape  purpureo  mensam  pertersit,  et  alter 
sublegit  quodcumque  iaceret  inutile  quodque 
posset  cenantis  ofFendere  ;   ut  Attica  virgo 
cum  sacris  Cereris,  procedit  fuscus  Hydaspes 
Caecuba  vina  ferens,  Alcon  Chium  maris  expers.     15 
hie  erus  :   '  Albanum,  Maecenas,  sive  Falernum 
te  magis  appositis  delectat,  habemus  utrumque.'  " 

1  dsi  (l>^:  die  Bland,  (da  is  the  more  unusual). 

*  pacaverit  C  :  peccaverit  E  :  placaverit  ^\f/. 

'  ut  C  Priscian  :  ubi  E. 

"  A  dinner-party  usually  began  at  the  ninth  hour  (about 
3  P.M.),  but  an  ultra-extravagant  one  might  begin  even  earlier. 

"  The  boar  with  relishes  here  formed  the  gustatio,  and  is 
another  sign  of  extravagant  luxury ;  cf.  Pliny  viii.  210,  "  in 
principio  (cenae)  bini  ternique  mandantur  apri."  More 
commonly  it  would  appear  as  the  piece  de  resistance.  See 
note  on  Sat.  ii.  4.  11. 

Satire  VIII 

HORACE.  How  did  you  like  your  dinner  vnih  the 
rich  Nasidienus  ?  Yesterday,  when  I  tried  to  get 
you  as  my  o\\"n  guest,  I  was  told  you  had  been 
dining  there  since  midday." 

FUNDANius.  So  much  so  that  never  in  my  hfe  did 
I  have  a  better  time. 

HOR.  Tell  me,  if  you  don't  mind,  what  was  the 
first  dish  to  appease  an  angry  appetite  ? 

FUN.  First  there  was  a  ^^^ld  boar.*  It  was  caught 
when  a  gentle  south  \vind  was  blowing,  as  the  father 
of  the  feast  kept  telling  us.  Around  it  were  pungent 
turnips,  lettuces,  radishes — such  things  as  whet  a 
jaded  appetite — skirret,  fish-pickle,  and  Coan  lees. 
When  these  were  removed,  a  high-girt  slave  with 
purple  napkin  wiped  well  the  maple-wood  table, 
while  a  second  swept  up  the  scraps  and  anything 
that  could  ofifend  the  guests.  Then,  hke  an  Attic 
maid*  bearing  Ceres'  sacred  emblems.,  there  came 
forward  dusky  Hydaspes  with  Caecuban  wine,  and 
Alcon  with  Chian,  unmixed  with  brine.<*  Then  said 
our  host  :  "  If  Alban  is  more  to  your  taste,  Maecenas, 
or  Falernian,  we  have  both." 

*  i.e.  like  a  Kavt)4>6po%  in  the  rites  of  Demeter  ;  ef.  Sat.  i.  3. 9. 

•*  The  Caecuban  was  one  of  the  finest  Italian,  as  Chian  was 
one  of  the  best  Greek,  wines.  The  host's  Chian  being  very 
good,  he  did  not  do  what  was  often  done — add  sea-water  to 
give  it  a  tang.  Columella  (xii.  21.  37)  gives  directions  as  to 
the  proportions  to  be  used.  The  phrase  maris  expers  cor- 
responds to  ov  Te6a\aTTUfjL^voy  in  Athenaeus  i.  p.  32. 



Divitias  miseras  !     sed  quis  cenantibus  una, 
Fundani,  pulchre  fuerit  tibi,  nosse  laboro. 

"  Summus  ego  et  prope^  me  Viscus  Thurinus   et 
infra,  20 

si  memini,  Varius  ;   cum  Servilio  Balatrone 
Vibidius,  quos^  Maecenas  adduxerat  umbras. 
Nomentanus  erat  super  ipsum,  Porcius  infra, 
ridiculus  totas  semeP  absorbere  placentas  ; 
Nomentanus  ad  hoc,  qui,  si  quid  forte  lateret,  26 

indice  monstraret  digito  :   nam  cetera  turba, 
nos,  inquam,  cenamus  avis,  conchylia,  piscis, 
longe  dissimilem  noto  celantia  sucum  ; 
ut  vel  continuo  patuit,  cum  passeris  atque 
ingustata  mihi  porrexerat  ilia  rhombi.  30 

post  hoc  me  docuit  meUmela  rubere  minorera 
ad  lunam  delecta.    quid  hoc  intersit  ab  ipso 
audieris  melius. 

"  Tum  Vibidius  Balatroni  : 
'  nos  nisi  damnose  bibimus,  moriemur  inulti,* 
et  calices  poscit  maiores.     vertere  pallor  35 

tum  parochi  faciem  nil  sic  metuentis  ut  acris 
potores,  vel  quod  maledicunt  liberius  vel 
fervida  quod  subtile  exsurdant  vina  palatum, 
invertunt  Allifanis  vinaria  tota 

Vibidius  Balatroque,  secutis  omnibus  ;   imi^  40 

convivae  lecti  nihilum  nocuere  lagoenis. 

^  pro  V.         *  quas  Goth.         *  simul  E.         *  imis  C,  II. 

"  The  umbrae  were  uninvited  guests  who  came  with  a  man 
of  high  station. 

*  The  cetera  turba  are  the  uninitiated  guests  as  contrasted 
with  the  knowing  Nomentanus.  The  subject  of  porrexerat 
is  not  the  host,  as  commonly  supposed,  but  Nomentanus, 
who  is  doing  the  work  assigned  him.  Palmer  takes  ingustata 
to  mean  "  untasted,"  implying  that  the  odour  was  enough 

SATIRES,  II.  VIII.  18-^1 

HOR.  O  the  misery  of  wealth  !  But  who,  Fun- 
danius,  were  those  at  dinner,  with  whom  you  had 
so  fine  a  time  ?     I  am  eager  to  know. 

FU\.  Myself  at  the  top,  then  next  to  me  Viscus 
of  Thurii,  and  below,  if  I  remember,  Varius.  Then 
Vibidius  and  Ser\ilius  Balatro,  the  "  shades  "  "  that 
Maecenas  had  brought  -with  him.  Above  our  host 
was  Nomentanus  ;  below  him,  Porcius,  who  made 
us  laugh  by  swallo%\'ing  whole  cheese-cakes  at  a 
mouthful.  Nomentanus  was  there  to  see  that  if 
anything  perchance  escaped  our  notice,  he  might 
point  it  out  ^\ith  his  forefinger  ;  for  the  rest  of  the 
folk  ^ — we,  I  mean — eat  fowl,  oysters,  and  fish,  which 
had  a  flavour  far  different  from  any  we  knew,  as, 
for  instance,  was  made  clear  at  once,  after  he  had 
handed  me  the  hvers  of  a  plaice  and  a  turbot,  a  dish 
I  had  never  tasted  before.  After  this  he  informed 
me  that  the  honey-apples  were  red  because  picked 
in  the  light  of  a  waning  moon.  What  difference  that 
makes  you  would  learn  better  from  himself. 

^  Then  said  Vibidius  to  Balatro :  "  Unless  we 
drink  him  bankrupt,  we  shall  die  unavenged,"  and 
he  calls  for  larger  cups.  Then  did  paleness  over- 
spread the  face  of  the  host,  who  dreaded  nothing  so 
much  as  hard  drinkers,  either  because  they  chaff  one 
too  freely  or  because  fiery  wines  dull  the  dehcate 
palate.  Vibidius  and  Balatro  tilt  whole  decanters  of 
wine  into  Allifan  goblets."  All  followed  suit,  save 
the  guests  on  the  lowest  couch,  who  did  no  harm  to 
the  flagons.'* 

to  betray  the  nature  of  the  food,  but  the  point  lies,  not  in 
the  badness,  but  in  the  novelty,  of  the  dishes. 

*  i.e.  large  cups  made  at  Allifae  in  Samnium. 

'  Porcius  and  Nomentanus  would,  of  course,  do  nothing 
to  offend  their  host.    They  therefore  "  spared  the  bottle." 

R  241 


"  Adfertur  squillas  inter  murena  natantis 
in  patina  porrecta.     sub  hoc  erus, '  haec   gravida,' 

*  capta  est,  deterior  post  partum  came  futura. 

his  mixtum  ius  est :   oleo,  quod  prima  Venafri         46 
pressit  cell  a  ;   garo  de  sucis  piscis  Hiberi ; 
vino  quinquenni,  verum  citra  mare  nato, 
dum  coquitur  (cocto  Chium  sic  convenit,  ut  non 
hoc  magis  ullum  aliud)  ;   pipere  albo,  non  sine  aceto, 
quod  Methymnaeam  vitio  mutaverit^  uvam.  50 

erucas  viridis,  inulas  ego  primus  amaras 
monstravi  incoquere  ;    illutos  Curtillus  echinos, 
ut  melius  muria  quod^  testa  marina  remittat.'  ^ 

"  Interea  suspensa  gravis  aulaea  ruinas 
in  patinam  fecere,  trahentia  pulveris  atri  55 

quantum  non  Aquilo  Campanis  excitat  agris. 
nos  maius  veriti,  postquam  nihil  esse  pericli 
sensimus,  erigimur.     Rufus  posito  capite,  ut  si 
filius  immaturus  obisset,  flere.     quis  esset 
finis,  ni  sapiens  sic  Nomentanus  amicum  60 

tolleret  :   '  heu,  Fortuna,  quis  est  crudelior  in  nos 
te  deus  ?     ut  semper  gaudes  illudere  rebus 
humanis  !  '     Varius  mappa  compescere  risum 
vix  poterat.     Balatro,  suspendens  omnia  naso, 

*  haec  est  condicio  vivendi,'  aiebat,  '  eoque  65 
responsura  tuo  numquam  est  par  fama  labori. 

tene,  ut  ego  accipiar  laute,  torquerier  omni 
sollicitudine  districtum,  ne  panis  adustus. 
ne  male  conditum  ius  apponatur,  ut  omnes 

1  motaverit,  I.  ^  quod  mss.  :  quo  V:  quani  Bentley. 

^  remittas  E  :  remittit  C. 

"  i.e.  Italian,  not  Greek. 

SATIRES,  II.  viii.  42-69 

**  Then  is  brought  in  a  lamprey,  outstretched  on 
a  platter,  with  shrimps  s^\■imming  all  round  it.  Upon 
thds  the  master  :  "  This,"  said  he,  "  was  caught 
before  spawning  ;  if  taken  later,  its  flesh  would  have 
been  poorer.  The  ingredients  of  the  sauce  are 
these  :  oil  from  Venafrum  of  the  first  pressing,  roe 
from  the  juices  of  the  Spanish  mackerel,  wine  five 
years  old,  but  produced  this  side  of  the  sea,"  poured 
in  while  it  is  on  the  boil — after  boiling,  Chian  suits 
better  than  anything  else — white  pepper,  and  vinegar 
made  from  the  fermenting  of  Lesbian  vintage.  I  was 
the  first  to  point  out  that  one  should  boil  in  the  sauce 
green  rockets  and  bitter  elecampane  ;  Curtillus  would 
use  sea-urchins,  unwashed,  inasmuch  as  the  yield  of 
the  sea-shellfish  itself  is  better  than  a  briny  pickle." 

^  Meantime  the  canopy  ^  spread  above  came  down 
in  mighty  ruin  upon  the  platter,  trailing  more  black 
dust  than  the  North-wind  raises  on  Campanian  plains. 
We  feared  a  worse  disaster,  but  finding  there  was  no 
danger  recover  ourselves.  Rufus  drooped  his  head 
and  wept  as  if  his  son  had  fallen  by  an  untimely 
fate.  What  would  have  been  the  end,  had  not 
Nomentanus,  the  philosopher,  thus  rallied  his  friend  : 
"  Ah,  Fortune,  what  god  is  more  cruel  toward  us 
than  thou  !  How  thou  dost  ever  delight  to  make 
sport  of  the  Ufe  of  man  !  "  Varius  could  scarce 
smother  a  laugh  with  his  napkin.  Balatro,  who 
sneers  at  everything,  said  :  "  These  are  the  terms 
of  life,  and  therefore  the  meed  of  fame  y\i\\  never 
equal  your  labour.  To  think  that,  in  order  that  I 
may  have  la\-ish  entertainment,  you  are  to  be  racked 
and  tortured  with  every  anxiety,  lest  the  bread  be 
burned,  lest  sauce  be  served  ill-seasoned,  that  all 

*  The  aulaea  were  hangings  used  to  decorate  the  walls. 



praecincti  recte  pueri^  comptique  ministrent !  70 

<adde  hos  praeterea  casus,  aulaea  ruant  si, 
ut  modo  ;  si  patinam  pede  lapsus  frangat  agaso. 
sed  convivatoris,  uti  ducis,  ingenium  res 
adversae  nudare  solent,  celare  secundae.' 
Nasidienus  ad  haec  :  '  tibi  di  quaecumque  precerls^  76 
commoda  dent  !  ita  vir  bonus  es  convivaque  comis  ; ' 
et  soleas  poscit.     turn  in  lecto  quoque  videres 
stridere  secreta  divisos  aure  susurros." 

Nullos  his  mallem  ludos  spectasse  ;  sed  ilia 
redde,  age,  quae  deinceps  risisti. 

"  Vibidius  dum  80 

quaerit  de  pueris  num  sit  quoque  fracta  lagoena, 
quod  sibi  poscenti  non  dentur^  pocula,  dumque 
ridetur  fictis  rerum  Balatrone  secundo, 
Nasidiene,  redis  mutatae  frontis,  ut  arte 
emendaturus  fortunam.     deinde  secuti  85 

mazonomo  pueri  magno  diseerpta  ferentes 
membra  gruis  sparsi  sale  multo  non  sine  farre, 
pinguibus  et  ficis  pastum  iecur  anseris  albae,'* 
et  leporum  avolsos,  ut  multo  suavius,  armos, 
quamsicumlumbis  quis  edit.^    tum^pectoreadusto  90 
vidimus  et  merulas  poni  et  sine  clune  palumbes, 
suavis  res,  si  non  causas  narraret  earum  et 
naturas  dominus  :   quem  nos  sic  fugimus  ulti, 
ut  nihil  omnino  gustaremus,  velut  illis 
Canidia  adflasset  peior  serpentibus  Afris.'  "  95 

^  pueri  recte  C  Goth.  ^  precaris  E  Goth. 

*  dentur  C^  Bentley  :  dantur  Ef. 

*  albae  V :  albi  mss.         *  edat  Priscian.         '  cum,  /. 

'  Afris  E  Goth.:  atris  C,  //,  Bentley. 

"  Their  light  slippers  were  removed  when  the  guests  took 
their  places ;  to  call  for  them  was  to  indicate  a  wish  to  leave 
the  dining-room. 


SATIRES,  II.  VIII.  70-93 

your  slaves  may  be  properly  attired  and  neat  for 
waiting  !  Then,  too,  these  risks  besides — the  canopy 
falUng,  as  it  did  just  now,  or  a  numskull  stumbling 
and  breaking  a  dish  !  But  one  who  entertains  is  like 
a  general :  mishaps  oft  reveal  his  genius,  smooth 
going  hides  it."  To  this  rephes  Nasidienus  : 
"  Heaven  grant  you  every  blessing  you  crave,  so 
kind  a  man  are  you,  so  civil  a  guest  !  "  and  calls  for 
his  shppers."  Then  on  each  couch  you  might  note 
the  buzz  of  whispers  in  secret  ears  exchanged.'' 

HOR.  No  play  would  I  have  rather  seen  ;  but  pray 
tell  me,  what  did  you  find  to  laugh  at  next  ? 

FUN.  While  Vibidius  is  asking  the  servants  whether 
the  flagon  also  was  broken,  since  cups  were  not 
brought  him  when  called  for,  and  while  we  were 
laughing  at  pretended  jests,  Balatro  egging  us  on, 
back  you  come,  Nasidienus,  mth  altered  brow,  as  if 
bent  on  mending  misfortune  by  art.  Then  follow 
servants,  bearing  on  a  huge  charger  the  hmbs  of  a 
crane  sprinkled  with  much  salt  and  meal,  and  the 
Uver  of  a  white  goose  fattened  on  rich  figs,  and  hares' 
limbs  torn  off,  as  being  more  dainty  than  if  eaten 
with  the  loins.  Then  we  saw  blackbirds  served  with 
the  breast  burnt,  and  pigeons  without  the  rumps — 
real  dainties,  did  not  our  host  unfold  their  laws  and 
properties."  But  off  we  ran,  taking  our  revenge  on 
him  by  tasting  nothing  at  all,  as  though  the  things 
were  blasted  with  Canidia's**  breath,  more  deadly 
than  African  serpents. 

*  The  remarkable  accumulation  of  sibilants  in  1.  78 
imitates  the  whispering. 

*  Nasidienus  discourses  upon  the  dishes  with  all  the 
seriousness  of  a  philosopher  lecturing  de  rerum  natura. 

*  For  Canidia  see  Sat.  i.  8.  24. 




The  First  Epistle,  which  serves  as  an  introduction  to 
the  First  Book,  and  is  addressed  to  the  poet's  patron, 
Maecenas,  professes  to  explain  why  Horace  has 
given  up  the  writing  of  lyric  poetry.  He  is  now  too 
old  for  such  folly,  and  his  mind  has  turned  to  another 

"  Why,"  he  asks,  "  should  you  wish  the  gladiator, 
who  has  earned  his  discharge,  to  return  to  his  former 
training-school  ?  A  warning  voice  within  bids  me 
loose  the  old  steed  before  he  stumble  at  the  end  of 
his  course.  And  so  I  give  up  my  verses  with  other 
toys,  and  turn  all  my  thoughts  to  philosophy,  follow- 
ing no  special  school  but  letting  myself  be  borne 
along  as  the  breeze  may  set,  now  behaving  as  a  true 
Stoic,  being  all  for  action,  and  now  relapsing  into 
the  passiveness  of  a  Cyrenaic  (1-19). 

"  With  impatience  do  I  await  the  day  when  I  may 
devote  myself  to  the  serious  problems  of  life  ;  mean- 
while I  must  guide  and  comfort  myself  with  what 
little  knowledge  I  possess.  A  cure  for  all  diseases 
of  the  soul  may  be  found  in  the  charms  and  spells  of 
philosophy,  if  the  patient  will  but  submit  to  treatment 

"  The  first  step  in  virtue  and  wisdom  is  to  eschew 


vice  and  folly.  Men  are  anxious  to  avoid  poverty 
and  ought  to  be  quite  as  eager  to  escape  from  evil 
desires,  especially  as  the  prize  offered  is  so  much 
greater  (41-51). 

"  True,  the  world  takes  a  different  view,  but  the 
children  who  sing  '  You'll  be  king,  if  you  do  right  ' 
should  teach  us  how  much  better  than  riches  is  the 
power  to  stand  erect  and  free  and  to  fling  defiance 
at  Fortune  (52-69). 

"  If  I  were  asked  why  I  do  not  go  along  with  the 
world  and  share  its  opinions,  I  should  recall  the  fable 
of  the  fox  declining  the  lion's  invitation  to  enter  his 
den,  because  the  footprints  point  in  only  one  direc- 
tion. The  man  who  once  gives  in  to  popular  opinion 
becomes  the  victim  of  a  hydra.  Cutting  off  one  head 
does  no  good.  Men  are  capricious,  and  even  the 
same  man  changes  his  views  from  hour  to  hour  (70-93). 

"  I  am  as  bad  as  others,  but  though  you  are  quick 
to  notice  some  carelessness  in  my  dress  or  appear- 
ance, you  fail  to  observe  my  graver  inconsistencies 
of  life  and  thought  (94-105). 

"  In  short,  the  Stoics  are  right  :  only  the  sage 
can  be  perfect,  and  even  he  may  suffer  from  a  cold  !  " 




Prima  dicte  mihi,  summa  dicende  Camena, 
spectatum  satis  et  donatum  iam  rude  quaeris, 
Maecenas,  iterum  antique  me  includere  ludo, 
non  eadem  est  aetas,  non  mens.     Veianius  armis 
Herculis  ad  postem  fixis  latet  aTbditus  agro,  5 

ne  populum  extrema  totiens  exo'ret^  harena. 
est  mihi  purgatam  crebro  qui  personet  aurem  : 
"  solve  senescentem  mature  sanus  equum,  ne 
peccet  ad  extremum  ridendus  et  ilia  ducat." 

Nunc  itaque  et  versus  et  cetera  ludicra  pono  ;  10 
quid  verum  atque  decens  euro  et  rogo  et  omnis  in  hoc 

sum  ; 
condo  et  compono  quae  mox  depromere  possim. 
ac  ne  forte  roges,  quo  me  duce,  quo  lare  tuter  : 
^  exornet  (p\pS. 

"  The  first  Satire,  the  first  Epode,  and  the  first  Ode  are 
all  addressed  to  Maecenas. 

'>  Horace  compares  himself  to  an  old  gladiator,  who  has 
often  won  approval,  and  received  the  wooden  foil  which 
was  a  symbol  of  discharge  from  the  school  of  gladiators. 

"  The  defeated  combatant  would  beg  for  his  life.    Veianius, 
after  his  discharge,  yielded  to  no  inducements  to  return  to 
the  arena. 

:r.4-  i?;-'^ 

.  ,   2,  -^  '  S    ik- 


Epistle  I 

You,  of  whom  my  earliest  Muse  has  told,"  of  whom 
my  last  shall  tell — you  Maecenas,  seek  to  shut  me 
up  again  in  my  old  school,  though  well  tested  in  the 
fray,  and  already  presented  with  the  foil.*  My 
years,  my  mind,  are  hot  the  same.  Veianius  hangs 
up  his  arms  at  Hercules'  door,  then  lies  hidden  in 
the  country,  that  he  may  not  have  to  plead  with  the 
crowd  again  and  again  from  the  arena's  edge."  Some 
one  there  is  who  is  always  dinning  in  my  well-rinsed 
ear  :  "  Be  wise  in  time,  and  turn  loose  the  ageing 
horse,  lest  at  the  last  he  stumble  amid  jeers  and 
burst  his  wind." 

^*^  So  now  I  lay  aside  my  verses  and  all  other  toys. 
What  is  right  and  seemly  is  my  study  and  pursuit, 
and  to  that  am  I  wholly  given.  I  am  putting  by 
and  setting  in  order  the  stores  on  which  I  may  some 
day  draw.  Do  you  ask,  perchance,  who  is  my  chief, 
in  what  home  I  take  shelter  ?     I  am  not  bound  over  ** 

•*  Horace,  still  using  terms  applicable  to  a  gladiator, 
who  took  an  oath  to  the  master  of  his  training-school,  is 
speaking  of  the  acceptance  of  the  formula  of  some  school 
of  philosophy. 



nullius  addictus^  iurare  in  verba  magistri, 

quo  me  cumque  rapit  tempestas,  deferor  hospes.     15 

nunc  agilis  fio  et  mersor  civilibus  undis, 

virtutis  verae  custos  rigidusque  satelles  ; 

nunc  in  Aristippi  furtim  praecepta  relabor 

et^  mihi  res,  non  me  rebus,  subiungere  conor. 

Ut  nox  longa  quibus  mentitur  arnica,  diesque     20 
longa  videtur  opus  debentibus,  ut  piger  annus 
pupillis,  quos  dura  premit  custodia  matrum  ; 
sic  mihi  tarda  fluunt  ingrataque  tempora,  quae  spem 
consiliumque  morantur  agendi  naviter  id  quod 
aeque  pauperibus  prodest,  locupletibus  aeque,        25 
aeque  neglectum  pueris  senibusque  nocebit. 
restat  ut  his  ego  me  ipse  regam~§blerque  dementis, 
non  prfssis  oculo^  quantum  contendere  Lynceus, 
non  tamen  idcirco  contemnas  hppus  inungui  ; 
nee  quia  desperes  invicti  membra  Glyconis,''  30 

nodosa  corpiis  nohs  prohibere  cheragra. 
est  quadam^  prodire  tenus,  si  non  datur  ultra. 

P'ervet  avaritia  miserfoque  cupidine  pectus  : 
sunt  verba  et  voces,  quibus  hunc  lenire  dolorem 
possis  et  magnam  morbi  deponere  partem.  35 

laudis  amore  tumes  ;  sunt  certa  piacula,  quae  te 
ter  pure  lecto  poterunt  recreare  lihello. 

>  addictus,  //:  adductus  aEM,  I,  yet  addictus  is  surely 

2  ac.  '  oculos. 

*  Milonis  knojpn  to  Acron.  -        ^  quodam,  //. 

"  By  agilis  Horace  translates  irpaKriKds,  and  civilibus  — 
ToXiTi/coij ;  the  Stoics  approved  of  an  active  participation 
in  public  life. 

*  Aristippus  founded  the  Cyrenaic  school,  which  taught 
that  a  man  should  control  circumstances,  not  be  controlled 
by  them. 

*  As  he  has  not  yet  been  able  to  take  up  philosophy 




EPISTLES,  I.  I.  14^37 

to  swear  as  any  master  dictates  ;  wherever  the  storm 
drives  me,  I  turn  in  for  comfort.  Now  I  become  all 
action,"  and  plunge  into  the  tide  of  civil  life,  stern 
champion  and  follower  of  true  Virtue  ;  now  I  slip 
back  stealthily  into  the  rules  of  Aristippus,  and 
would  bend  the  world  to  myself,  not  myself  to  the 

^^  As  the  night  seems  long  for  one  whose  mistress 
proves  false,  and  the  day  long  for  those  who  work 
for  hire ;  as  the  year  lags  for  wards  held  in  check  by 
their  mother's  strict  guardianship  :  so  slow  and  thank- 
less flow  for  me  the  hours  which  defer  my  hope  and 
piu^ose  of  setting  myself  vigorously  to  that  task 
which  profits  alike  the  poor,  alike  the  rich,  but,  if 
neglected,  will  be  harmful  ahke  to  young  and  to  old. 
What  remains  is  for  me  to  guide  and  solace  myself 
with  these  poor  rudiments."  You  may  not  be  able, 
with  your  eyes,  to  see  as  far  as  Lynceus,  yet  you 
would  not  on  that  account  scorn  to  anoint  them,  if 
sore.  Nor,  because  you  may  not  hope  for  uncon- 
quered  Glycon's  strength  of  limb,  would  you  decline 
to  keep  your  body  free  from  the  gnarls  of  gout.  It 
is  worth  while  to  take  some  steps  forward,  though 
we  may  not  go  still  further. 

^  Is  your  bosom  fevered  with  avarice  and  sordid 
covetousness  ?  There  are  spells  and  sajrings"*  whereby 
you  may  soothe  the  pain  and  cast  much  of  the  malady 
aside.  Are  you  swelling  with  ambition  ?  There  are 
fixed  charms  which  can  fashion  you  anew,  if  with 
cleansing  rites  you  read  the  booklet  thrice.     The 

vigorously,  his  only  comfort  is  to  make  the  most  of  the  little 
knowledge  of  it  that  he  had. 

*  The  lessons  of  philosophy  are  compared  to  the  magic 
formulas  which  were  used  in  the  medical  art  of  ancient  days. 



invidus,  iracundus,  iners,  vinosus,  amator, 

nemo  adeo  ferus  est,  ut  non  mitescere  possit, 

si  modo  culturae  patientem  commodet  aurem.        40 

Virtus  est  vitium  fugere  et  sapientia  prima 
stultitia  caruisse.     vides,  quae  maxima  credis 
esse  mala,  exiguum  censum  turpemque  repulsam,' 
quanto  devites  animi  capitisque  labore  ; 
impiger  extremes  curris  mercator  ad  Indog,  45 

per  mare  pauperiem  fugiens,  per  saxa,  per  ignis  : 
ne  cure&ea,  quae  stulte  miraris  et  optas, 
discere^  et  audire  et  meliori  credere  non  vis  ? 
quis  circum  pagos  et  eircum  compita  pugnax 
magna  coronari  contemnat  Olympia,  cui  spes,         50 
cui  sit  condicio  dulcis  sine  pulvere  palmae  ? 

Vilius  argentum  est  auro,  virtutibus  aurum. 
"  o  cives,  cives,  quaerenda  pecunia  primum  est ; 
virtus  post  nummos  !  "     haec  lanus  summus  ab  imo 
prodocet,  haec  recinunt  iuvenes  dictata  senesque,    55 
laevo  suspensi  loculos  tabulamque  lacerto. 
est  animus  tibi,  sunt  mores,  est  lingua^  fidesque, 
sed*  quadringentis  sex  septem  milia  desunt^  ;  ^ 
plebs  eris.     at  pueri  ludentes,  "  rex  eris,"  aiunt, 
"  si  recte  facies."     hie  murus  aeneus  esto,  60 

nil  conscire  sibi,  nulla  pallescere  culpa. 

^  laborem  Rdir.  "  dicere,  //. 

•  est  lingua  E :  et  lingua  other  mss. 

*  si.  '  desint  (pxj/'Kl. 

•  The  order  of  II.  57,  58  thus  in  E,  reversed  in  other  uss. 
Housman  would  place  I.  56  after  I.  59. 

~  For  the  thought  cf.  Sat.  i.  1.  30  ;  i.  4.  29  £f. 

*  Cf.  Sat.  ii.  3.   18.     The  arch  of  Janus  represents  the 
banking  world  of  Rome. 

•  Repeated  from  Sat.  i.  6.  74.      In  this  respect  the  old 
still  behave  as  school-boys. 

*  Enrolment  in  the  equites  implied  a  fortune  of  400,000 


EPISTLES,  I.  I.  38-61 

slave  to  envy,  anger,  sloth,  wine,  lewdness — no  one 
is  so  savage  that  he  cannot  be  tamed,  if  only  he 
lend  to  treatment  a  patient  ear. 

*^  To  flee  \'ice  is  the  beginning  of  \'irtue,  and  to 
ha\e  got  rid  of  folly  is  the  beginning  of  >nsdom. 
You  see  -with  what  anxious  thought  and  peril  of  life 
you  strive  to  avoid  those  ills  you  deem  the  greatest, 
a  slender  fortune  and  the  shame  of  failure  at  the 
polls.  Ardent-trader  that  you  are,  you  rush  to  the 
furthest  Indies,  fleeing  poverty  through  sea,  through 
rocks,  through  flame  "  :  but  that  you  may  cease  to 
care  for  the  things  which  you  foolishly  admire  and 
crave,  \sill  you  not  learn  and  listen  and  trust  one 
wiser  than  yourself?  What  wTcstler  in  the  village 
games  and  at  the  cross-ways  would  scorn  being 
crowned  at  the  great  Olympic  games,  who  had  the 
hope,  M-ho  had  the  surety  of  victory's  palm  without 
the  dust  ? 

'^  Of  less  worth  than  gold  is  silver,  than  virtue 
gold.  "  O  citizens,  citizens,  money  you  first  must 
seek;  \-irtue  after  pelf."  This  rule  the  Janus  arcade 
proclaims  from  top  to  bottom  *  ;  this  is  the  lesson 
the  old  as  well  as  the  young  are  singing,  "  ^^ith  slate 
and  satchel  slung  over  the  left  arm."  "  You  have 
sense,  you  have  morals,  eloquence  and  honour,  but 
there  are  six  or  seven  thousands  short  of  the  four 
hundred  •* ;  you  will  be  in  the  crowd.  Yet  boys  at 
play  crj'  ;  "  You'll  be  king,  if  you  do  right."  *  Be 
this  our  wall  of  bronze,  to  have  no  guilt  at  heart,  no 
wrongdoing  to  turn  us  pale. 

•  The  Scholiast  gives  the  verse,  which  children  sang  in 
their  game,  thus : 

r^x  erit  qui  r^cte  faciei ;  qui  non  faciei,  non  erit. 

There  is  a  pun  in  rex  and  recte. 



Roscia,  die  sodes,  melior  lex  an  puerorum  est 
nenia,  quae  regnum  recte  facientibus  ofFert, 
et  maribus  Curiis  et  decantata  Camillis  ? 
isne  tibi  melius  suadet,  qui  '^fem  facias,  rem,  65 

si  possis,  recte,  si  non,  quocumque  modo,  rem," 
ut  propius  spectes  lacrimosa  poemata  Pupi, 
an  qui  Fortunae  te  responsare  superbae 
liberum  et  erectum  praesens  hortatur  et  aptat^  ? 

Quod  si  me  populus  Romanus  forte  roget,  cur     70 
non  ut  porticibus  sic  iudiciis  fruar  isdem,^ 
nec^  sequar  aut*  fugiam  quae^  diligit  ipse  vel  odit, 
olim  quod  volpes  aegroto  cauta  leoni 
respondit,  referam  :   "  quia  me  vestigia  terrent, 
omnia  te  adversum  spectantia,  nulla  retrorsum."     75 
belua  multorum  es  capitum.     nam  quid  sequar  aut 

quem  ? 
pars  hominum  gestit  conducere  publica  ;  sunt  qui 
frustis^  et  pomis  viduas  venentur  avaras 
excipiantque  senes,  quos  in  vivaria  mittant ; 
multis  occulto  crescit  res  faenore. 

Verum  80 

esto  aliis  alios  rebus  studiisque  teneri  : 
idem  eadem  possunt  horam  durare  probantes  ? 
"  nullus  in  orbe'  sinus  Bais  praelucet  amoenis," 
si  dixit  dives,  lacus  et  mare  sentit  amorem 
festinantis  eri  ;   cui  si  vitiosa  libido  85 

^  optat  Goth.  ^  idem  ERw. 

*  ne  E.  *  et  or  ac,  //.  '  quem  Rtt. 

*  crustis.  '  urbe  cfi^f/h. 

«  See  Sat.  i.  6.  40  and  note. 

*  Cf.  Sat.  i.  4.  134,  where  see  note. 

"  See  the  subject  of  Sat.  ii.  5. 

•*  For  excipiant  cf.  excipere  aprum.  Odes  iil.  12.  12.     Wild 
animals  were  sometimes  caught  and  turned  into  preserves 
(Pliny  viii.  52.  211).     Cf.  Sat.  ii.  3.  44. 

EPISTLES,  I.  I.  62-85 

'*  Tell  me,  pray,  which  is  better,  the  Roscian  law  " 
or  the  children's  jingle  which  oifers  a  kingdom  to 
those  who  "do  right"  —  a  jingle  once  trolled  by 
the  manly  Curii  and  Camilli  ?  Does  he  ad\'ise  you 
better,  who  bids  you  "  make  money,  money  by  fair 
means  if  you  can,  if  not,  by  any  means  money," 
and  all  that  you  may  have  a  nearer  view  of  the  doleful 
plays  of  Pupius ;  or  he  who,  an  ever  present  help, 
urges  and  fits  you  to  stand  free  and  erect,  and  defy 
scornful  Fortune  ? 

™  But  if  the  people  of  Rome  should  ask  me, 
perchance,  why  I  do  not  use  the  same  judgements 
even  as  I  walk  in  the  same  colonnades  *  as  they,  why 
I  do  not  follow  or  eschew  whkt  they  love  or  hate,  I 
should  reply  as  once  upon  a  lime  the  prudent  fox 
made  answer  to  the  sick  Hon  :sJ"  Because  those  foot- 
prints frighten  me  ;  they  all  lead  toward  your  den, 
and  none  lead  back."  You  are  a  many-headed 
monster-thing.  For  what  am  I  to  follow  or  whom  ? 
Some  men  rejoice  to  farm  state-revenues  ;  some 
with  titbits  and  fruits  hunt  miserly  widows,*  and 
net  old  men  to  stock  their  preserves ;  ^  with  many 
their  money  grows  with  interest  unobserved." 

But  let  it  be  that  men  are  swayed  by  different  aims 
and  hobbies  ;  can  the  same  persons  persist  for  one 
hour  in  Uking  the  same  things  ?  "  No  bay  in  the 
world  outshines  lovely  Baiae."  If  so  the  rich  man 
has  said,  lake  and  sea  suffer  from  the  eager ^^ner's 
fancy  ;    but  if  a  morbid  whim  has  given  him  the 

•  Money  grows  by  the  "unobserved"  accumulation  of 
interest,  just  as  a  tree  grows  by  the  unobserved  lapse  of  time, 
"crescit  occulto  velut  arbor  aero,"  Odes  i.  \2.  45.  The  idea 
that  occulto  here  means  "  secret,  in  the  sense  of"  unlawful," 
is  absurd. 

6  '257 


fecerit  auspicium,  "  eras  ferramenta  Teanum 

tolletis,  fabri  !  "     lectus  genialis  in  aula  est : 

nil  ait  esse  prius,  melius  nil  caelibe  vita  ; 

si  non  est,  iurat  bene  solis  esse  maritis. 

quo  teneam  voltus  mutantem  Protea  nodo  ?  SO 

quid  pauper  ?     ride  :  mutat  cenacula,  lectos, 

balnea,  tonsores,  conducto  navigio  aeque 

nauseat  ac  locuples,  quern  ducit  priva  triremis. 

Si  curatus  inaequali  tonsore  capillos 
ocourri,^  rides  ;  si  forte  subucula  pexae  95 

trita  subest  tunicae,  vel  si  toga  dissidet  impar, 
rides  :   quid,  mea  cum  pugnat  sententia  secum,^ 
quod  petiit  spernit,  repetit  quod  nuper  omisit, 
aestuat  et  vitae  disconvenit  ordine  toto, 
diruit,  aedificat,  mutat  quadrata  rotundis  ?  100 

insanire  putas^  soUemnia  me  neque  rides, 
nee  medici  credis  nee  curatoris  egere 
a  praetore  dati,  rerum  tutela  mearum 
cum  sis  et  prave  sectum  stomacheris  ob  unguem 
de  te  pendentis,  te  respicientis  amici.  105 

Ad  summam  :  sapiens  uno  minor  est  love,  dives, 
liber,  honoratus,  pulcher,  rex  denique  regum, 
praecipue  sanus,  nisi  cum  pituita  molesta  est. 

^  occurrit  or  occurro.  ^  meouiTi  Rbtr  Ooth. 

^  putas,  /  Porph.  :  putat,  //. 

<■  The  usual  way  to  consult  the  auspices  would  be  to  observe 
the  flight  of  birds  and  other  means  of  augurj-,  but  the  rich 
nan's  own  caprice  is  a  sufficient  guide  for  him.  Cf.  "  an  sua 
cuique  deus  fit  dira  cupido  ?  "  (\'irgil,  Aen.  ix.  185).  Teanum 
-vtas  an  inland  town. 


EPISTLES,  I.  I.  86-108 

omen,*  "  My  lads,"  he  cries,  "  to-morrow  you'll  carry 
your  tools  to  Teanum."  Is  the  bed  of  his  Genius  *  in 
his  hall  ?  "  Nothing,"  he  says,  "  is  finer  or  better 
than  a  single  hfe."  If  it  is  not,  he  swears  that  only 
the  married  are  well  off.  With  what  knot  can  I 
hold  this  face-changing  Proteus  ?  What  of  the  poor 
man  ?  Have  your  laugh  I  He  changes  his  garret, 
his  bed,  his  baths,  his  barber.  He  hires  a  boat  and 
gets  just  as  sick  as  the  rich  man  who  sails  in  his 
private  yacht. 

^*  If,  when  some  uneven  barber  has  cropped  my 
hair,  I  come  your  way,  you  laugh  ;  if  haply  I  have 
a  tattered  shirt  beneath  a  new  tunic,  or  if  my  go^vn 
sits  badly  and  askew,  you  laugh,  \\1iat,  when  my 
judgement  is  at  strife  ^\■ith  itself,  scorns  what  it 
craved,  asks  again  for  what  it  lately  cast  aside  ; 
when  it  shifts  like  a  tide,  and  in  the  whole  system  of 
Ufa  is  out  of  joint,  pulhng  down,  building  up,  and 
changing  square  to  round  ?  You  think  my  madness 
is  the  usual  thing,  and  neither  laugh  at  me  nor  deem 
that  I  need  a  physician  or  a  guardian  assigned  by 
the  court,"  though  you  are  keeper  of  my  fortimes, 
and  flare  up  at  an  ill-pared  nail  of  the  friend  who 
hangs  upon  you  and  looks  to  you  in  all. 

^'^  To  sum  up<*  :  the  \\-ise  man  is  less  than  Jove 
alone.  He  is  rich,  free,  honoured,  beautiful,  nay  a 
king  of  kings  ;  above  all,  sound  *  —  save  when 
troubled  by  the  "  flu  "  I 

*  The  marriage-bed  was  dedicated  to  the  Genius  of  the 

"  Cf.  Sat.  u.  3.  217. 

^  Cf.  Sat.  i.  3.  124  and  ff. 

«  Horace  plays  upon  the  double  sense  of  sarms,  "  sound  " 
and  "  sane." 




The  poem  is  addressed  to  a  young  man  who  is 
studying  rhetoric  in  Rome,  and  who,  if  he  is  the  same 
Lollius  as  is  addressed  in  Epistle  i.  18,  had  already 
served  in  the  Cantabrian  war  of  25-24  b.c.  Horace 
seeks  to  interest  him  in  moral  philosophy  through 
Homer,  whom  the  ancients  perused,  as  we  are  told 
to  read  the  Apocrypha,  "  for  examples  of  hfe  and 
instruction  of  manners." 

The  poet  has  been  reading  Homer  afresh  while  in 
Praeneste,  and  pronounces  him  a  wiser  teacher  than 
all  the  philosophers.  The  Iliad  pictures  for  us  the 
follies  of  princes  and  the  sufferings  of  the  people. 
The  Odyssey  shows  us  the  value  of  courage  and  self- 
control.  Ulysses  is  the  truly  wise  man,  in  contrast 
with  whom  the  worthless  suitors  of  Penelope  or  the 
idle  youth  at  the  court  of  Alcinous  are  but  ciphers, 
the  undistinguished  mass  of  mankind,  mere  consumers 
of  earth's  products  (1-31), 

And  such  cipiiers  are  we.  Surely  it  is  time  for  us 
to  wake  up  to  the  importance  of  right  living  and 
devote  ourselves  to  study  and  virtue.  To  put  off 
the  day  of  reform  is  to  be  hke  the  clown  who  waits 
for  the  stream  to  run  dry  (32-4-3). 

Men  are  eager  to  become  rich,  but  riches  will  not 


EPISTLES,  I.  n. 

bring  health,  either  of  body  or  of  mind.  We  must 
clean  the  inside  of  the  platter  and  make  our  hearts 
sound  (il-oi). 

And  so,  in  a  Polonius  strain,  Horace  gives  a  variety 
of  moral  maxims.  In  this  quest  of  wisdom,  the 
middle-aged  poet  must  pursue  his  own  quiet  way, 
and  the  youthful  Lolhus  must  not  expect  him  to  be 
either  too  indifferent  or  too  enthusiastic  (55-71). 



Troiani  belli  scriptorem,  Maxime  Lolli, 
dum  tu  declamas  Romae,  Praeneste  relegi  ; 
qui  quid  sit  pulchrum,  quid  turpe,  quid  utile,  quid  non, 
planius^  ac  melius  Chrysippo  et  Crantore  dicit. 
cur  ita  erediderim,  nisi  quid  te  distinct,^  audi.  5 

Fabula,  qua  Paridis  propter  narratur  amorem 
Graecia  barbariae  lento  collisa  duello, 
stultorum  regum  et  populorum  continet  aestus.^ 
Antenor  censet  belli*  praeeidere  causam  : 
quid^  Paris  ?     ut  salvus  regnet  vivatque  beatus       10 
cogi  posse  negat.     Nestor  componere  litis 
inter  Peliden  festinat  et  inter  Atriden  ; 
hunc''  amor,  ira  quidem  communiter  urit  utrumque. 
quidquid  delirant  reges,  plectuntur  Achivi, 
seditione,  dolis,  scelere  atque  libidine  et  ira  15 

Iliacos  intra  muros  peccatur  et  extra, 

Rursus,  quid  virtus  et  quid  sapientia  possit, 
utile  proposuit  nobis  exemplar  Ulixen, 

^  plenius,  //. 

2  distinct,  77  E^ :  destinet  a :  detinet  E^M. 

^  aestum  V,  I  J.  *  belli  censet  E. 

*  quod,  77:  hence  Bentley  quod  Paris,  ut.  *  nunc. 

"  i.e.  study  rhetoric  under  a  rhetor,   or  professor  who 
made  his  pupils  prepare  speeches  on  the  themes  given  them 
and  often  taken  from  history  or  literature  ;    ef.  Juvenal  vii. 
150  ;  X.  166. 

Epistlb  II 

While  you,  LoBius  Maximus,  declaim  "  at  Rome. 
I  have  been  reading  afresh  at  Praeneste  the  writer 
of  the  Trojan  War  ;  who  tells  us  what  is  fair,  what 
is  foul,  what  is  helpful,  what  not,  more  plainly  and 
better  than  Chrysippus  or  Grantor.  Why  I  have 
come  to  think  so,  let  me  tell  you,  unless  there  is 
something  else  to  take  your  attention. 

^  The  story  in  which  it  is  told  how,  because  of 
Paris's  love  Greece  clashed  in  tedious  war  with  a 
foreign  land,  embraces  the  passions  of  foolish  kings 
and  peoples.  Antenor  moves  to  cut  away  the  cause 
of  the  war.*  WTiat  of  Paris  ?  To  reign  in  safety 
and  to  live  in  happiness — nothing,  he  says,  can  force 
him.*  Nestor  is  eager  to  settle  the  strife  between 
the  sons  of  Peleus  and  of  Atreus.  Love  fires  one, 
but  anger  both  in  common.  Whatever  folly  the 
kings  commit,  the  Achaeans  pay  the  penalty.  With 
faction,  craft,  crime,  lust  and  WTath,  within  and 
without  the  walls  of  Troy  all  goes  wrong. 

^'  Again,  of  the  power  of  worth  and  wisdom  he 
has  set  before  us  an  instructive  pattern  in  Ulysses, 

*  Cf.  Iliad,  vii.  350,  where  Antenor  urges  that  the  Trojans 
restore  Helen  to  the  Atridae. 

*  This  is,  of  course,  ironical.  If  we  read  quod  Paris,  ut  with 
Bentley,  it  would  go  with  cogi,  so  that,  without  any  irony, 
Paris  would  say  that  he  could  not  be  forced  into  doing  that, 
viz.  giving  up  Helen,  in  order  to  reign  in  safety. 



qui  domitor  Troiae  multorum  providus  urbes 

et  mores  hominum  inspexit,  latumque  per  aequor,    20 

dum  sibi,  dum  soeiis  reditum  parat,  aspera  multa 

pertulit,  adversis  rerum  immersabilis  undis. 

Sirenum  voces  et  Circae  pocula  nosti  ; 

quae  si  cum  soeiis  stultus  cupidusque  bibisset, 

sub  domina  meretrice  fuisset  turpis  et  excors,  25 

vixisset  canis  immundus  vel  amica  luto  sus. 

nos  numerus  sumus  et  fruges  consumere  nati, 

sponsi  Penelopae  nebulones,  Alcinoique 

in  cute  curanda  plus  aequo  operata  iuventus, 

cui  piilchrum  fuit  in  medios  dormire  dies  et  30 

ad  strepitum  citliarae  cessatum  ducere  curam.^ 

Ut  iugulent  hominem,  surgunt  de  nocte  latrones  ; 
ut  te  ipsum  serves,  non  expergisceris  ?     atqui^ 
si  noles^  sanus,  curres*  hydropicus  ;  et  ni 
posces  ante  diem  librum  cum  lumine,  si  non  35 

intendes  animum  studiis  et  rebus  honestis, 
invidia  vel  amore  vigil  torquebere.     nam  cur 
quae  laedunt  oculum^  festinas  demere  ;  si  quid^ 
est  animum,  diflPers  curandi  tempus  in  annum  ? 
dimidium  facti  qui  coepit  habet ;   sapere  aude  ;      40 
incipe  !     qui  recte  vivendi'  prorogat  horam, 
rusticus  exspectat  dum  defluat  amnis  ;  at  ille 
labitur  et  labetur  in  omne  volubilis  aevum 

Quaeritur  argentum  puerisque  beata  creandis 
uxor,  et  incultae  pacantur  vomere  silvae  :  46 

1  curam,  /:  somnum  Eir  Goth.  Bentley  read  cessantem 
ducere  somnum.  IF,  R.  Inge  suggests  cessantem  ducere 
noctem  {C.R.  1921,  p.  103). 

*  atque,  i/,  V.  '  nolisX?.  *  cures,  77;  so  Bentley. 

•  oculum  E,  II :  oculos  aM  Goth.  *  si  quod  (l)\p\l. 
'  qui  recte  vivendi  E  Goth.,  Porph. :    vivendi  qui  recte 

other  MSS. 

EPISTLES,  I.  II.  ia-45 

that  tamer  of  Troy,  who  looked  with  discerning  eyes 
upon  the  cities  and  manners  of  many  men,  and  while 
for  self  and  comrades  he  strove  for  a  return  across 
the  broad  seas,  many  hardships  he  endured,  but 
could  never  be  o'erwhelmed  in  the  waves  of  adver- 
sity." You  know  the  Sirens'  songs  and  Circe's  cups  ; 
if,  along  A\-ith  his  comrades,  he  had  drunk  of  these 
in  folly  and  greed,  he  would  have  become  the  shape- 
less and  witless  vassal  of  a  harlot  mistress — would 
have  lived  as  an  unclean  dog  or  a  sow  that  loves  the 
mire.  We  are  but  ciphers,  bom  to  consume  earth's 
fruits,  Penelope's  good-for-naught  suitors,  young 
courtiers  of  Alcinous,  unduly  busy  in  keeping  their 
skins  sleek,  whose  pride  it  was  to  sleep  till  midday 
and  to  lull  care  to  rest  to  the  sound  of  the  cithern. 

^2  To  cut  men's  throats,  robbers  rise  up  by  night ; 
to  save  your  o'v^ti  life,  won't  you  wake  up  ?  Nay, 
just  as,  if  you  won't  take  up  running  in  health, 
you'll  have  to  do  it  when  dropsical ;  so,  if  you  don't 
call  for  a  book  and  a  light  before  daybreak,  if  you 
don't  devote  your  mind  to  honourable  studies  and 
pursuits,  envy  or  passion  will  keep  you  awake  in 
torment,  ^^'hy  indeed  are  you  in  a  hui-ry  to  remove 
things  which  hurt  the  eye,  while  if  aught  is  eating 
into  your  soul,  you  put  off  the  time  for  cure  till  next 
year  ?  Well  begun  is  half  done  ;  dare  to  be  ^^^se  ; 
begin  !  He  who  puts  off  the  hour  of  right  living  is 
like  the  bumpkin  waiting  for  the  river  to  run  out  : 
yet  on  it  glides,  and  on  it  will  glide,  rolling  its  flood 

*^  We  seek  money  and  a  rich  yrife  to  bear  us 
children  ;    the  wild  woods,  too,  are   tamed  by  our 

"  This  sentence  gives  a  free  rendering  of  the  opening 
lines  of  the  Odyssey. 



quod  satis  est  cui  contingit,^  nihil  amplius  optet. 
non  domus  et  fundus,  non  aeris  acervus  et  auri 
aegroto  domini  deduxit  corpore  febris, 
non  animo  curas  ;  valeat  possessor  oportet, 
si  comportatis  rebus  bene  cogitat  uti.  60 

qui  eupit  aut  metuit,  iuvat  ilium  sic  domus  et  res, 
ut  lippum  pictae  tabulae,  fomenta^  podagram, 
auriculas  citharae  coUecta  sorde  dolentis. 
sincerum  est  nisi  vas,  quodcumque  infundis  acescit. 

Sperne  voluptates  ;  nocet  empta  dolore  voluptas. 
semper  avarus  eget ;  certum  voto  pete  finem.         56 
invidus  alterius  macrescit  rebus  opimis  ; 
invidia  Siculi  non  invenere  tyranni 
maius  tormentum.     qui  non  moderabitur  irae,^ 
infectum  volet  esse,  dolor  quod  suaserit  et  mens,*   60 
dum  poenas  odio  per  vim  festinat  inulto. 
ira  furor  brevis  est  :   animum  rege  ;  qui  nisi  paret 
imperat  ;   hunc  frenis,  hunc  tu  compesce  catena.^ 

Fingit  equum  tenera  docilem  cervice  magister 
ire  viam  qua^  monstret  eques  ;  venaticus,  ex  quo    65 
tempore  cervinam  pellem  latravit  in  aula, 
militat  in  silvis  catulus.     nunc  adbibe  puro 
peetore  verba  puer,  nunc  te  melioribus  offer, 
quo  semel  est  imbuta  recens,  servabit  odorem 
testa  diu.     quod  si  cessas  aut  strenuus  anteis,  70 

nee  tardum  opperior  nee  praecedentibus  insto. 

^  contigit  is  VK  *  tomenta  Bouhier.  '  irani,  //. 

*  et  mens]  exmens  or  amens. 

*  catcnis  E  Goth.  *  qua  E  :  quam  a. 

'  Such  as  the  cruel  Dionysius  or  Phalaris. 

*  Cf.  "  sapor,  quo  nova  imbuas,  durat "  (Quintilian,  i.  1.  5). 
Un^lazed  ware,  which  Horace  doubtless  has  in  mind,  is 
more  absorbent  than  glazed. 


EPISTLES,  I.  11.  4t>-7l 

plough :  but  he,  to  whose  lot  sufficient  falls,  should 
covet  nothing  more.  No  house  or  land,  no  pile  of 
bronze  or  gold,  has  ever  freed  the  o^\■ne^'s  sick  body 
of  fevers,  or  his  sick  mind  of  cares.  The  possessor 
must  be  sound  in  health,  if  he  thinks  of  enjoying  the 
stores  he  has  gathered.  To  one  with  fears  or  cravings, 
house  and  fortune  give  as  much  pleasure  as  painted 
panels  to  sore  eyes,  warm  vsTaps  to  the  gout,  or 
citherns  to  ears  that  suffer  from  secreted  matter. 
Unless  the  vessel  is  clean,  whatever  you  pour  in 
turns  sour. 

^  Scorn  pleasures  ;  pleasure  bought  with  pain  is 
harmful.  The  covetous  is  ever  in  want  :  aim  at  a 
fixed  limit  for  your  desires.  The  envious  man  grows 
lean  when  his  neighbour  waxes  fat ;  than  envy 
Sicihan  tyrants  *  invented  no  worse  torture.  He 
who  curbs  not  his  anger  will  wish  that  undone  which 
vexation  and  WTath  prompted,  as  he  made  haste 
with  violence  to  gratify  his  unsated  hatred.  Anger  is 
short-lived  madness.  Rule  your  passion,  for  unless  it 
obeys,  it  gives  commands.  Check  it  with  bridle — 
check  it,  I  pray  you,  with  chains. 

"  WTiile  the  colt  has  a  tender  neck  and  is  able  to 
learn,  the  groom  trains  him  to  go  the  way  his  rider 
directs.  The  hound  that  is  to  hunt  does  service  in 
the  woods  from  the  time  that  it  first  barked  at  a 
deer-skin  in  the  yard.  Now,  while  still  a  bov,  drink 
in  my  words  with  clean  heart,  now  trust  yourself  to 
your  betters.  The  jar  will  long  keep  the  fragrance 
of  what  it  was  once  steeped  in  when  new.'*  But  if  you 
lag  behind,  or  with  vigour  push  on  ahead,  I  neither 
wait  for  the  slow  nor  press  after  those  who  hurry  on 




The  Julius  Florus,  to  whom  this  Epistle  is  addressed, 
and  to  whom  Epistle  ii.  2  is  later  dedicated,  was  one 
of  a  number  of  young  literary  men  who  accompanied 
Tiberius  to  the  East  in  20  B.C.,  when  the  prince  was 
sent  by  Augustus  to  place  Tigranes  on  the  throne 
of  Armenia  after  the  murder  of  Artaxias.  Horace, 
now  forty-five  years  old,  makes  kindly  inquiries 
about  his  younger  literary  friends,  and  urges  Florus, 
whatever  field  of  letters  he  is  cultivating,  not  to 
neglect  philosophy. 



lull  Flore,  quibus  terrarum  militet  oris 
Claudius  Augusti  privignus,  scire  laboro. 
Thracane^  vos  Hebrusque  nivali  compede  vinctus, 
an  freta  vicinas  inter  currentia  turris,^ 
an  pingues  Asiae  campi  collesque  morantur  ?  6 

Quid  studiosa  cohors  operum  struit  ?     hoc  quoque 
quis  sibi  res  gestas  Augusti  scribere  sumit  ? 
V  bella  quis  et  paces  longum  difTundit  in  acvum  ? 
quid  Titius,  Romana  brevi  venturus  in  era  ? 
Pindarici  fontis  «flii  non  expalluit  haustus,  10 

fastidire  lacus  et  rivos  ausus  apertos. 
ut  valet  ?     ut  meminit  nostri  ?     fidibusne  Latinis 
Thebanos  aptare  modos  studet  auspice  Musa, 
an  tragica  desaevit  et  ampuUatur  in  arte  ? 
quid  mihi  Celsus  agit  ?     monitus  multumque  monen- 
dus,  15 

privatas  ut  quaerat  opes  et  tangere  vitet 

^  Threcane  E. 
^  terras  V:  terres  5^ :  terris  R^. 

"  i.e.  Tiberius  Claudius  Nero,  later  the  Emperor  Tiberius. 

''  The  towers  of  Hero  and  Leander,  at  Sestos  and  Abydos, 
on  either  side  of  the  Hellespont. 

*  In  lacos  et  rivos  apertos  Horace  refers  to  the  artificial 
pools  and  tanks  from  which  anyone  could  draw  water,  as 
contrasted  with  the  natural  springs  in  far  distant  hills,  which 


Epistlb  III 

I  long  to  know,  Julius  Florus,  in  what  regions  of 
the  earth  Claudius,*'  step-son  of  Augustus,  is  now 
campaigning.  Does  Thrace  stay  your  steps,  and 
Hebrus,  bound  in  snowy  fetters,  or  the  straits  that 
run  between  neighbouring  towers,*  or  Asia's  fertile 
plains  and  hills  ? 

^  Wliat  works  is  the  learned  staff  composing  ? 
This,  too,  I  want  to  know.  WTio  takes  upon  him  to 
record  the  exploits  of  Augustus  ?  Who  ddown  dis- 
tant ages  makes  known  his  deeds  in  war  and  peace  ? 
What  of  Titius,  soon  to  be  on  the  hps  of  Romans,  who 
quailed  not  at  draughts  of  the  Pindaric  spring,  but 
dared  to  scorn  the  open  "  pools  and  streams  ?  How 
fares  he  ?  How  mindful  is  he  of  me  ?  Does  he  essay, 
under  favour  of  the  Muse,  to  fit  Theban  measures  to 
the  Latin  lyre  ?  Or  does  he  storm  and  swell  <*  in  the 
tragic  art  ?  What,  pray,  is  Celsus  doing  ?  He  was 
warned,  and  must  often  be  warned  to  search  for 
home  treasures,  and  to  shrink  from  touching  the 

one  could  reach  only  with  difficulty.  Apart  from  the 
metaphor,  the  contrast  is  between  those  Greek  writers  who 
could  easily  be  reproduced,  and  the  inimitable  Pindar.  For 
the  latter  idea  cf.  Odes,  iv.  2,  "  Pindarum  quisquis  studet 
aemulari,"  etc 

**  The  word  ampullatur,  translating  XriKvdil^u,  is  from 
ampulla,  a  flask,  the  swelling  body  of  which  led  to  the  use 
of  the  word  for  bombait.     Cf.  Art  Poet.  97. 



scripta  Palatinus  quaecumque  receptt  Apollo, 
ne,  si  forte  su^s  repetitum  venerit  olim 
grex  avium  plumas,  moveat  cornicula^  risum 
furtivis  nudata  coloribus.     ipse  quid  audes  ?  20 

quae  circumvolitas  agilis  thy  ma  ?     non  tibi  parvum 
ingenium,  non  incultum  est  et^  turpiter  hirtum, 
seu  linguam  causis  acuis  seu  civica  iura 
respondere^  paras  seu  condis  amabile  carmen, 
prima  feres  hederae  victricis  praemia.     quod  si  25 

frigida  curarum  fomenta  relinquere  posses, 
quo  te  caelestis  sapientia  dueeret,  ires.^ 
hoc  opus,  hoc  studium  parvi  properemus  et  ampli, 
si  patriae  volumus,  si  nobis  vivere  cari. 

Debes  hoc  etiam  rescribere,  sit^  tibi  curae  30 

quantae  conveniat  Munatius  ;  an  male  sarta 
gratia  nequiquam  coit  et  rescinditur  ?     at^  vos 
seu  calidus  sanguis  seu"  rerum  inscitia  vexat 
indomita  cervice  feros,  ubicumque  locorum 
vivitis,  indigni  fraternum  rumpere  foedus,  35 

pascitur  in  vestrum  reditum  votiva  iuvenca. 

1  vulpecula  Servius  on  Aen.  xi.  522. 

2  nee  <}>\pd.  *  responsare  E. 

*  Hitziff  would  transpose  II.  26,  27  with  each  other,  perhaps 

*  si  5  :  hence  si  tibi  curae  est  Bentley,  Orelli. 

'  ac  Mss.  ''  seu  .  .  .  seu  Acron  :  heu  .  .  .  heu  uss. 

"  Celsus  is  urged  to  depend  more  upon  himself,  instead 
of  drawing  so  freely  upon  earlier  writers,  whose  works  he 
consulted  in  the  library  of  the  temple  of  Apollo  on  the 

*  Strictly  speaking,  the  ivy  applies  only  to  the  poet. 
For  this  c/  Odes,  i.  1,  29. 


EPISTLES,  I.  HI.  17-36 

writings  which  Apollo  on  the  Palatine  has  admitted  " : 
lest,  if  some  day  perchance  the  flock  of  birds  come 
to  reclaim  their  plumage,  the  poor  crow,  stripped  of 
his  stolen  colours,  awake  laughter.  And  yourself — 
what  do  you  venture  on  ?  About  what  beds  of  thyme 
are  you  busily  flitting  ?  No  small  gift  is  yours  :  not 
untilled  is  the  field,  or  rough-grown  and  unsightly. 
WTiether  you  sharpen  your  tongue  for  pleading,  or 
essay  to  give  advice  on  civil  law,  or  build  charming 
verse,  you  \A'ill  win  the  first  prize  of  the  victor's  ivy.** 
But  could  you  but  lay  aside  your  cares — those  cold 
compresses" — you  would  rise  to  where  heavenly 
wisdom  would  lead.  This  task,  this  pursuit  let  us 
speed,  small  and  great  alike,  if  we  would  hve  dear 
to  our  country,  and  dear  to  ourselves. 

^  This,  too,  when  you  reply,  you  must  tell  me — 
whether  you  esteem  Munatius  as  much  as  you  should. 
Or  does  your  friendship,  hke  a  wound  ill-stitched, 
close  vainly  and  tear  open  once  more  ?  Yet,  whether 
hot  blood  or  ignorance  of  the  world  drives  you  both, 
\vild  steeds  with  untamed  necks,  wherever  on  earth 
you  are  living — you  who  are  too  good  to  break  the 
bond  of  brotherhood — a  votive  heifer  is  fattening 
against  your  return. 

'  Horace  seems  to  mean  that  the  cares  which  weigh  upon 
Florus  are  like  the  cold  bandages  which  physicians  in  his 
day  were  prescribing  for  certain  bodily  ailments,  cf.  Suet. 
Aug.  81.  The  curae  chilled  the  fire  of  inspiration,  and  were 
therefore  far  from  beneficial,  because  Florus  was  continually 
wrapping  himself  up  in  his  troubles.  Some,  however,  prefer 
to  take  curariim  as  an  objective  genitive,  so  that  curarum 
/omenta  means  "  remedies  against  cares." 




AxBFUS  TiBuixus,  the  elegiac  poet,  who  died  the  same 
year  as  Virgil,  19  b.c,  when  still  quite  young,  had 
returned  from  a  campaign  in  Aquitania  in  27  b.c, 
and  then  perhaps  read  for  the  first  time  the  Satires 
of  Horace.  As  the  first  verse  of  this  Epistle  refers 
only  to  the  Satires  and  not  to  the  Odes,  this  short 
letter  seems  to  have  been  written  before  23  b.c, 
when  the  Odes  (Books  i.-iii.)  were  published. 

TibuUus  seems  to  have  been  of  a  sensitive  and 
somewhat  melancholy  disposition,  like  the  English 
poet,  Thomas  Gray.  Horace  here  tries  to  divert 
him,  and  concludes  \vith  an  in\-itation  to  visit  him, 
a  prosperous  Epicurean,  at  his  Sabine  farm. 

The  commonly  accepted  view  that  the  Albius  liere 
addressed  by  Horace  is  the  poet  Tibullus  has  been 
rejected  bv  Cruquius,  Baehrens  and,  more  recently, 
by  Professor  J.  P.  Postgate  (Selections  from  Tibullus, 
1903,  p.  179).  The  identity  of  Albius  and  Tibullus 
is  upheld  by  Professor  B.  L,  Ullman  in  an  article 
on  "  Horace  and  Tibullus  "  in  the  American  Journal 
of  Philology,  xxxiii.  (1912)  pp.  14-9  ff.,  to  which 
Professor  Postgate  replies  briefly  in  the  same  volume, 
pp.  450  fF.  Ullman  also  holds  that  Tibullus  is  the 
Albifilius  of  Sat.  i.  4.  109,  ^NTitten  when  Tibullus  was 
about  sixteen  years  of  age. 



Albi,  nostrorum  sermonum  candide  iudex, 
quid  nunc  te  dicam  facere  in  regione  Pedana  ? 
scribere  quod  Cassi  Parmensis  opuscula  vincat, 
an  taciturn  silvas  inter  reptare  salubris, 
curantem  quidquid  dignum  sapiente  bonoque^  est  ?  5 
non  tu  corpus  eras  sine  pectore  :  di  tibi  formam, 
di  tibi  divitias  dederunt^  artemque  fruendi. 
quid  voveat  dulci  nutricula  maius  alumno, 
qui^  sapere  et  fari  possit  quae  sentiat,  et  cui 
gratia,  fama,  valetudo  contingat  abunde,  10 

■^  et  mundus^  victus  non  deficiente  crumina  ? 

Inter  spem  curamque,  timores  inter  et  iras^ 
omnem  crede  diem  tibi  diluxisse  supremum. 
grata  superveniet,  quae  non  sperabitur  hora. 
me  pinguem  et  nitidum  bene  curata  cute  vises,        15 
cum  ridere  voles,  Epicuri  de^  grege  porcum. 

^  bonumque  Rtt.  2  dederant  EM. 

*  qui  EV  Porph.  :  quin  a,  II:  qun  M. 

*  mundus,  /:  modus  et,  //:  domus  et  Bentley. 

*  tumores  .  .  .  iram  E.  •  cum  E. 

"  i.e.  the  Satires.    The  word  Sermonen  means  "  talks," 


Epistle  IV 

Albius,  impartial  critic  of  my  "  chats,"  "  what  shall 
I  sav  vou  now  are  doing  in  your  country  at  Pedum  ? 
Writing  something  to  outshine  the  pieces  of  Cassius 
of  Parma  *  ?  Or  strolhng  peacefully  amid  the  health- 
ful woods,  and  musing  on  all  that  is  worthy  of  one 
wise  and  good  ?  Never  were  you  a  body  without 
soul.  The  gods  gave  you  beauty,  the  gods  gave  you 
wealth,  and  the  art  of  enjoyment. <=  For  what  more 
would  a  fond  nurse  pray  for  her  sweet  ward,  if  he 
could  think  aright  and  utter  his  thoughts — if  favour, 
fame,  and  health  fall  to  him  richly,  with  a  seemly 
living  and  a  never  failing  purse  ? 

Amid  hopes  and  cares,  amid  fears  and  passions, 
believe  that  every  day  that  has  dawned  is  your  last. 
Welcome  will  come  to  you  another  hour  unhoped  for. 
As  for  me,  when  you  want  a  laugh,  you  will  find  me 
in  fine  fettle,  fat  and  sleek,  a  hog  from  Epicurus's  herd. 

"  conversations,"  and  was  adopted  by  Horace  for  his 
Satires.     See  Introduction  B,  note  a. 

*  The  scholiasts  identifv  him  with  Cassius  Etruscus  of 
Sat.  i.  10.  61.     So  too  Ullnian,  loc.  cit.  p.  164. 

«  If  Ullman's  view  is  correct,  Horace  is  here  contrasting 
the  son  Albius  with  the  father  of  the  same  name. 




TO  TORQUATtrS      ^ 

V  ,r.^-    ^ 

Horace  here  invites  to  a  simple  dinner,  on  the  eve 
of  the  birthday  of  Augustus,  a  member  of  the  wealthy 
family  of  the  Manlii  Torquati,  probably  the  same  as 
the  one  to  whom  the  seventh  ode  of  the  Fourth  Book 
is  later  addressed.  Torquatus  is  asked  to  bring  some 

As  to  the  hour  set  for  the  dinner  Porphyrio 
explains  supremo  sole  (1.  3)  as  meaning  hora  sexta, 
i.e.  midday,  and  Professor  A.  J.  Bell  favours  this 
interpretation  {Classical  Review,  xxix.  (1915)  p.  200. 
But  Horace's  simple  dinner  is  quite  unlike  the 
extravagant  one  given  by  Nasidienus,  which  began 
de  medio  die  {Sat.  ii.  8.  3),  and  people  who  have 
spent  a  hot  September  in  Rome  will  not  think  it 
hkely  that  the  sensitive  poet  would  have  invited  his 
guests  to  come  at  high  noon  in  that  unpleasant 
month.  As  to  the  last  two  lines  Torquatus  is  pre- 
sumably a  busy  la-wyer,  and  some  of  his  clients 
might  have  to  wait  tiU  late  in  the  day  in  order  to 
consult  him.  If  so,  this  would  be  another  reason 
why  Horace  would  not  expect  his  friend  to  come 
before  evening.  Maecenas,  also  a  busy  man,  dined 
sub  lumina  prima  {Sat.  ii.  7.  SS). 



Si  potes  Archiacis  conviva  recumbere  lectis 
nee  modiea  eenare  times  holus  omne  patella, 
supremo  te  sole  domi,  Torquate,  manebo. 
vina  bibes  iterum  Tauro  diffusa  palustris 
inter  Minturnas  Sinuessanumque  Petrinum.  6 

si  melius  quid  habes,  arcesse,  vel  imperium  fer. 
iamdudum  splendet  focus  et  tibi  munda  supellex. 
mitte  levis  spes  et  certamina  divitiarum 
et  Moschi  causam  :   eras  nato  Gaesare  festus 
dat  veniam  somnumque  dies  ;   impune  licebit  10 

aestivam^  sermione  benigno  tendere  noctem. 

Quo  mihi  fortunam,^  si  non  conceditur  uti  ? 
parcus  ob  heredis  curam  nimiumque  severus 
adsidet  insano.     potare  et  spargere  flores 
incipiam,  patiarque  vel  inconsultus  haberi.  15 

quid  non  ebrietas  dissignat^  ?     operta  recludit, 
^  festivam.     *  fortuna  R :  fortunas.     *  designat  a(p  Goth. 

"  Archias  was  a  maker  of  unpretentious  furniture. 
According  to  Porphyrio  his  couches  were  small  ones. 
See  note  on  1.  29. 

*  26  B.C.  At  that  time  the  wine  had  been  poured  from 
the  large  dolium  into  the  smaller  amphorae. 

"  According  to  the  Scholiasts,  Moschus,  a  rhetorician 
from  Pergamum,  was  accused  of  poisoning,  and  defended 
by  Torquatus  as  well  as  by  Asinius  Pollio. 

''  September  23.  September  is  one  of  the  warmest  months 
in  Rome. 

'  In  dissignare   the  original  idea  of  sealing  seems  to  be 


Epistle  V 

If  you  can  recline  at  my  table  on  couches  made 
by  Archias,"  and  are  not  afraid  of  "  a  dinner  of 
herbs  "  only,  from  a  modest  dish,  I  shall  expect  you, 
Torquatus,  at  my  house  at  sunset.  You  will  drink 
wine  that  was  bottled  in  Taurus 's  second  consulate  ^ 
between  marshy  Minturnae  and  Petrinum  near 
Sinuessa.  If  you  have  aught  better,  bid  it  be  sent,  or 
submit  to  orders.  Long  has  my  hearth  been  bright, 
and  the  furniture  made  neat  for  you.  Dismiss  airy 
hopes  and  the  struggle  for  wealth,  and  Moschus's 
cause.*  To-morrow,  the  festal  day  of  Caesar's  birth,** 
gives  excuse  for  sleeping  late  ;  without  penalty  shall 
we  be  free  to  prolong  the  summer  night  in  genial 

^  Why  is  fortune  mine,  if  I  may  not  use  it  ?  He 
who,  from  regard  to  his  heir,  pinches  and  spares 
overmuch  is  next  door  to  a  madman.  I  shall  begin 
the  drinking  and  the  scattering  of  flowers,  and  shall 
sutfer  you,  if  you  will,  to  think  me  reckless.  WTiat 
a  miracle  cannot  the  wine-cup  work  !  *      It  unlocks 

negatived  by  the  prefix  dis-,  and  to  "  unseal "  (a  verb 
appropriately  used  in  the  present  connexion)  signifies 
(according  to  Porphyrio)  to  "open,"  i.e.  reveal  something. 
Hence  it  is  used  of  any  strange  effect.  Cf.  Terence, 
Adelphoe,  87,  "modo  quid  dissignavit  ?  "  "What  out-of- 
the-way  thing  has  he  now  done  ?  "  For  the  general  thought 
cf.  Od.  iii.  21.  13  ff. 



spes  iubet  esse  ratas,  ad  proelia  trudit  inertem,^ 
sollicitis  animis  onus  eximit,  addocet^  artes. 
fecundi^  calices  quem  non  fecere  disertum  ? 
contracta  quem  non  in  paupertate  solutum  ?  20 

Haec  ego  procurare  et  idoneus  imperor  et  non 
in  Vitus,  ne  turpe  tox-al,  ne  sordida  mappa 
corruget  naris,  ne  non  et  cantharus  et  lanx 
ostendat  tibi  te,  ne  fidos  inter  amicos 
sit  qui  dicta  foras  eliminet,  ut*  coeat  par  25 

iungaturque  pari. 

Butram  tibi  Septiciumque, 
et  nisi  cena  prior  potiorque  puella  Sabinum 
detinet,  adsumam.^     locus  est  et  pluribus  umbris  : 
sed  nimis  arta  premunt  olidae  convivia  caprae. 
tu  quotus  esse  velis  rescribe  et  rebus  omissis  30 

atria  servantem  postico  falle  clientem. 

^  inermem  aM. 
2  et  docet  E.  *  facundi  E5ir  Vollmer. 

*  et  (pfXl.  ^  ad  summam  a,  II. 

"  See  note  on  Sat.  ii.  8.  23. 

"  Tliis  unsavoury  detail  is  meant  to  be  jocular,  but  as  it 



EPISTLES,  I.  V.  17-31 

secrets,  bids  hopes  be  fulfilled,  thrusts  the  coward 
into  the  field,  takes  the  load  from  anxious  hearts, 
teaches  new  arts.  The  flowing  bowl — whom  has  it 
not  made  eloquent  ?  WTiom  has  it  not  made  free 
even  amid  pinching  poverty  ? 

^  Here  is  what  I  charge  myself  to  pro^^de — and 
able  and  willing  I  am  :  that  no  untidy  coverlet,  no 
soiled  napkin  ^vrinkle  up  your  nose  ;  that  tankard 
and  plate  become  for  you  a  mirror  ;  that  there  be 
none  to  carry  abroad  what  is  said  among  faithful 
friends  ;  that  hke  may  meet  and  mate  with  like. 

^  Butra  and  Septicius  I  shall  have  to  meet  you, 
and  Sabinus,  unless  a  better  supper  and  a  goodlier 
girl  detain  him.  There  is  room,  too,  for  several 
"  shades  " "  ;  but  the  reek  of  goats  makes  too 
crowded  feasts  unpleasant.''  Write  back,  pray,  how 
many  you  would  hke  us  to  be  ;  then  drop  your 
business,  and  by  the  back-door  give  the  slip  to  the 
client  waiting  in  your  hall. 

was  the  warm  season  Horace  does  not  want  his  small  couches 
to  be  too  crowded. 




Nothing  is  known  about  the  person  to  whom  this 
letter  is  addressed,  but  the  ideas  expressed  in  it 
have  made  it  one  of  the  most  famous  of  Horace's 

The  key-note  is  struck  in  the  opening  phrase,  nil 
admirari,  a  rendering  of  the  to  fj.r]8h'  davfxd(eiv  of 
Pythagoras,  or  of  rj  ddavjMaa-Tia  of  philosophers  in 
general  (Strabo,  i.  3.  21).  This  ddavjxaa-TLa,  identical 
with  the  d6afj./3ia  of  Democritus  (Cic.  De  Jin.  v.  29. 
87),  the  drapa^ia  of  the  Epicureans,  and  the  dirddeLa 
of  the  Stoics,  is  a  philosophic  calm,  a  composure  of 
mind  and  feeling,  a  freedom  from  exciting  emotions, 
which  ancient  philosophy  often  regarded  as  the 
summum  honum  and  which  Tennyson  defines  so  well 
in  his  Lucretius  : 

O  thou. 
Passionless  bride,  divine  Tranquillity, 
Yearn'd  after  by  the  wisest  of  the  wise. 
Who  fail  to  find  thee,  being  as  thou  art 
Without  one  pleasure  and  without  one  pain. 

This  "  wise  indifference,"  says  Horace,  is  perhaps 
the  only  clue  to  happiness.  If  men  can  gaze  un- 
moved on  the  wonders  of  the  firmament,  they  can 
surely  look  calmly  upon  things  of  less  moment,  such 


as  wealth  and  honovirs,  neither  craving  their  rewards 
nor  fearing  their  loss.  "  Nothing  in  excess  "  should 
be  one's  rule  even  in  the  pursuit  of  Virtue.  And 
bear  in  mind  that,  however  much  you  may  long  for 
treasures  of  art,  for  fame  and  wealth,  death  must  be 
the  end  of  all  (1-27). 

You  think  I  am  wrong  ?  If  you  are  ill,  you  take 
medicine  ;  if  you  want  to  "  live  well,"  and  know 
that  Virtue  alone  can  give  you  that  boon,  follow 
her  at  all  costs.  If,  on  the  contrary,  you  think  \'irtue 
a  mere  name,  then  make  haste  to  get  rich.  Be  not 
like  the  Cappadocian  king,  who  was  so  poor,  but 
rather  be  hke  Lucullus,  who  didn't  know  how  wealthy 
he  was  (28-48). 

If  you  have  set  your  heart  on  office  and  honours, 
stoop  to  all  the  tricks  of  the  pohticians  (49-55).  If 
"  li\ang  well  "  means  for  you  good  eating  (56-64)  or 
love  and  pleasure  (65,  66),  then  think  of  nothing  else. 

Such  are  my  views.  Have  you  anything  better  to 
offer  ?  (07,  68). 



Nil  admirari  prope  res  est  una,  Numici, 
solaque  quae  possit  facere  et  servare  beatum, 
hunc  solem  et  stellas  et  decedentia  certis 
tempora  momentis  sunt  qui  formidin^  nulla 
imbuti  spectent  :   quid  censes  munera  terrae,  6 

quid  maris  extremes  Arabas  ditantis  et  Indos, 
ludicra  quid,  plausus  et  amici  dona  Quiritis, 
quo  spectanda  modo,  quo  sensu  credis  et  ore  ? 

Qui  timet  his  adversa,  fere  miratur  eodem 
quo  cupiens  pacto  :  pavor  est  utrobique  molestus,   10 
improvisa  simul  species  exterret  utrumque.^ 
gaudeat  an  doleat,  cupiat  metuatne,  quid  ad  rem, 
si,  quicquid  vidit  melius  peiusve^  sua  spe, 
defixis  oculis  animoque  et  corpore  torpet  ? 
insani  sapiens  nomen  ferat,  aequus  iniqui,  15 

ultra  quam  satis  est  Virtutem  si  petat^  ipsam. 

I  nunc,  argentum  et  marmor  vetus  aeraque  et  artcs 
suspice,*  cum  gemmis  Tyrios  mirare  colores  ; 
gaude  quod  spectant^  oculi  te  mille  loquentem  ; 
navus  mane  forum  et  vespertinus  pete  tectum,        20 
ne  plus  frumenti  dotalibus  emetat  agris 
Mutus  et  (indignum,  quod  sit  peioribus  ortus) 

*  exterret  (-it  R)  utrumque,  //:    most  editors  exterruit 
utrum  aE. 

*  pciusne  Rd.  *  petet  aM. 

*  suscipe  EXItt.  ^  spectent  E. 


Epistle  VI 

"  Marvel  at  nothing  " — that  is  perhaps  the  one 
and  only  thing,  Numicius,  that  can  make  a  man 
happy  and  keep  him  so.  Yon  sun,  the  stars  and 
seasons  that  pass  in  fixed  courses — some  can  gaze 
upon  these  with  no  strain  of  fear  :  what  think  you  of 
the  gifts  of  earth,  or  what  of  the  sea's,  which  makes 
rich  far  distant  Arabs  and  Indians — what  of  the  shows, 
the  plaudits  and  the  favours  of  the  friendly  Roman 
— in  what  \nse,  with  what  feelings  and  eyes  think 
you  they  should  be  viewed  ? 

®  And  he  who  fears  their  opposites  "  marv^els  "  in 
much  the  same  way  as  the  man  who  desires  :  in  either 
case  'tis  the  excitement  that  annoys,  the  moment  some 
unexpected  appearance  startles  either.  Whether 
a  man  feel  joy  or  grief,  desire  or  fear,  what  matters 
it  if,  when  he  has  seen  aught  better  or  worse  than 
he  expected,  his  eyes  are  fast  riveted,  and  mind  and 
body  are  benumbed  ?  Let  the  wise  man  bear  the 
name  of  madman,  the  just  of  unjust,  should  he 
pursue  Virtue  herself  beyond  due  bounds. 

^'  Go  now,  gaze  with  rapture  on  silver  plate, 
antique  marble,  bronzes  and  works  of  art  ;  "  marvel " 
at  gems  and  Tyrian  dyes  ;  rejoice  that  a  thousand 
eyes  survey  you  as  you  speak  ;  in  your  diligence  get 
you  to  the  Forum  early,  to  your  home  late,  lest 
Mutus  reap  more  grain  from  the  lands  of  his  wife's 
dower,  and  (oh  the  shame,  for  he  sprang  from  meaner 



hie  tibi  sit  potius  quam  tu  mirabilis  illi. 
quidquid  sub  terra  est,  in  apricum  proferet^  aetas, 
defodiet  condetque  nitentia.     cum  bene  notum     25 
porticus  Agrippae,  via  te^  conspexerit  Appi, 
ire  tamen  restat  Numa  quo  devenit  et  Ancus. 
Si  latus  aut  renes  morbo  temptantur  acuto, 
quaere  fugam  morbi.     vis  recte  vivere  :  quis  non  ? 
si  Virtus  hoc  una  potest  dare,  fortis  omissis  30 

hoc  age  deliciis. 

Virtutem  verba  putas^  et 
lucum  ligna  :  cave  ne  portus  occupet  alter, 
ne  Cibyratica,  ne  Bithyna  negotia  pei'das  ; 
mille  talenta  rotundentur,  totidem  altera,  porro  et* 
tertia  succedant  et  quae  pars  quadret^  acervum.     35 
scilicet  uxorem  cum  dote  fidemque  et  amicos 
et  genus  et  formam  regina  Pecunia  donat, 
ac  bene  nummatum  decorat  Suadela  Venusque. 
mancupiis  locuples  eget  aeris  Cappadocum  rex  : 
ne*  fueris  hie  tu.     chlamydes  Lucullus,  ut  aiunt,    40 
si  posset  centum  scaenae  praebere  rogatus, 
"  qui  possum  tot  ?  "  ait ;  "  tamen  et  quaeram  et  quot 

mittam  :  "   post  paulo  scribit  sibi  milia  quinque 
esse  domi  chlamydum  ;  partem  vel  toUeret  omnis. 
exilis  domus  est,  ubi  non  et  multa  supersunt  45 

et  dominum  fallunt  et  prosunt  furibus.     ergo 

*  proferat  aM.  "  et  via,  II. 

■  putes  AH  Bentley.  *  et  omitted  aMS. 

•  quadrat  aM.  •  nee  E. 

"  Both  were  frequented  by  the  fashionable  world.  The 
portico  of  Agrippa,  near  the  Pantheon,  was  opened  in  25  b.c. 
For  the  Appian  Way  cf.  Epode  iv.  14  and  Sat.  i.  5.  6. 

*  This  is  a  proverbial  expression,  applicable  to  the  material- 


EPISTLES,  I.  VI.  23-46 

stock  !)  lest  you  "  marvel  "  at  him  rather  than  he  at 
you.  Time  will  bring  into  the  light  whatever  is 
under  the  earth  ;  it  will  bury  deep  and  hide  what 
now  shines  bright.^  When  Agrippa's  colonnade,  when 
Appius's  way "  has  looked  upon  your  well-kno\vn 
form,  stiU  it  remains  for  you  to  go  where  Numa  and 
Ancus  have  gone  down  before. 

^  If  your  chest  or  reins  are  assailed  by  a  sharp 
disease,  seek  a  remedy  for  the  disease.  You  wish 
to  hve  aright  (and  who  does  not  ?)  ;  if  then  Virtue 
alone  can  confer  this  boon,  boldly  drop  trifles  and 
set  to  work  ! 

'^  Do  you  think  Virtue  but  words,  and  a  forest  *  but 
firewood  ?  Take  care  lest  your  rival  make  harbour 
first,  lest  you  lose  your  ventures  from  Cibyra  and 
Bithynia.  Suppose  you  round  off  a  thousand  talents  ; 
as  marly  in  a  second  lot  ;  then  add  a  third  thousand, 
and  enough  to  square  the  heap.  Of  course  a  wife 
and  dowTy,  credit  and  friends,  birth  and  beauty,  are 
the  gift  of  Quee^  Cash,  and  the  goddesses  Persuasion 
and  Venus  grace  the  man  who  is  well-to-do.  The 
Cappadocian  king  '^  is  rich  in  slaves,  but  lacks  coin  : 
be  not  hke  him.  Lucullus,  'tis  said,  was  asked  if  he 
could  lend  a  hundred  cloaks  for  the  stage.  "  How 
can  I  so  many  ?  "  he  answers,  "  yet  I'll  look  and  send 
as  many  as  I  have."  A  httle  later  he  writes  :  "  I 
have  five  thousand  cloaks  at  home  ;  take  some  or 
all."  Poor  is  the  house  where  there's  not  much  to 
spare,  much  that  escapes  the  master  and  profits  his 

ists  of  the  day,  who  were  ready  to  cut  down  even  sacred 

*  Viz.  Ariobarzanes,  of  whom  Cicero  says,  "erat  rex 
perpauper"  {Ad  Att.  vi.  3).  For  Lucullus  "see  Plutarch's 
Lives.  Litcullus.  ch.  39.     Horace  expands  the  story  somewhat. 

U  289 


si  res  sola  potest  facere  et  servare  beatum, 

hoc  primus^  repetas  opus,  hoc  postremus  omittas. 

Si  fortunatum  species  et  gratia  praestat, 
mercemur  servum,  qui  dictet  nomina,  laevum^        50 
qui  fodicet  latus  et  cogat  trans  pondera^  dextram 
porrigere  :  "  hie*  multum  in  Fabia  valet,  ille  Velina  ; 
cui  libet  hie  fasces  dabit  eripietque  curule 
cui  volet  importunus  ebur."    "  frater,"  "  pater  "adde  : 
ut  cuique  est  aetas,  ita  quemque  facetus  adopta.*   55 

Si  bene  qui  cenat  bene  vivit,  lucet,  eamus 
quo  ducit  gula  ;   piscemur,  venemur,  ut  olim 
Gargilius,  qui  mane  plagas,  venabula,  servos 
difFertum  transire**  forum  populumque'  iubebat, 
unus  ut  e  multis  populo  spectante  referret  60 

emptum  mulus  aprum.     crudi  tumidique  lavemur. 
quid  deceat,  quid  non,  obliti,  Caerite  cera 
digni,  remigium  vitiosum  Ithacensis  Ulixei, 
cui  potior  patria^  fuit  interdicta  voluptas^ 
si,  Mimnermus  uti  censet,  sine  amore  iocwque  65 

nil  est  iucundum,  vivas  in  amore  iocisqy. 

Vive,  vale  !     si  quid  novisti  rectius  ifcis, 
candidus  imperti  ;  si  nil,^  his  utere  mecum. 

^  primum,  11. 
"  laevum  E  :  saevum  {i.e.  scaevum)  aM,  11%  so  Pithoeus. 

*  pondere,  II.  *  liis  or  is  Mdir. 

*  adapta  4>4'^l'  *  transferre  Goth. 

'  campum  Bentley.  *  patriae,  //.  *  non,  11. 

"  A  slave,  called  nomenclator,  had  the  duty  of  informing 
his  master  of  the  names  of  people  he  did  not  know. 

''  The  scholiasts  explain  pondera  as  the  term  applied  to 
the  high  stepping-stones  used  for  crossing  the  streets  as 
may  be  seen  in  Pompeii.  Horace,  therefore,  is  picturing 
the  ambitious  politicians  as  hurrying  over  these  to  greet 
a  voter  on  the  other  side  of  the  street.     Other  interpretations, 


EPISTLES,  I.  VI.  47-68 

knaves.  So  if  wealth  alone  can  make  you  happy 
and  keep  you  so,  be  the  first  to  go  back  to  this  task, 
the  last  to  leave  it  off, 

*^  If  pomp  and  popularity  make  the  fortunate  man, 
let  us  buy  a  slave  to  call  off  names,"  to  nudge  our 
left  side,  and  make  us  stretch  out  the  hand  across 
the  streets.''  "  This  man  has  much  influence  in  the 
Fabian  tribe  ;  that  in  the  Veline.  This  man  will 
give  the  fasces  to  whom  he  will,  or,  if  churlish,  will 
snatch  the  curule  ivory  from  whom  he  pleases." 
Throw  in  "  Brother  !  "  "  Father  !  " — politely  adopt 
each  one  according  to  his  age. 

^  If  he  who  dines  well,  Uves  well,  then — 'tis 
daybreak,  let's  be  off,  whither  the  palate  guides  us. 
Let  us  fish,  let  us  hunt,  like  Gargilius  in  the  story. 
At  dawn  of  day  he  would  bid  his  slaves  with  hunting- 
nets  and  spears  pass  through  the  throng  in  the 
crowded  Forum,  that  in  the  sight  of  that  same  throng 
one  mule  of  all  the  train  might  bring  home  a  boar  he 
had  purchased.  Wliile  gorged  with  undigested  food, 
let  us  bathe,  forgetful  of  what  is  or  is  not  seemly, 
deserving  to  have  our  place  in  the  Caere  class,'' hke  the 
wicked  crew  of  Ulysses  of  Ithaca,  to  whom  forbidden 
pleasure  was  dearer  than  fatherland.  If,  as  Mim- 
nermus  holds,  without  love  and  jests  there  is  no  joy, 
live  amid  love  and  jests. 

^"  Live  long,  farewell.  If  you  know  something 
better  than  these  precepts,  pass  it  on,  my  good 
fellow.     If  not,  join  me  in  follo^ving  these. 

such  as  that  pondera  means  the  weights  on  a  shop-counter, 
are  pure  conjectures. 

«  As  deserving  to  be  disfranchised.  The  people  of  Caere 
were  munteipes  sine  suffragii  iure  (Gellius,  xvi.  13).  The 
word  cera  refers  to  the  wax-covered  tablets  on  which  the 
lists  of  citizens  were  entered. 




Maecenas  has  apparently  reproached  Horace  for 
staying  in  the  country  longer  than  he  had  said  he 
would,  when  he  himself  had  to  remain  in  Rome, 
and  perhaps  he  had  reminded  the  poet  of  his 
obligations  to  his  patron. 

Horace  makes  a  manly  and  dignified  reply.  He 
assures  his  patron  that  he  is  not  ungrateful  for  past 
benefits,  but  he  must  consider  his  health,  and  he 
refuses  to  surrender  his  personal  independence.  If 
that  is  demanded,  he  is  willing  to  give  up  everything 
that  Maecenas  has  conferred  upon  him. 

The  poet's  attitude  is  illustrated  by  several  stories, 
the  last  of  which — the  tale  of  Philippus  and  his  client, 
Volteius  Mena — takes  up  half  of  the  poem.  Of  this 
Swift  has  made  a  very  humorous  use  in  his  "  Address 
to  the  Earl  of  Oxford." 



Quinque  dies  tibi  pollicitus  me  rure  futurum, 
Sextilem  totum  mendax  desideror.     atque^ 
si  me  vivere  vis  sanum  recteque  valentem, 
quam  mihi  das  aegro,  dabis  aegrotare  timenti, 
Maecenas,  veniam,  dum  ficus  prima  calorque^  5 

dissignatorem  decorat  lictoribus  atris, 
dum  pueris  omnis  pater  et  matercula  pallet, 
officiosaque  sedulitas  et  opella  forensis 
adducit^  febris  et  testamenta  resignat. 
quod  si  bruma  nives  Albanis  illinet  agris,  10 

ad  mare  descendet  vates  tuus  et  sibi  parcet 
contractusque  leget  ;  te,  dulcis  amice,  reviset 
cum  Zephyris,  si  concedes,*  et  hirundine  prima. 

Non  quo  more  piris  vesci  Calaber  iubet  hospes, 
tu  me  fecisti  locupletem.     "  vescere,  sodes."  15 

"  iam  satis  est."     "  at  tu  quantum  vis  tolle."     "  be- 

"  non  invisa  feres  pueris  munuscula  parvis." 
"  tarn  teneor  dono,  quam  si  dimittar  onustus." 
"  ut  libet ;  haec  porcis  hodie  comedenda  relinques.^  " 

^  atqui  E,  but  cf.  {e.g.)  Terence,  Andria  "225. 

*  colorque  Va.  '  adducet  RSir. 

*  concedis  E.  *  relinquis  (p^j/Xl. 

"  Quinque  is  a  round  number  here.     Similarly,  decern  dies 
may  be  used  of  "  a  long  w  eek." 


Epistle  VII 

Only  a  week  "  was  I  to  stay  in  the  country — such 
was  my  promise — but,  false  to  my  word,  I  am  missed 
the  whole  of  Augast.  And  yet,  if  you  would  have 
me  hve  sound  and  in  good  health,  the  indulgence 
which  you  grant  me  when  ill  you  will  grant  me  when 
I  fear  to  become  ill,  while  the  first  figs  and  the  heat 
adorn  the  undertaker  \^-ith  his  black  attendants, 
while  every  father  and  fond  mother  turns  pale  with 
fear  for  the  cliildren,  and  while  diligence  in  cour- 
tesies ^  and  the  Forum's  petty  business  bring  on 
fevers  and  unseal  wills.  But  if  %\'inter  shall  strew 
the  Alban  fields  with  snow,  your  poet  \^ill  go  down 
to  the  sea,  will  be  careful  of  himself  and,  huddled 
up,  will  take  to  his  reading :  you,  dear  friend,  he 
vriW — if  you  permit — revisit  along  with  the  zephyrs 
and  the  first  swallow. 

^*  'Twas  not  in  the  way  a  Calabrian  host  invites 
you  to  eat  his  pears  that  you  have  made  me  rich. 
"  Eat  some,  pray."  "  I've  had  enough."  "  Well, 
take  away  all  you  please."  "  No,  thanks."  "  Your 
tiny  tots  \\-ill  love  the  little  gifts  you  take  them." 
"  I'm  as  much  obhged  for  your  offer  as  if  you  sent 
me  away  loaded  dowTi."  "  As  you  please  ;  you'll 
be  leaving  them  for  the  swine  to  gobble  up  to-day." 

''  The  phrase  refers  to  social  duties,  such  as  attendance 
upon  the  great. 



prodigus  et  stultus  donat  quae  spernit  et  odit ;        20 
haec  seges  ingratosi  tulit  et  feret  omnibus  annis. 
vir  bonus  et  sapiens  dignis  ait  esse  paratus, 
nee  tamen  ignorat  quid  distent  aera  lupinis. 
dignum  praestabo  me  etiam  pro  laude  merentis. 
quod  si  me  noles  usquam  diseedere,  reddes  25 

forte  latus,  nigros  angusta  fronte  capillos, 
reddes  dulee  loqui,  reddes  ridere  decorum  et 
inter  vina  fugam  Cinarae  maerere  protervae. 

Forte  per  angustam  tenuis  volpecula^  rimam 
repserat  in  cumeram^  frumenti,  pastaque  rursus      30 
ire  foras  pleno  tendebat  corpore  frustra  ; 
cui  mustela  procul,  "  si  vis,"  ait,  "  effugere  istinc, 
macra  cavum  repetes  artum,  quem  macra  subisti." 
hac  ego  si  compellor  imagine,  cuncta  resigno  ; 
nee  somnum  plebis  laudo  satur  altilium  nee  36 

otia  divitiis  Arabum  liber rima  muto, 
saepe  verecundum  laudasti,  rexque  paterque 
audisti  coram  nee  verbo  parcius  absens  : 
inspice  si  possum  donata  reponere  laetus. 
baud*  male  Telemachus,  proles  patientis^  Ulixei :    40 
"  non  est  aptus  equis  Ithace  locus,  ut  neque  planis 

^  ingrato  E'^b'^ :  ingratis  (p\l/\l. 

*  nitedula    Bentley :  accepted  by    Lachmann,    Kiessling, 
Holder  and  others.  '  cameram  ir. 

*  at  (pfSXl :  aut  Rir.  '  sapientis  E. 

*  i.e.  real  money  and  the  imitation  lupine  seeds,  used  for 
counters  in  playing  games. 

*  For  the  beauty  of  a  narrow  brow  cf.  Od.  i.  33.  5, 
'*  insignem  tenui  fronte  Lycorida."  Horace  is  becoming  bald, 
and  is  praecanus  {Epist.  1.  20.  24). 

*  Bentley's  conjecture  nitedula,  "  shrew-mouse,"  has  been 


EPISTLES,  I.  VII.  20-41 

The  foolish  prodigal  gives  away  what  he  despises 
and  dislikes  :  the  field  thus  sown  has  always  yielded, 
and  always  will  yield,  a  crop  of  ingratitude.  Your 
good  and  wise  man  claims  to  be  ready  to  help  the 
worthy ,  and  yet  he  knows  well  how  coins  and  counters" 
diifer.  Worthy  I,  too,  vn\\  show  myself,  as  the  glory 
of  your  good  deed  demands.  But  if  you  will 
never  suffer  me  to  leave  you,  you  must  give  me 
back  strength  of  lung,  and  black  locks  on  a  narrow 
brow  ^  ;  you  must  give  back  a  pleasant  prattle,  give 
back  graceful  laughter  and  laments  amid  our  cups 
o'er  saucy  Cinara's  flight. 

^  Once  it  chanced  that  a  pinched  little  fox  "  had 
crept  througli  a  narrow  chink  into  a  bin  of  corn,  and 
when  well  fed  was  trying  with  stuffed  stomach  to 
get  out  again,  but  in  vain.  To  him  quoth  a  weasel 
hard  by  :  "If  you  >^'ish  to  escape  from  there,  you 
must  go  back  lean  to  the  narrow  gap  which  you 
entered  when  lean."  If  challenged  by  this  fable,  I 
give  up  all.  I  neither  praise  the  poor  man's  sleep, 
when  I  am  fed  full  on  capons,  nor  would  I  barter  my 
ease  and  my  freedom  for  all  the  wealth  of  Araby. 
Often  have  you  praised  my  modesty,  and  have  been 
called  "  king  "  **  and  "  father  "  to  your  face,  nor  do  I 
stint  my  words  behind  your  back.  Try  me,  whether 
I  can  restore  your  gifts,  and  cheerfully  too.  'Twas 
no  poor  answer  of  Telemachus,  son  of  enduring 
Ulysses  *  :    "  Ithaca  is  no  land  meet  for  steeds,  for 

widely  accepted,  because  in  real  life  the  fox  does  not  eat 
grain.     But  the  traditional  text  must  be  retained. 

"*  The  term  rex  was  used  of  a  patron  ;  c/"  coram  rege  suo," 
Epist.  i.  17.  43. 

•  IntheOdy««t;2/('v.  601ff.).  Telemachus,  son  of  Odysseus, 
declines  the  horses  and  chariot  oflFered  him  in  friendship  by 



porrectus  spatiis  nee  multae  prodigus  herbae  : 
Atride,  magis  apta  tibi  tua  dona  relinquam." 
parvum  parva  decent  :   mihi  iam  non  regia  Roma, 
sed  vacuum  Tibur  placet  aut  imbelle  Tarentum.     45 

Strenuus  et  fortis  causisque  Philippus  agendis 
clarus,  ab  officiis  octavam  circiter  horam 
dum  redit  atque  Foro  nimium  distare  Carinas 
iam  grandis  natu  queritur,  conspexit,  ut  aiunt, 
adrasum  quendam  vacua  tonsoris  in  umbra  60 

cultello  proprios^  purgantem^  leniter  unguis. 
"  Demetri,"  (puer  hie  non  laeve  iussa  Philippi 
accipiebat)  "  abi,  quaere  et  refer,  unde  domo,  quis, 
cuius  fortunae,  quo  sit  patre  quove  patrono." 
it,^  redit  et  narrat,  Volteium  nomine  Menam,         66 
praeconem,  tenui  censu,  sine  crimine,  notum 
et  properare  loco*  et  cessare  et  quaerere  et  uti, 
gaudentem  parvisque  sodalibus  et  lare  certo^ 
et  ludis  et  post  decisa  negotia  Campa, 
"  scitari  libet  ex  ipso  quodcumque  refers  :   die        60 
ad  cenam  veniat."     non  sane  credere  Mena, 
mirari  secum  tacitus.     quid  multa  ?     "  benigne," 
respondet.^     "  neget''  ille  mihi  ?  "  "  negat  improbus 

et  te 
neglegit  aut  horret." 

Volteium  mane  Philippus 
vilia  vendentem  tunicato  scruta  popello  06 

occupat  et  salvere  iubet  prior,    ille  Philippe 
excusare  laborem  et  mercennaria  vincla, 

^  proprio.  *  resecantem  E  Goth. 

»  et,  JI.  *  locum,  //. 

^  curto.  *  rcspondit  5  Goth.  '  negat  a  Goth. 

«  i.e.  such  games  as  those  of  the  Circus  and  the  athletic 
contests  in  the  Campus  Martins.  ^  ^>^ 


EPISTLES,  I.  VII.  42-67 

it  has  no  level  courses  outspread,  nor  is  it  la\ish  of 
much  herbage.  Son  of  Atreus,  I  will  leave  you  your 
gifts,  as  being  more  meet  for  you."  Small  things 
befit  small  folk  ;  my  o\vn  dehght  to-day  is  not 
queenly  Rome,  but  qmet  Tibur  or  peaceful  Tarentvun. 

**  Philippus,  the  famous  pleader,  a  man  of  \igour 
and  courage,  was  returning  home  from  work  about 
two  o'clock.  Being  now  somewhat  on  in  years,  he 
was  grumbhng  at  the  Carinae  being  too  far  from  the 
Forum,  when  (so  the  story  goes)  he  caught  sight  of 
a  man  close-shaven,  sitting  in  a  barber's  empty 
booth,  and  with  pocket-knife  quietly  cleaning  his 
nails  for  himself.  "  Demetrius  "  (this  lad  was  not 
slow  to  catch  his  master's  orders),  "  go,  ask,  and 
bring  me  word,  where  that  man's  from,  who  he  is, 
and  what's  his  standing,  who  is  his  father,  or  who 
his  patron."  He  goes,  and  comes  back  \nih  the  tale 
that  his  name  is  Volteius  Mena,  a  crier  at  auctions, 
of  modest  fortime  and  blameless  record,  kno^vn  to 
work  hard  and  idle  in  season,  to  make  money  and 
spend  it,  taking  pleasure  in  his  humble  friends  and 
a  home  of  his  own  and,  when  business  is  over,  in  the 
games  and  in  the  field  of  Mars."  "  I'd  hke  to  hear 
from  his  own  hps  all  you  tell  me.  Bid  him  come  to 
supper."  Mena  cannot  really  believe  it  ;  he  marvels 
in  thoughtful  silence.  To  be  brief,  "  No,  thank  you," 
he  answers.  "  Would  he  refuse  me  ?  "  "  He  does, 
the  rascal,  and  either  shghts  or  dreads  you." 

^  Next  morning  Phihppus  comes  on  Volteius 
selling  cheap  odds  and  ends  to  the  common  folk  in 
tunics  ^  and  is  first  to  give  a  greeting.  The  other 
makes  work  and  the  ties  of  his  trade  an  excuse  to 

*  The  common  people  did  not  wear  the  toga  in  daily  life. 



quod  non  mane  domum  venisset,  denique  quod  non 
providisseti  eum.     "  sic  ignovisse  putato  69 

me  tibi,  si  cenas  hodie  mecum."    "  ut  libet."    "  ergo 
post  nonam  venies  :   nunc  i,  rem  strenuus  auge." 
ut  ventum  ad  cenam  est,^  dicenda  tacenda  locutus 
tandem  dormitum  dimittitur. 

Hie  ubi  saepe 
occultum  visus  decurrere  piscis  ad  hamum, 
mane  cliens  et  iam  certus  conviva,  iubetur  75 

rura  suburbana  indictis  comes  ire  Latinis. 
impositus  mannis  arvum  caelumque  Sabinum 
non  cessat  laudare.     videt  ridetque  Philippus, 
et  sibi  dum  requiem,  dum  risus  undique  quaerit, 
dum  septem  donat  sestertia,  mutua  septem  80 

promittit,  persuadet  uti  mercetur  agellum. 
mercatur.     ne^  te  longis  ambagibus*  ultra 
quam  satis  est  moi*er,  ex  nitido  fit  rusticus  atque 
sulcos  et  vineta  crepat  mera,  praeparat  ulmos, 
immoritur  studiis  et  amore  senescit  habendi.  85 

verum  ubi  oves  furto,  morbo  periere  capellae, 
spem  mentita  seges,  bos  est  enectus  arando, 
ofFensus  damnis  media  de  nocte  caballum 
arripit  iratusque  Philippi  tendit  ad  aedis.  89 

quem  simul  aspexit  scabrum  intonsumque  Philippus, 
"  durus,"  ait,  "  Voltei,  nimis  attentusque  videris 
esse  mihi."     "  pol,  me  miserum,  patrone,  vocares, 
si  velles,"  inquit,  "  verum  mihi  ponere^  nomen. 

^  praevidisset.  *  est  otnitted  w. 

^  nee  RItt.  *  ambiguus  Rir. 

^  ponere  VaE  :  dicere  B,  II. 

'  i.e.  to  pay  his  respects,  in  view  of  the  invitation  sent  him. 

*  The^feriae  Latinae  were  held  annually  on  a  day  appointed 
and  announced — usually  at  the  end  of  April  or  the  beginning 
of  May.     All  legal  business  was  suspended  for  the  time. 


EPISTLES,  I.  VII.  68-93 

Philippus  for  not  having  come  to  his  house  that 
morning,"  in  fine  for  not  seeing  him  first.  "  You're 
to  take  it  that  I've  pardoned  you  only  if  you  sup 
with  me  to-day."  "  As  you  please."  "  You  wiU 
come  then  after  three  o'clock.  Now  go,  set  to  and 
add  to  your  wealth  !  "  On  coming  to  supper,  he 
chatted  about  anything  and  everything,  and  then  at 
last  was  sent  off  to  bed. 

'^  When  he  had  often  been  seen  to  run  like  a  fish 
to  the  hidden  hook,  in  the  morning  a  client  and  now 
a  constant  guest,  he  was  invited  to  come  as  com- 
panion, when  the  Latin  games  were  proclaimed, **  to 
a  country  estate  near  Rome.  Mounted  behind  the 
ponies,  he  is  ever  praising  the  Sabine  soil  and  climate. 
Philippus  notes  and  smiles,  and  what  vrith  looking 
for  his  own  rehef  and  amusement  from  any  source, 
and  what  with  gi\ing  him  seven  thousand  sesterces, 
and  offering  him  a  loan  of  seven  thousand  more,  he 
persuades  him  to  buy  a  little  farm.  He  does  so. 
Not  to  hold  you  too  long  with  a  rambhng  tale,  our 
spruce  cit  becomes  a  rustic  and  chatters  about 
nothing  but  furrows  and  \ineyards,  makes  ready  his 
elms,  nearly  kills  himself  over  his  hobbies,  and  grows 
old  with  his  passion  for  getting.  But  when  he  has 
lost  his  sheep  by  theft  and  his  goats  by  disease, 
when  his  crops  have  fooled  his  hopes  and  his  ox  is 
worn  to  death  A\-ith  ploughing,  fretting  over  his 
losses,  in  the  middle  of  the  night  he  seizes  his  nag 
and  in  a  rage  makes  straight  for  the  house  of 
Phihppus.  He,  soon  as  he  saw  him,  rough  and 
unshorn,  "  Volteius,"  cries  he,  "  you  seem  to  me 
too  hard-worked  and  over-strained."  "  Egad  !  my 
patron,"  said  he,  "  you  would  call  me  miserable 
wretch,  if  you  could  give  me  my  true  name.     But 



quod  te  per  Genium  dextramque  deosque  Penatis 
obsecro  et  obtestor,  vitae  me  redde  priori !  "  95 

Qui  semel^  aspexit,  quantum  dimissa  petitis 
praestent,  mature  redeat  repetatque  relieta. 
metiri  se  quemque  suo  modulo  ac  pede  verum  est. 
»  semel  early  editions  :  simul  mss.  ;  taken  from  1.  90. 


EPISTLES,  I.  vn.  94-98 

by  your  genius,  by  your  right  hand  and  household 
gods,  I  implore  and  entreat  you,  put  me  back  in  my 
former  hfe." 

^  Let  him,  who  once  has  seen  how  far  what  he 
has  given  up  excels  what  he  has  sought,  go  back  in 
time  and  seek  again  the  things  he  has  left.  'Tis 
right  that  each  should  measure  himself  by  his  own 
rule  and  standard. 




This  brief  letter  is  addressed  to  the  Celsus  men- 
tioned in  the  third  epistle  of  this  book  as  a  member 
of  the  staff  of  Tiberius  Claudius  Nero. 

The  poet  confesses  that  he  himself  is  out  of  sorts 
and  discontented,  but  the  main  point  of  his  letter 
hes  in  the  admonition  to  his  friend  not  to  be  unduly 
elated  by  liis  good  fortune. 




Celso  gaudere  et  bene  rem  gerere  Albinovano 
Musa  rogata  refer,  comiti  scribaeque  Neronis. 
si  quaeret^  quid  agam,  die  multa  et  pulchra  minantem 
vivere  nee  recte  nee  suaviter  ;  haud^  quia  grando 
contuderit  vitis  oleamque^  momorderit  aestus,  5 

nee  quia  longinquis  armentum  aegrotet  in  agris  ; 
sed  quia  mente  minus  validus  quam  corpore  toto 
nil  audire  velim,  nil  discere,  quod  levet  aegrum  ; 
fidis  ofFendar  medicis,  irascar  amicis, 
cur  me*  funesto  properent  arcere^  veterno  ;  10 

quae  nocuere  sequar,  fugiam  quae  profore  credam  ; 
Romae  Tibur  amem  ventosus,®  Tibure  Romam. 

Post  haec,  ut  valeat,  quo  pacto  rem  gerat  et  se, 
ut  placeat  iuveni  percontare  utque  cohorti. 
si  dicet,  "  recte,"  primum  gaudere,  subinde  15 

praeceptum  auriculis  hoc  instillare  memento  : 
"  ut  tu  fortunam,  sic  nos  te,  Celse,  feremus." 

*  quaerit  a.  *  aut  ir'.  '  oleamve  E. 

*  mihi  E.  *  urguere  ir. 

^  venturus  V,  11,  Porph.  {on  Serm.  ii.  7.  28). 


Epistle  VIII 

To  Celsus  Albinovanus  greetings  and  good  wishes  ! 
This  message  bear,  O  Muse,  at  my  request,  to  the 
comrade  and  secretary  of  Nero.  If  he  ask  you  how 
I  fare,  tell  him  that  despite  many  fine  promises  I 
live  a  hfe  neither  wise  nor  pleasant  ;  not  because 
hail  has  beaten  down  my  vines  and  heat  blighted  my 
olives,  nor  because  my  herds  are  sickening  on 
distant  pastures  ;  but  because,  less  sound  in  mind 
than  in  all  my  body,  I  ■will  listen  to  nothing,  will 
learn  nothing,  to  relieve  my  sickness  ;  quarrel  with 
my  faithful  physicians,  and  angrily  ask  my  friends 
why  they  are  eager  to  rescue  me  from  fatal 
lethargy  ;  because  I  follow  after  what  has  hurt  me, 
avoid  what  I  believe  vill  help  me,  and  am  fickle  as 
the  wind,  at  Rome  loxing  Tibur,  at  Tibur  Rome. 

Then  ask  him  how  his  own  health  is,  how  in  estate 
and  person  he  is  faring,  how  he  stands  in  favour 
viiih  prince  and  staff.  If  he  says  "  Well,"  first  wish 
him  joy  ;  then  by  and  by  remember  to  drop  this 
warning  in  the  dear  fellow's  ears  :  "As  you  bear 
your  fortune,  Celsus,  so  we  shall  bear  with  you." 




This  charming  letter  of  introduction  is  addressed  to 
the  young  prince  Tiberius  on  behalf  of  one  Septiniius, 
probably  the  friend  of  Carm.  ii.  6, 

Septimi,  Gadis  aditure  mecum  et 
Cantabrum  indoctum  iuga  ferre  nostra  et 
barbaras  Syrtis. 

The  delicate  tact  of  the  writer,  who  would  seem 
selfish  if  he  did  not  heed  his  friend's  request,  and 
might  be  guilty  of  effrontery  if  he  did,  has  often 
been  admired.  The  letter  was  probably  written  in 
20  B.C.,  when  Tiberius  was  preparing  to  set  out  for 
the  East, 



Septimius,  Claudi,  nimirum  intellegit  unus, 
quanti  me  facias,     nam  cum  rogat  et  pi-ece  cogit 
scilicet  ut  tibi  se  laudare  et  tradere  coner, 
dignum  mente  domoque  legentis  honesta  Neronis, 
munere  cum  fungi  propioris  censet  amici,  5 

quid  possim  videt  ac  novit^  me  valdius  ipso, 
multa  quidem  dixi  cur  excusatus  abirem  ; 
sed  timui  mea  ne^  finxisse  minora  putarer, 
dissimilator  opis  propriae,  milii  commodus  uni. 
sic  ego,  maioris  fugiens  opprobria  culpae,  10 

frontis  ad  urbanae  descendi  praemia.     quod  si 
depositum  laudas  ob  amici  iussa  pudorem, 
scribe  tui  gregis  hunc  et  fortem  crede  bonumque. 

^  ac  novit  aE  Ooth  :  agnovit  A\  II. 
*  non  <f>\p. 


Epistle  IX 

Only  Septimius  of  course  understands  how  much, 
Claudius,  you  make  of  me.  For  when  he  begs  and 
by  prayer  forces  me — mark  you  ! — to  an  endeavour 
to  commend  and  present  him  to  you,  as  one  worthy 
of  the  mind  and  household  of  Nero,  the  lover  of 
virtue — when  he  deems  that  I  fill  the  place  of  a 
closer  friend,!  he  sees  and  knows  what  I  can  do 
more  fully  than  myself.  To  be  sure  I  gave  him  many 
reasons  for  letting  me  go  excused  ;  but  I  feared  that 
I  might  be  thought  to  have  made  out  my  influence  too 
small,  falsely  hiding  my  real  power  and  seeking  favour 
for  myself  alone .  So  to  avoid  the  reproach  of  a  graver 
fault,  I  have  stooped  to  win  the  reward  of  town-bred 
impudence.  But  if  you  approve  of  my  thus  doffing 
modesty  at  the  bidding  of  a  friend,  enrol  him  in  vour 
circle  and  believe  him  brave  and  good. 



According  to  the  scholiasts,  Aristius  Fuscus,  to  whom 
this  letter  is  addressed,  was  a  dramatic  writer  and 
a  scholar.  He  appears  in  the  list  of  Horace's  literary 
friends  given  in  Sat.  i.  10.  S3,  figures  in  an  amusing 
role  in  Sat.  i.  9-  61  ff.,  and  is  best  known  as  the 
man  to  whom  the  famous  Integer  viiae  ode  {Carm.  i. 
22)  is  dedicated. 

The  Epistle  is  a  rhapsody  upon  the  simplicity  and 
charm  of  country  life  addressed  to  a  cultivated  man 
of  the  town.  In  the  country  Horace  is  perfectly 
content,  save  for  the  fact  that  his  friend  is  elsewhere. 


Urbis  amatorem  Fuscum  salvere  iubemus 
ruris  amatores.     hac  in  re  scilicet  una 
multum  dissimiles,  at^  cetera  paene  gemelli 
fraternis  animis  (quidquid^  negat  alter,  et  alter) 
adnuimus  pariter  vetuli  notique  columbi.^  5 

Tu  nidum  servas  ;  ego  laudo  ruris  amoeni 
rivos  et  musco  circumlita  saxa  nemusque. 
quid  quaeris  ?     vivo  et  regno,  simul  ista  reliqui 
quae  vos  ad  caelum  efFertis*  rumore  secundo, 
utque  sacerdotis  fugitivus  liba  recuso  ;  10 

pane  egeo  iam  mellitis  potiore  placentis. 

Vivere  Naturae  si^  convenienter  oportet, 
ponendaeque^  domo  quaerenda  est  area  primum, 
novistine  locum  potiorem  rure  beato  ? 
est  ubi  plus  tepeant  hiemes,  ubi  gratior  aura  15 

leniat  et  rabiem  Canis  et  momenta  Leonis, 
cum  semel  accepit  Solem  furibundus  acutum  ? 
est  ubi  divellat'  somnos  minus  invida  Cura  ? 
^^^'deterius  Libycis  olet  aut  nitet  herba  lapillis  ? 

^  at  VE  :  ad  a,  11.  ^  si  quid  E. 

'  vetulis  notisque  columbis  V  (corrected).  Lavibinus  had 
conjectured  the  same  reading,  columbis  being  governed  by 
pariter.  ■*  effertis  V :  fertis  Mss.  ^  sic  <f>\p. 

*  ponendaque  one  Bland.  "  depellat  a. 

"  The  slave  in  a  priest's  household  was  fed  so  much  on 
sacrificial  cakes  that  he  ran  away  to  get  plain  fare. 


Epistle  X 

To  Fuscus,  lover  of  the  city,  I,  a  lover  of  the 
country,  send  greetings.  In  this  one  point,  to  be  sure, 
we  differ  much,  but  being  in  all  else  much  like  twins 
with  the  hearts  of  brothers — if  one  says  "  no,"  the 
other  says  "  no  "  too — we  nod  a  common  assent  hke 
a  couple  of  old  familiar  doves. 

^  You  keep  the  nest  ;  I  praise  the  lovely  country's 
brooks,  its  grove  and  moss-grown  rocks.  In  short : 
I  live  and  reign,  as  soon  as  I  have  left  behind  what 
you  townsmen  with  shouts  of  applause  extol  to  the 
skies.  Like  the  priest's  runaway  slave,  I  loathe 
sweet  wafers  ;  'tis  bread  I  want,  and  now  prefer  to 
honeyed  cakes." 

^2  If  "  to  hve  agreeably  to  Nature  "^  is  our  duty, 
and  first  we  must  choose  a  site  for  building  our  house, 
do  you  know  any  place  to  be  preferred  to  the  blissful 
country  ?  Is  there  any  where  winters  are  milder, 
where  a  more  grateful  breeze  tempers  the  Dog-star's 
fury  and  the  Lion's  onset,  when  once  in  frenzy  he 
has  caught  the  sun's  piercing  shafts  ?  '^  Is  there  any 
where  envious  Care  less  distracts  our  slumber  ?  Is 
the  grass  poorer  in  fragrance  or  beauty  than  Libyan, 

*  ofjioXoyovfUyus  tj  <f>v(rei  ^qv  :  one  of  the  Stoic  rules  of 

"  The  Dog-star  rises  July  20,  becoming  visible  on  July  26. 
The  sun  enters  Leo  July  23.  The  constellation  is  compared 
to  a  lion  roused  to  fury  when  wounded  with  arrows. 



purior  in  vicis  aqua  tendit  rumpere  plumbum,         20 
quam  quae  per  pronum  trepidat  cum  murmure  rivum? 
nempe  inter  varias  nutritur  silva  columnas, 
laudaturque  domus  longos  quae  prosplcit  agros. 
Naturam  expelles^  furca,  tamen  usque  recurret, 
et  mala  perrumpet  furtim  fastidia^  victrix.  25 

Non,  qui  Sidonio  contendere  callidus  ostro 
nescit  Aquinatem  potantia  vellera  fucum, 
certius  accipiet  damnum  propiusve^  medullis, 
quam  qui  non  poterit  vero  distinguere  falsum. 
quem  res  plus  nimio  delectavere  secundae,  30 

mutatae  quatient.     si  quid  mirabere,  pones 
invitus.     fuge  magna  :  licet  sub  paupere  tecto 
reges  et  regum  vita  praecurrere  amicos. 

Cervus  equum  pugna  melior  communibus  herbis 

pellebat,  donee  minor  in  certamine  longo  35 

imploravit  opes  hominis  frenumque  recepit ; 

sed  postquam  victor  violins*  discesisit  ab  hoste, 

non  equitem  dorso,  non  frenum  depulit  ore. 

sic  qui  pauperiem  veritus  potiore  metallis 

libertate  caret,  dominum  veliet^  improbus  atque      40 

serviet  aeternum,  quia  parvo  nesciet  uti. 

cui  non  conveniet  sua  res,  ut^  calceus  olim, 

si  pede  maior  erit,  subvertet,  si  minor,  uret. 

^  expellas  early  editions. 

-  fastigia  a,  II :  vestigia  V.  ^  propiusque  a. 

*  violens  victor  E  :  victo  ridens  Haupf. 

8  vehit  E.  «  et  <p^\l. 

"  i.e.  the  costly  pavements  of  the  great  Roman  houses. 
*  i.e.  the  marble  columns  of  diiferent  colours  wliich  formed 
the  colonnade  surrounding  the  peristyle  or  inner  court  of  a 


EPISTLES,  I.  X.  20-43 

mosaics  "  ?  Is  the  water  purer  which  in  city-streets 
struggles  to  burst  its  leaden  pipes  than  that  fWhich 
dances  and  purls  adown  the  sloping  brook  ?  ^^Why, 
amid  your  varied  columns  *  you  are  nursing  trees, 
and  you  praise  the  mansion  which  looks  out  on  distant 
fields.  You  may  drive  out  Nature  with  a  pitchfork, 
yet  she  M-ill  ever  hurry  back,  and,  ere  you  know  it, 
will  burst  through  your  foolish  contempt  in  triumph. 

2*'  The  man  who  has  not  the  skill  to  match  \vith 
Sidonian  purple  the  fleeces  that  drink  up  Aquinum's 
dye,"  will  not  suffer  surer  loss  or  one  closer  to  his 
heart  than  he  who  shall  fail  to  distinguish  false  from 
true.  One  whom  Fortune's  smiles  have  dehghted 
overmuch,  will  reel  under  the  shock  of  change.  If 
you  set  your  heart  on  aught,  you  will  be  loth  to  lay 
it  down.  Flee  grandeur  :  though  humble  be  your 
home,  yet  in  hfe's  race  you  may  outstrip  kings  and 
the  friends  of  kings. 

^  The  stag  could  best  the  horse  in  fighting  and  used 
to  drive  him  from  their  common  pasture,  until  the  loser 
in  the  long  contest  begged  the  help  of  man  and  took 
the  bit.  But  after  that,  in  overweening  triumph,  he 
parted  from  his  foe,  he  did  not  dislodge  the  rider 
from  his  back  or  the  bit  from  his  mouthy  So  he  who 
through  fear  of  poverty  forfeits  liberty,  which  is 
better  than  mines  of  wealth,  will  in  his  avarice  carry 
a  master,  and  be  a  slave  for  ever,  not  kno\ving  how 
to  live  on  little.  When  a  man's  fortune  will  not  fit 
liim,  'tis  as  ofttimes  with  a  shoe — if  too  big  for  the 
foot,  it  will  trip  him  ;   if  too  small,  will  chafe. 

Roman  house.  In  this  court,  trees  as  well  as  shrubs,  were 

*  A  lichen  found  at  Aquinum  produced  a  colour  like  the 
famous  Sidonian  purple. 



Laetus  sorte  tua  vives  sapienter,  Aristi, 
nee  me  dimittes^  incastigatum,  ubi  plura  45 

cogere  quam  satis  est  ac  non  cessare  videbor. 
imperat  aut  servit  collecta  pecunia  cuique, 
tortum  digna  sequi  potius  quam  ducere  funem, 

Haec  tibi  dictabam  post  fanum  putre  Vacunae, 

excepto  quod  non  simul  esses,  cetera  laetus.  50 

*  dimittis  i2ir. 


EPISTLES,  r.  X.  44-50 

**  You  will  live  wisely,  Aristius,  if  cheerful  in  your 
lot,  and  you  will  not  let  me  off  unrebuked,  when  I 
seem  to  be  gathering  more  than  enough  and  never 
to  rest.  Money  stored  up  is  for  each  his  lord  or  his 
slave,  but  ought  to  follow,  not  lead,  the  twisted  rope."* 

These  lines  I  am  dictating  to  you  behind  Vacuna's 
crumbling  shrine,  happy  on  all  counts  save  that  you 
are  not  with  me. 

"  Probably  a  reference  to  some  story  of  an  animal  being 
led  by  a  rope  and  running  away  with  its  keeper. 




BuiXATius,  a  friend  of  the  poet's,  has  been  travelling 
in  the  Pro\-inee  of  Asia,  and  Horace,  who  seems  to  have 
had  httle  of  the  Wanderlust  himself,  asks  him  whether, 
tired  of  journeying  by  land  and  sea,  he  would  Uke  to 
settle  down  at  even  so  deserted  a  place  as  Lebedus. 
That  lonely  spot,  with  its  outlook  on  the  raging  sea, 
appealed  strongly  to  the  poet,  who  would  love  to 
live  there, 

The  world  forgetting,  by  the  world  forgot. 

But  after  all  a  man's  happiness  depends,  not  on 
his  place  of  abode,  but  on  his  state  of  mind. 




Quid  tibi  visa  Chios,  Bullati,  notaque  Lesbos, 
quid  concinna  Samos,  quid  Croesi  regia  Sardis, 
Zmyrna  quid  et  Colophon  ?    maiora  minorave^  fama, 
cunctane^  prae  Campo  et  Tiberino  flumine  sordent  ? 
an  venit  in  votum  AttaUcis  ex  urbibus  una,  6 

an  Lebedum  laudas  odio  maris  atque  viarum  ? 
scis  Lebedus  quid  sit  :   Gabiis  desertior  atque 
Fidenis  vicus  ;  tamen  illic  vivere  vellem, 
oblitusque  meorum,  obhviscendus  et  illis, 
Neptunum  procul  e^  terra  spectare  furentem.  10 

Sed  neque  qui  Capua  Romam  petit,  imbre  hitoque 
aspersus,  volet  in  caupona  vivere  ;  nee  qui 
frigus  collegit,  furnos  et  balnea  laudat 
ut*  fortunatam  plene  praestantia  vitam  ; 
nee  si  te  validus  iactaverit  Auster  in  alto,  16 

ideirco  navem  trans  Aegaeum  mare  vendas. 

Incolumi  Rhodos  et  Mytilene  pulchra  faeit  quod 
paenula  solstitio,  campestre  nivalibus  auris, 
per  brumam  Tiberis,  Sextili  mense  caminus. 

1  minorave  uss.  (-que  E) :  minorane  Bentley. 
^  cunctaque  aRv.  ^  ex  <lR  :  et  E.  *  et,  II. 

"  The  most  important  were  Pergamum,  Apollonia,  and 


^  According  to  some  editors,  11.  7-10  are  supposed  to  be 
spoken  by  Bullatius,  perhaps  as  a  quotation  from  a  letter, 
but  \yhy  may  we  not  suppose  that  this  lonely  sea-sido  place, 
which  Horace  had  probably  visited  when  he  served  with 


Epistle  XI 

'UTiat  did  vou  think  of  Chios,  my  Bullatius,  and  of 
famous  Lesbos  ?  \\Tiat  of  charming  Samos  ?  \Miat 
of  Sardis,  royal  home  of  Croesus  ?  What  of  Smyrna 
and  Colophon  ?  Whether  above  or  below  their 
fame,  do  they  all  seem  poor  beside  the  Campus  and 
Tiber's  stream  ?  Or  is  your  heart  set  upon  one  of 
the  cities  of  Attalus  ? "  Or  do  you  extol  Lebedus, 
because  sick  of  sea  and  roads  ?  You  know  what 
Lebedus  is — a  town  more  desolate  than  Gabii  and 
Fidenae  :  yet  there  would  I  love  to  hve,  and  for- 
getting my  friends  and  by  them  forgotten,  gaze 
from  the  land  on  Neptune's  distant  rage.* 

Yet  he  who  travels  from  Capua  to  Rome,  though 
bespattered  Avith  rain  and  mud,  A^ill  not  want  to 
live  on  in  an  inn,  nor  does  he  who  has  caught  a  chill 
cry  up  stoves  and  baths  as  fully  furnishing  a  happy 
life.  And  so  you,  though  a  stiff  south  ^^•ind  has 
tossed  vou  on  the  deep,  will  not  on  that  account  sell 
your  ship  on  the  far  side  of  the  Aegean  Sea. 

^'  To  a  sound  man  Rhodes  or  fair  Mitylene  is  what 
a  heavy  cloak  is  in  summer,  an  athlete's  garb  when 
snowy  winds  are  blowing,  the  Tiber  in  winter,  a 
stove  in  the  month  of  August.      While  one  may,  and 

Brutus,   appealed   strongly  to  the  poet?    With   1.   10  ef. 

Lucretius,  ii.  If.: 

suave,  mari  magno  turbantibus  aequora  ventis, 
e  terra  magnum  alterius  spectare  laborem. 



dum  licet  ac  voltum  servat  Fortuna  benignum,        20 
Romae  laudetur  Samos  et  Chios  et  Rhodes  absens. 
tu  quamcumque  deus  tibi  fortunaverit  horam 
grata  sume  manu,  neu  dulcia  differ  in  annum  ; 
ut^  quocumque  loco  fueris  vixisse  libenter 
te  dicas.     nam  si  ratio  et  prudentia  curas,  25 

non  locus  efFusi  late  maris  arbiter  aufert, 
caelum,  non  animum,  mutant,  qui  trans  mare  currunt. 
strenua  nos  exercet  inertia  :  navibus  atque 
quadrigis  petimus  bene  vivere.     quod  petis  hie  est, 
est  Ulubris,  animus  si  te  non  deficit  aequus.  30 

1  tu  V,  II. 

"  Cf.  "patriae  quis  exsul  se  quoque  fugit?"    {fides  ii. 
16.  19). 


EPISTLES,  I.  XI.  20-30 

Fortune  keeps  a  smiling  face,  at  Rome  let  Samos 
be  praised,  and  Chios  and  Rhodes — though  far  away  ! 
And  you — whatever  hour  God  has  given  for  your 
weal,  take  it  with  grateful  hand,  nor  put  off  joys 
from  year  to  year  ;  so  that,  in  whatever  place  you 
have  been,  you  may  say  that  you  have  lived  happily. 
For  if  'tis  reason  and  wisdom  that  take  away  cares, 
and  not  a  site  commanding  a  \\-ide  expanse  of  sea, 
they  change  their  clime,  not  their  mind,  who  rush 
across  the  sea."  *Tis  a  busy  idleness  that  is  our  bane; 
■with  yachts  and  cars  we  seek  to  make  life  happy. 
What  you  are  seeking  is  here  ;  it  is  at  Ulubrae,^  if 
there  fail  you  not  a  mind  well  balanced. 

*  Ulubrae,  called  vacuae  by  Juvenal  (^Sat.  x.  101),  was 
a  decaying  town  in  the  Pomptine  marshes,  where  the  frogs 
were  very  clamorous  (Cicero,  Ad  Jam.  vii.  81). 




Horace  introduces  Grosphus  to  Iccius,  and  in  doing 
so  takes  occasion  to  rally  his  friend  on  his  discontent. 

Iccius,  whom  in  one  of  his  Odes  (i.  29)  Horace 
rallies  for  deserting  philosophy  to  take  part  in  a 
military  expedition  to  Arabia  Fehx,  has  now,  some 
five  years  later,  become  the  procurator  or  "  agent," 
who  had  charge  of  Agrippa's  estates  in  Sicily. 
Apparently  he  had  written  to  Horace,  grmnbling 
because  he  was  not  an  independent  landowner,  to 
which  Horace  rephes  that  the  agent  of  a  large  estate 
is  able  to  hve  on  the  produce  very  comfortably, 
inasmuch  as  it  is  all  at  his  disposal,  though  he  is  not 
the  actual  o\\Tier.  Then  in  a  somewhat  ironical 
vein  (12-20),  Horace  congratulates  his  friend  on 
being  able,  amid  all  his  business  cares,  to  study  the 
physics  of  Empedocles  and  the  dialectic  of  the  Stoics. 

The  letter  closes  with  some  bits  of  news,  preceded 
by  the  request  to  show  some  courtesy  to  Pompeius 
Grosphus,  whom  we  have  also  encountered  in  the 
Odes  (ii.  16),  where  he  is  spoken  of  as  a  wealthy 
proprietor  in  Sicily. 




Fructibus  Agrippae  Siculis,  quos  colligis,  Icci, 
si  recte  frueris,  non  est  ut  copia  maior 
ab  Jove  donari  possit  tibi.     tolle  querellas  : 
pauper  enim  non  est,  cui  rerum  suppetit  usus. 
si  ventri  bene,  si  lateri  est  pedibusque  tuis,  nil  6 

divitiae  poterunt  regales  addere  mains.   , 
si  forte  in  medio  positorum  abstemius  h^fbis^  •''' 
vivis  et  urtica,  sic  vives  protinus,  ut  te 
confestim  liquidus  Fortunae  rivus  inauret, 
vel  quia  naturam  mutare  pecunia  nescit,  10 

vel  quia  cuncta  putas  una  virtute  minora. 

Miramur,  si  Democriti  pecus  edit  agellos 
cultaque,  dum  peregre  est  animus  sine  corpore  velox  ; 
cum  tu  inter  scabiem  tantam  et  contagia  lucri 
nil  parvum  sapias  et  adhuc  sublimia  cures  :  15 

quae  mare  compescant  causae, quid  temperet^  annum, 
stellae  sponte  sua  iussaene  vagentur  et  errent, 
quid  premat  obscurum  lunae,  quid  proferat  orbem, 
quid  velit  et  possit  rerum  concordia  discors, 
Empedocles  an  Stertinium  deliret  acumen.  20 

Verum  seu  piscis  seu  porrum  et  caepe  trucidas, 

1  temperat,  II. 

■»  A  reference  to  the  main  principle  of  Empedocles' 
philosophy  that  the  life  of  the  world  is  due  to  a  perpetual 
conflict  of  the  two  principles  of  Love  and  Strife. 


Epistlb  XII 

If,  Iccius,  you  are  enjoying  as  you  should  the 
Sicilian  products  which  you  collect  for  Agrippa, 
Jupiter  himself  could  not  give  you  greater  abundance. 
Away  with  complaints  ;  for  he  is  not  poor,  who  has 
enough  of  things  to  use.  If  stomach,  lungs,  and 
feet  "are  all  in  health,  the  wealth  of  kings  can  give 
you  nothing  more.  If  haply  you  hold  aloof  from 
what  is  -within  your  reach,  and  live  on  nettles  and 
other  greens,  you  will  go  on  living  in  the  same  way, 
though  Fortune's  stream  suddenly  flood  you  with 
gold :  either  because  money  cannot  change  your 
nature,  or  because  you  count  all  else  below  the  one 
thing,  virtue. 

^  We  marvel  that  the  herds  of  Democritus  ate 
up  his  meadows  and  corn-fields,  while  his  swift  mind 
wandered  abroad  without  his  body ;  though  you,  in 
the  very  midst  of  the  contagious  itch  of  gain,  still 
have  a  taste  far  from  mean,  still  set  your  thoughts 
on  lofty  themes  :  what  causes  hold  the  sea  in  check, 
what  rules  the  year,  whether  stars  roam  at  large  of 
their  own  \\ill  or  by  law,  what  hides  the  moon's  disk 
in  darkness,  what  brings  it  into  light,  what  is  the 
meaning  and  what  the  effects  of  Nature's  jarring 
harmony ,<»  whether  Empedocles  is  doting  or  subtle 

*"■  However,  whether  it  is  fish,  or  only  leeks  and 



utere  Pompeio  Grospho  et,  si  quid  petet,  ultro 
defer  ;  nil  Grosphus  nisi  varum  orabit  et  aequum. 
vilis  amicorum  est  annona,  bonis  ubi  quid  deest. 

Ne  tamen  ignores,  quo  sit  Romana  loco  res,  25 

Cantaber  Agrippae,  Claudi  virtute  Neronis 
Armenius  cecidit  ;  ius  imperiumque  Phraates 
Caesaris  accepit  genibus  minor  ^.—smrea  fruges 
Italiae  pleno  defudit^Copia  cornu. 

1  defudit  uss.  :  defiindit  VA^. 

"  According  to  the  scholiast,  fish  are  here  mentioned  as 
costly  fare  in  contrast  to  a  simple  diet.  In  trucidas,  however, 
Horace  makes  a  humorous  allusion  to  the  Pythagoreans, 
whom  Empedocles  followed  in  regard  to  the  doctrine  of 
transmigration  of  souls,  for  he  asserted  that  he  himself  had 
once  been  a  fish  {eiv  a\l  ^Woiros  Ixdi^'s,  Fr.  11  Miill.).  To 
eat  a  fish,  therefore,  might  mean  murder.  This  ban  on 
living  things  was  extended  even  to  vegetables,  cf.  Sat.  ii.  6. 
63  above,  and  Juvenal's  well-known  verse 


EPISTLES,  I.  xii.  22-29 

onions  that  you  butcher,"  receive  Pompeius  Grosphus 
as  a  friend,  and  if  he  asks  aught  of  you,  give  it  freely: 
Grosphus  will  sue  for  nothing  but  what  is  right  and 
fair.  The  market-price  of  friends  is  low,  when  good 
men  are  in  need. 

^  Yet,  that  you  may  not  be  ignorant  how  the 
world  wags  in  Rome,  the  Cantabrian  has  fallen  before 
the  valour  of  Agrippa,  the  Armenian  before  that  of 
Claudius  Nero.  Phraates,  on  humbled  knees,  has 
accepted  Caesar's  imperial  sway.*  Golden  Plenty 
from  full  horn  has  poured  her  fruits  upon  Italy. 

porrum  et  caepe  nefas  violare  et  frangere  morsu 

(15.  9),  with  Mayor's  note. 

*  The  Cantabrians  were  conquered  by  Agrippa  in  19  b.c, 
shortly  after  Armenia  had  submitted  to  Tiberius.  In 
connexion  with  the  latter  event,  Phraates,  the  Parthian 
king,  restored  the  Roman  standards  taken  long  before  from 
Crassus  at  Carrhae. 




Horace  is  sending  Augustus  a  copy  of  his  poems, 
probably  the  Odes,  Books  i.,  ii.,  iii.,  which  were 
pubhshed  in  23  B.C.  The  volume  is  carried  to  court 
by  a  messenger,  one  Vinius,  whose  cognomen  is  pre- 
sumably Asina  (1.  8),  though  the  usual  form  of  the 
name  is  Asellus. 

Instead  of  writing  a  formal  note  to  the  Emperor 
to  accompany  the  gift,  Horace  indulges  in  the  fiction 
of  sending  a  letter  of  instructions  to  the  messenger, 
in  which  he  humorously  expresses  his  anxiety  about 
the  reception  of  the  poems. 



Ut  proficiscentem  docui  te  saepe  diuque, 
Augusto  reddes  signata  volumina,  Vini,^ 
si  validus,  si  laetus  erit,  si  denique  poscet ; 
ne  studio  nostri  pecces  odiumque  libellis 
sedulus  importes  opera  vehemente  minister.  5 

si  te  forte  meae  gravis  uret^  sarcina  chartae, 
abicito  potius,  quam  quo  perferre  iuberis 
clitellas  ferus  impingas,  Asinaeque  paternum 
cognomen  vertas  in  risum  et  fabula  fias. 

Viribus  uteris  per  clivos,  flumina,  lamas.  10 

victor  propositi  simul  ac  perveneris  illuc, 
sic  positum  servabis  onus,  ne  forte  sub  ala 
fasciculum  portes  librorum  ut  rusticus  agnum, 
ut  vinosa  glomus^  furtivae  Pyrria  lanae, 
ut  cum  pilleolo  soleas  conviva  tribulis.  15 

neu*  volgo  narres  te  sudavisse  ferendo 
carmina,  quae  possint  oculos  aurisque  morari 
Caesaris.     oratus  multa  prece,  nitere  porro. 
vade  ;  vale  ;  cave  ne  titubes  mandataque  frangas. 

1  vinni  or  venni  mss.  {but  inscriptions  favour  the  form 
Vinius).  ^  urit  E  :  urat  Priscian. 

3  glomes  (f>\/y\l.  *  neu  a  :  nee  E :  ne,  //. 

"  i.e.  the  books.  Tliese,  of  course,  could  not  be  heavy  in 
themselves,  though  they  might  make  "  heavy  reading." 

"  This  is  said  to  be  an  allusion  to  a  scene  in  one  of  the 
plays  of  Titinius. 

"  The  tribulis,  a  humble  man  whom  for  political  purposes 
a  richer  member  of  the  same  tribe  has  invited  to  dinner,  has 


Epistle  XIII 

As  I  instructed  you  often  and  at  length,  when  you 
set  out,  Vinius,  you  will  deliver  these  close-sealed  rolls 
to  Augustus,  if  he's  well,  if  he's  in  good  spirits,  ij"— 
in  fine — he  asks  for  them  ;  lest  you  blunder  in  your 
eagerness  for  me,  and  by  officious  service  and  ex- 
cessive zeal  bring  resentment  on  my  poor  works. 
If  haply  my  book's  burden  gall  you  with  its  weight, 
fling  it  from  you,  rather  than  savagely  dash  down 
vour  pack  "  where  you  are  bidden  to  deliver  it,  and 
turn  your  father's  name  of  Asina  into  a  jest,  and 
you  become  the  talk  of  the  town. 

Put  forth  your  strength  over  hills,  streams,  and 
fens  ;  when  once  you  have  achieved  your  purpose 
and  reached  your  journey's  end,  you  are  to  keep 
vour  burden  so  placed  as  not,  for  instance,  to  carry 
the  Uttle  packet  of  books  under  your  armpit,  even 
as  a  bumpkin  carries  a  lamb,  as  tipsy  Pyrria  a  ball 
of  stolen  wool,''  as  a  poor  tribesman  his  slippers  and 
felt  cap,  when  asked  out  to  dinner.*  And  mind  you 
don't  tell  all  the  world  that  you  have  sweated  in 
carrying  verses  that  may  win  a  hold  on  the  eyes  and 
ears  of  Caesar.  Though  besought  by  many  a  plea,"^ 
press  on.  Be  off ;  fare  well  ;  take  care  you  do  not 
stiunble  and  smash  your  precious  charge. 

no  slave  to  take  his  cap  and  sandals,  which  he  would  need 
coming  and  going,  though  not  in  the  dining-room. 
•^  i.e.  by  inquisitive  people. 




This  epistle  is  professedly  addressed  to  the  slave, 
whom  the  poet  had  promoted  from  low  rank  in  his 
town  establishment  to  the  position  of  bailiff  or 
superintendent  of  his  small  country  estate.  The 
slave  now  hankers  after  city  life,  while  the  master, 
detained  in  Rome  by  a  friend's  bereavement,  longs 
for  the  country,  which  he  has  always  preferred.  The 
difference  between  the  two  is  due  to  their  tastes. 
The  slave  still  clings  to  his  follies  ;  the  master  has 
learned  wisdom  with  advancing  years. 

The  theme  is  essentially  the  same  as  in  Epistles 
viii.  and  x.  of  this  book,  while  the  setting  of  the 
letter  is  in  marked  contrast  with  Sat.  ii.  7,  where  it 
is  the  slave  who  lectures  the  master. 



Vilice  silvarum  et  milii  me  reddentis  agelli, 
quern  tu  fastidis,  habitatum  quinque  focis  et 
quinque  bonos  solitum  Variam  dimittere  patres, 
certemus,  spinas  animone  ego  fortius  an  tu 
evellas  agro,  et  melior  sit  Horatius  an  res.  8 

Me  quamvis  Lamiae  pietas  et  cura  moratur, 
fratrem  maerentis,  rapto  de  fratre  dolentis 
insolabiliter,  tamen  istue  mens  animusque 
fert  et  amat  spatiis  obstantia  rumpere  claustra. 
rure  ego  viventem,  tu  dicis  in  urbe  beatum.  10 

cui  placet  alterius,  sua  nimirum  est  odio  sors.^ 
stultus  uterque  locum  immeritum  causatur  inique  : 
in  culpa  est  animus,  qui  se  non  efFugit  umquam. 

Tu  mediastinus  tacita  prece  rura  petebas, 
nunc  urbem  et  ludos  et  balnea  vilicus  optas  :  15 

me  constare  mihi  scis  et  discedere  tristem 
quandocumque  trahunt  invisa  negotia  Romam. 
non  eadem  miramur  ;   eo  disconvenit  inter 
meque  et  te.     nam  quae^  deserta  et  inhospita  tesqua 
credis,  amoena  vocat  mecum  qui  sentit,  et  odit        20 

^  res  E.  *  quae  E,  II :  qua  Va. 

"  These  were  probably  coloni,  who  held  their  land  in 
lease  under  Horace.  They  would  go  to  Varia  (now  Vico- 
varo)  to  market  and  for  local  elections. 

*  Cf.  Epist.  i.  ii.  27  and  Odes  ii.  16.  19. 


Epistle  XIV 

Bailiff  of  my  woods  and  of  the  little  farm  which 
makes  me  myself  again  —  while  you  disdain  it, 
though  the  home  of  five  households  and  wont  to 
send  to  Varia  their  five  honest  heads " — let  us 
have  a  match  to  see  whether  I  more  stoutly 
root  out  thorns  from  the  mind  or  you  from  the 
land,  and  whether  Horace  or  his  farm  is  in  a  better 

^  For  me,  though  kept  here  by  the  love  and 
grief  of  Lamia,  who  is  sighing  for  his  brother, 
grieving  for  his  lost  brother  inconsolably,  yet  thither 
thought  and  feehng  bear  me  longing  to  burst  the 
barriers  that  block  the  track.  I  call  him  happy 
who  hves  in  the  country  ;  you  him  who  dwells  in 
the  city.  One  who  likes  another's  lot,  of  course 
dislikes  his  o\\ti.  Each  is  foohsh  and  unfairly  blames 
the  undeserving  place  ;  what  is  at  fault  is  the  mind, 
which  never  escapes  from  itself.* 

^*  You,  as  a  common  drudge,  used  to  sigh  in  secret 
for  the  country ;  now  as  a  bailiff  you  long  for  the 
town,  its  games  and  baths :  as  for  me,  you  know 
that  I'm  consistent  with  myself,  and  depart  in  gloom, 
whenever  hateful  business  drags  me  to  Rome,  Our 
tastes  are  not  the  same  :  therein  lies  the  difference 
between  you  and  me.  What  you  hold  to  be  desert  and 
inhospitable  wilds,  he  who  shares  my  views  calls 



quae  tu  pulchra  putas.     fornix  tibi  et  uncta  popina 

incutiunt  urbis  desiderium,  video,  et  quod 

angulus  iste  feret  piper  et  tus  oeius  uva, 

nee  vicina  subest  vinum  praebere  taberna 

quae  possit^  tibi,  nee  meretrix  tibicina,  cuius  25 

ad  strepitum  salias  terrae  gravis  ;   et  tamen  urges 

iampridem  non  tacta  ligonibus  arva  bovemque 

disiunctum  curas  et  strictis  frondibus  exples  ; 

addit  opus  pigro  rivus,  si  decidit  imber, 

multa  mole  docendus  aprico  parcere  prato.  30 

Nunc  age,  quid  nostrum  concentum^  dividat  audi, 
quern  tenues  decuere  togae  nitidique  capilli, 
quern  scis  immunem  Cinarae  placuisse  rapaci, 
quem  bibulum  liquidi  media  de  luce  Falerni, 
cena  brevis  iuvat  et  prope  rivum  somnus  in  herba  ;   35 
nee  lusisse  pudet,  sed  non  incidere  ludum. 
non  istic  obliquo  oculo  mea  commoda  quisquam 
limat,  non  odio  obscuro  morsuque  venenat : 
rident  vicini  glaebas  et  saxa  moventem. 
cum  servis  urbana  diaria^  rodere  mavis  ;  40 

horum  tu  in  numerum  voto  ruis  ;  invidet  usum 
lignorum  et  pecoris  tibi  calo  argutus  et  horti. 
optat  ephippia  bos,  piger  optat  arare  caballus. 
quam  scit  uterque  libens  censebo  exerceat  artem. 

^  possit  E,  II :  posset  aR. 
*  consensum  E.  '  cibaria  R  Goth. 

"  In  the  mouth  of  the  baihff,  angulus  is  a  term  of  con- 
tempt. The  same  expression,  however,  is  used  elsewhere 
by  Horace  of  a  place  unique  in  his  affections,  "  ille  terrarum 
mihi  praeter  omnis  angulus  ridet  "  {Odes  ii.  6.  13). 

*  i.e.  although  you  have  no  pleasures.  From  1.  22  to 
1.  30  Horace  repeats  some  of  the  grumbling  remarks  of 
the  bailiff. 


EPISTLES,  I.  XIV.  21-44 

lovely,  and  hates  what  you  believe  so  beautiful.  Tis 
the  brothel,  I  see,  and  greasy  cookshop  that  stir  in 
you  a  longing  for  the  city,  and  the  fact  that  that 
poky  spot"  will  grow  pepper  and  spice  as  soon  as 
grapes,  and  that  there  is  no  tavern  hard  by  that 
can  supply  you  with  wine  and  no  flute-playing  cour- 
tesan, to  whose  strains  you  can  dance  and  thump 
the  ground.  And  yet  *  you  toil  over  fields  long 
untouched  by  the  hoe,  you  care  for  the  ox  after  he 
is  unyoked,  and  you  fill  him  up  with  fodder  you  have 
stripped  ;  when  you  are  dead  tired,  the  brook  brings 
fresh  work,  for  if  rain  has  fallen,  it  must  be  taught 
by  many  a  mounded  dam  to  spare  the  sunny  meadow. 
^  Now  come,  hear  what  makes  the  discord  in  our 
common  song.  One  whom  fine-spun  clothes  became, 
and  shining  locks,  one  who,  as  you  know,  though 
empty-handed,  found  favour  with  greedy  Cinara,  and 
in  midday  hours  would  drink  the  clear  Falernian, 
now  takes  pleasure  in  a  simple  meal,  and  a  nap  on 
the  grass  beside  the  stream  :  nor  is  it  shameful  to 
have  once  been  foohsh,  but  not  to  cut  folly  short. 
WTaere  you  hve,  no  one  with  eye  askance  detracts 
from  "  my  comforts,  or  poisons  them  vriih  the  bite 
of  secret  hate.  As  I  move  sods  and  stones  the 
neighbours  laugh.  You  would  rather  be  munching 
rations  with  the  slaves  in  to\^Ti  ;  it  is  their  number 
you  fain  would  join  :  my  sharp-witted  groom  envies 
you  the  use  of  fuel,  flock,  and  garden.  The  ox  longs 
for  the  horse's  trappings  :  the  horse,  when  lazy, 
longs  to  plough.  What  I  shall  advise  is  that  each 
contentedly  practise  the  trade  he  understands. 

*  The  verb  limat  (lit.  "  files  away  "),  as  used  with  obliquo 
oculo,  involves  a  play  upon  limU  oculis  {cf.  Sat.  ii.  5.  53). 




Ordered  by  his  physician  to  take  the  cold-water 
cure,  Horace  writes  to  his  friend  Vala  for  information 
about  two  seaside  places,  Veha  and  Salernum, 
especially  as  to  the  climate,  people,  drinking  water, 
game,  and  fish.  As  such  an  interest  in  personal 
luxuries  may  seem  quite  inconsistent  with  doctrines 
he  has  often  preached,  Horace  humorously  admits 
that  he  is  hke  the  well-kRo^vn  Maenius,  who  would 
loudly  proclaim  the  blessings  of  a  simple  life,  but,  if 
he  had  the  chance,  would  indulge  his  appetite  to  the 

The  opening  paragraph  (1-25)  is  loosely  framed,  with 
lengthy  parentheses,  giving  an  air  of  careless  freedom 
of  style,  after  the  fashion  of  conversation  in  real  life. 
Numonius  Vala,  who  had  a  country  house  in  southern 
Italy,  belonged  to  a  family  of  some  distinction  in 
Lucania,  as  is  evidenced  by  coins  and  inscriptions. 



Quae  sit  hiems  Veliae,  quod  caelum,  Vala,  Salemi, 
quorum  hominum  regio  et  qualis  via  (nam  mihi  Baias 
Musa  supervacuas  Antonius,  et  tamen  illis 
me  facit  invisum,  gelida  cumi  perluor  unda 
per  mediumi  frigus.     sane  murteta  relinqui  5 

dictaque  cessantem  nervis  elidere  morbum 
sulfura  contemni  vicus  gemit,  invidus  aegris, 
qui  caput  et  stomachum  supponere  fontibus  audent 
Clusinis^  Gabiosque  petunt  et  frigida  rura. 
mutandus  locus  est  et  deversoria^  nota  10 

praeteragendus  equus.  "quo  tendis ?  non  mihi  Cumas 
est  iter  aut  Baias,"  laeva  stomachosus  habena 
dicet^  eques  ;   sed  equi  frenato*  est  auris  in  ore) ; 
malor  utrum  populum  frumenti  copia  pascat ; 
collectosne  bibant  imbres  puteosne  perennis  16 

iugis^  aquae  (nam  vina  nihil  moror  illius  orae : 
rure  meo  possum  quidvis  perferre  patique  ; 
ad  mare  cum  veni,  generosum  et  lene  requiro, 
quod  curas  abigat,  quod  cum  spe  divite  manet 
in  venas  animumque  meum,  quod  verba  ministret,    20 
quod  me  Lucanae  iuvenem  commendet^  amicae)  ; 

^  Clusinos  VE.  *  diversoria  EJR<pf. 

'  dicit  E.  *  equis  frenato  w. 

'  dulcis  VE.  *  commendat  aB. 

"  Baiae  was  famous  for  its  hot  sulphur  baths,  but  Musa 
has  prescribed  the  cold-water  treatment,  which  is  not  to  be 
had  there. 

Epistle  XV 

'V^Tiat's  the  winter  like,  my  Vala,  at  Velia,  what's 
the  climate  at  Salernum,  what  sort  of  people  hve 
there,  what  kind  of  road  is  it — for  Antonius  Musa 
makes  Baiae  useless  to  me,  and  yet "  puts  me  in  ill 
favour  there,  now  that  in  midwinter  I  drench  myself 
in  cold  water.  Of  course  the  town  murmurs  at  its 
myrtle-groves  being  deserted,  and  its  sulphur  baths 
despised,  so  famous  for  dri\-ing  a  hngering  disorder 
from  the  sinews,  and  takes  offence  at  invahds  who 
dare  to  plunge  head  and  stomach  under  the  showers 
from  Clusium's  springs,  or  who  repair  to  Gabii  and 
its  cold  country-side.  I  must  change  my  resort,  and 
drive  my  horse  past  the  familiar  lodgings.  "  \Miere 
are  rou  going  ?  I'm  not  bound  for  Cumae  or  Baiae  "  ; 
so  will  the  rider  say  as  he  tugs  in  anger  at  the  left 
rein — but  the  horse's  ear  is  in  its  bridled  mouth* 
— which  town  has  the  better  supply  of  food,  do  they 
drink  rain-water  from  tanks,  or  have  they  spring- 
water,  welhng  forth  all  the  year — (for  that  region's 
^^^nes  I  put  out  of  court :  in  my  country  home  I 
can  stand  and  suffer  anything  ;  but  when  I  go  to 
the  seaside  I  need  something  generous  and  mellow, 
to  drive  care  awav,  to  flow  with  rich  hope  into  veins 
and  heart,  to  find  me  a  flow  of  words,  and  to  give  me 
the  grace  of  youth  with  the  ladies  of  Lucania) — 

*  The  rider  might  have  spared  his  words,  for  the  horse 
is  guided  only  by  the  bit. 



tractus  uter  pluris  lepores,  uter  educet  apros ; 
utra  magis  piscis  et  echinos  aequora  celent, 
pinguis  ut  inde  domum  possim  Phaeaxque  reverti, 
scribere  te  nobis,  tibi  nos  accredere  par  est.  25 

^Maenius,  ut  rebus  maternis  atque  paternis 
fortiter  absumptis  urbanus  coepit  haberi 
scurra  vagus,  non  qui  certum  praesepe  teneret, 
impransus  non  qui  civem  dinosceret  hoste, 
quaelibet  in  quemvis  opprobria  fingere  saevus,^       30 
pernicies  et  tempestas  barathrumque  macelli, 
quidquid  quaesierat,  ventri  donabat^  avaro. 
hie  ubi  nequitiae  fautoribus  et  timidis  nil 
aut  paulum  abstulerat,  patinas  cenabat  omasi, 
vilis  et  agninae,*  tribus  ursis  quod  satis  esset ;  35 

scilicet  ut  ventres  lamna  candente  nepotum 
diceret  urendos  correctus^  Bestius.     idem, 
quidquid  erat  nactus  praedae  maioris,  ubi  onine 
verterat^  in  fumum  et  cinerem,  "  non  hercule  miror," 
aiebat,  "  si  qui  comedunt  bona,  cum  sit  obeso  40 

nil  melius  turdo,  nil  vulva  pulchrius  ampla." 

Nimirum  hie  ego  sum.     nam  tuta  et  parvola  laudo, 
cum  res  deficiunt,  satis  inter  vilia  fortis'  : 
varum  ubi  quid  melius  contingit  et  unctius,  idem 
vos  sapere  et  solos  aio^  bene  vivere,  quorum  45 

conspicitur  nitidis  fundata  pecunia  villis.^ 

^  Here  a  new  Epistle  begins  in  all  important  Mss.  except  a. 

^  certus  two  Bland. 

*  donarat  V,  II :  donaret  Bentley.  *  agnini  oX. 

'  correptus  ER :  corrector  Lambimis.  *  verteret  E. 

'  In  a  11.  43-4:4.  follow  39  ;  in  w  they  follow  38. 

*  alio  (f>\p.  *  vallis  (j>\l/. 

"  As  if  he  were  one  of  the  Alcinoi  inventus  of  Epist, 
i.  2.  28. 

**  The  language  is  Plautine.  Where  food  was  concerned, 
he  swept  everything  before  him. 


EPISTLES,  I.  XV.  22-46 

which  country  rears  more  hares,  which,  more  boars, 
which  one's  seas  give  more  hiding  to  fish  and  sea- 
urchins,  so  that  I  may  return  home  from  there  a  fat 
Phaeacian  " — all  this  you  must  write  us,  and  we  must 
credit  you  in  full. 

2*  Maenius  gallantly  used  up  all  his  mother  and 
father  had  left  him,  then  came  into  note  as  a  city  wit, 
a  parasite  at  large,  with  no  fixed  fold,  a  man  who 
when  dinnerless  knew  not  friend  apart  from  foe,  but 
would  savagely  trump  up  scandal  against  anybody, 
the  market's  ruin,  a  cyclone  and  abyss  ''—and  so, 
whatever  he  gained,  he  gave  to  his  greedy  maw. 
This  fellow,  whenever  he  got  little  or  nothing  from 
those  who  applauded  or  feared  his  wicked  wit,  would 
sup  on  plates  of  tripe  and  cheap  lamb,  enough  to 
satisfy  three  bears,  so  as  actually  to  proclaim  that 
prodigals  should  have  their  bellies  branded  with 
white-hot  iron — he,  a  Bestius  reformed  ! "  Yet  the 
same  man,  if  he  ever  got  hold  of  some  larger  booty, 
would  turn  it  into  smoke  and  ashes,  and  then,  "  In 
faith,  I  don't  wonder,"  he  would  say,  "  if  some  devour 
their  substance,  since  there  is  nothing  better  than  a 
fat  thrush,  nothing  finer  than  a  large  sow's  paunch." 

*2  Such  a  man,  in  truth,  am  I.  When  means  fail, 
I  crv  up  a  safe  and  lowly  lot,  resolute  enough  where 
all  is  paltry  :  but  when  something  better  and  richer 
comes  my  way  I,  the  same  man,  say  that  only  men 
Uke  you  are  wise  and  b've  welH — whose  invested 
wealth  is  displayed  in  handsome  villas. 

'  Nothing  is  known  about  Be&tius,  but  he  may  well  have 
been  what  Slaenius  was,  a  figure  in  Lucilius.  According  to 
Acron,  he  was  severely  frugal.  Presumably  he  had  been  a 
spendthrift  in  earlier  life^  The  corrector  of  Lambinus  would 
give  good  sense,  Bestius  being  an  example  of  the  rake  in  the 
pulpit.  **  For  bene  vivere  cf.  Epist.  i.  6.  56;  i.  11.  29. 



The  Quinctius  addressed  may  be  Quinctius  Hirpinus 
of  Odes  ii.  11.  He  is  evidently  a  prominent  man 
(1.  18),  who  is  perhaps  in  pubhc  office  (11.  33.  34), 
but  nothing  definite  is  known  about  him.  The 
Epistle  is  the  poet's  commentary  on  the  second  Stoic 
paradox,  on  avrapKi^'i  rj  aper^  tt/jos  evSaifiovLav  (Cic. 
Parad.  2). 

To  save  you  the  trouble  of  asking  about  the 
products  of  my  estate,  my  dear  Quinctius,  let  me 
describe  it  to  you.  It  lies  in  a  valley  among  the 
hills,  gets  plenty  of  sun,  has  a  good  climate,  grows 
an  abundance  of  wild  fruit  and  foliage,  and  possesses 
a  copious  spring  of  fresh  water.  In  this  charming 
retreat  I  enjoy  good  health  even  in  the  worst  season 
of  the  year  (1-16). 

And  now  about  yourself.  Are  you  really  the  good 
and  happy  man  that  people  think  you  are  ?  Re- 
member that  popular  applause  is  fickle,  and  often 
insincere,  and  that  those  who  give  titles  can  also 
take  them  away  (17-40). 

Well,  who  is  the  "  good  "  man  ?  The  world  will 
answer  that  it  is  he  who  keeps  the  laws,  whose  word 
is  a  bond  and  whose  testimony  is  trusted,  but  those 
who  live  near  him  may  know  better.     Such  a  man, 


EPISTLES,  I.  xvi. 

eager  to  seem  good,  but  not  to  be  good,  may  be  no 
better  than  the  slave,  wlio  refrains  from  steahng 
merely  from  fear  of  being  found  out  (40-62). 

The  man  who  has  set  his  heart  on  money  is  a 
creature  of  desires  and  fears.  He  is  a  deserter  from 
the  cause  of  Virtue,  You  might  treat  him  as  a 
prisoner  or  put  him  to  death,  yet  he  may  make  a 
useful  slave  (63-72). 

No,  the  truly  good  and  M-ise  man  will  be  as  fearless 
and  independent  as  Dionysus  in  the  play,  for  no 
misfortunes — not  death  itself — can  daunt  him  (7.S-79). 



Ne  perconteris,  fundus  meus,  optime  Quincti, 
arvo  pascat  erum  an  bacis  opulentet  olivae, 
pomisne  an  pratis^  an  amicta^  vitibus  ulmo, 
scribetur  tibi  forma  loquaciter  et  situs  agri. 

Continui  montes,  ni^  dissocientur  opaca  5 

valle,  sed  ut  veniens  dextrum  latus  aspiciat  sol, 
laevum  discedens^  curru^  fugiente  vaporet. 
temperiem  laudes.     quid  si''  rubicunda  benigni' 
coma  vepres  et  pruna  ferant  ?     si*  quercus  et  ilex 
multa  fruge  pecus,  multa  dominum  iuvet  umbra  ?  10 
dicas  adductum  propius  frondere  Tarentum. 
fons  etiam  rivo  dare  nomen  idoneus,  ut  nee 
frigidior  Thracam  nee  purior  ambiat  Hebrus, 
infirmo  capiti  fluit  utilis,  utilis^  alvo. 
hae  latebrae  dulces,  etiam,  si  credis,  amoenae,         15 
incolumem  tibi  me  praestant  Septembribus  horis. 

^  an  pratis  E  Goth. :   et  pratis  most  usa. 
'  arnica  E. 

*  si  aE  (sci  A^).  The  lemma  of  Porph.  gives  si  but  the 
note  supports  ni. 

*  descendens  tt  :  decedens  Bentley.  '  cursu  V. 

*  quod  si  a.  '  benignae. 
^  si  omitted  by  a;  et  {/or  si)  w. 

'  aptus  et  utilis  A^Iiw^). 

"  Ancient  iiusbandry  was  chiefly  concerned  v.ith  five 
products,  viz.  grain,  oil,  fruit,  cattle,  and  wine. 

"  i.e.  the  valley  of  the  Digentia  (see  Epist.  i.  18.  104), 

Epistle  XVI 

Lest  you,  my  good  Quinctius,  should  have  to  ask 
me  about  my  farm,  whether  it  supports  its  master 
with  plough-land,  or  makes  him  rich  with  oUves, 
whether  with  apples  or  with  meadows  or  vine-clad 
ehns,*  I  will  describe  for  you  in  rambling  style  the 
nature  and  he  of  the  land. 

*  There  are  hills,  quite  unbroken,  were  they  not 
cleft  by  one  shady  valley,*  yet  such  that  the  rising 
sun  looks  on  its  right  side,  and  when  departing  in  his 
flying  car  warms  the  left.  The  climate  would  win 
your  praise..  Wliat  if  you  knew  that  the  bushes  bear- 
a  rich  crop  of  ruddy  cornels  and  plums,  that  oak 
and  ilex  gladden  the  cattle  with  plenteous  fruitage, 
and  their  lord  with  plenteous  shade  ?  You  would 
say  that  Tarentum  ^\ith  its  verdure  was  brought 
nearer  home.  A  spring,  too,  fit  to  give  its  name 
to  a  river,  so  that  not  cooler  nor  purer  is  Hebrus 
winding  through  Thrace,  flows  with  heahng  for  sickly 
heads  and  sickly  stomaclis.  This  retreat,  so  sweet 
— yes,  believe  me,  so  bewitching — keeps  me,  my 
friend,  in  sound  health  in  September's  heat. 

now  called  Licenza.  Kiessling  prefers  the  rival  reading 
si  dlssocientur,  with  temperiem  lavdes  the  main  clause  in  a 
conditional  sentence,  meaning  :  "  if  you  picture  a  mass  of 
hills  broken  by  a  valley,  you  may  imagine  how  pleasant 
the  climate  is." 



Tu  recte  vivis,  si  curas  esse  quod  audis. 
iactamus  iam  pridera  omnis  te  Roma  beatum  ; 
sed  vereor  ne  cui  de  te  plus  quam  tibi  credas, 
neve  putes  alium  sapiente  bonoque  beatum,  20 

neu,  si  te  populus  sanum  recteque  valentem 
dictitet,  occultam  febrem  sub  tempus^  edendi 
dissimules,  donee  manibus  tremor  incidat  unctis. 
stultorum  ineurata  pudor  malus  ulcera  eclat. 

Si  quis  bella  tibi  terra  pugnata  marique  25 

dicat  et  his  verbis  vacuas  permulceat  auris  : 
"  tene  magis  salvum  populus  velit  an  populum  tu, 
servet  in  ambiguo,  qui  consulit  et  tibi  et  urbi, 
luppiter,"  Augusti  laudes  agnoseere  possis  : 
cum  pateris^  sapiens  emendatusque  vocari,  30 

respondesne  tuo,  die  sodcs,  nomine  ?     "  nempe 
vir  bonus  et  prudens  dici  delector  ego  ac  tu." 
qui  dedit  hoc  hodie,  eras,  si  volet,  auferet,  ut^  si 
detulerit  fasces  indigno,  detrahet*  idem. 
"  pone,  meum  est  "  inquit :  pono  tristisque  recedo.  35 
idem  si  clamet  furem,  neget  esse  pudicum, 
contendat  laqueo  collum  pressisse  paternum, 
mordear  opprobriis  falsis  mutemque  colores  ? 
falsus  honor  iuvat  et  mendax  infamia  terret 
quem  nisi  mendosum  et  medicandum^  ? 

^  pectus  aRir. 

*  pateris  Porph.  :  poteris  aR  :  cupias  E. 

s  aut.  *  detrahati?. 

^  mendicandum  lir  :  mendacem  Ma  (corrected). 

"  The  ancients  ate  with  their  fingers. 

^  According  to  the  scholiasts  the  verses  cited  are  from 
the  "  Panegyric  on  Augustus  "  by  Varius,  Virgil's  great 

EPISTLES,  I.  XVI.  17^0 

"  And  you — you  live  the  true  life,  if  you  take 
care  to  be  what  people  call  you.  All  we  in  Rome 
have  long  talked  of  you  as  happy  ;  but  I  fear,  as 
touching  yourself,  that  you  may  give  more  credit  to 
others  than  to  your  own  judgement,  or  that  you  may 
think  someone  other  than  the  wise  and  good  man 
can  be  happy  ;  or  that,  if  over  and  over  men  say 
YOU  are  in  sound  and  good  health,  you  may,  toward 
the  dinner-hour,  disguise  the  hidden  fever,  until  a 
trembling  falls  upon  your  greasy  hands."  Fools, 
through  false  shame,  hide  the  unhealed  sore. 

25  Suppose  a  man  were  to  speak  of  wars  fought  by 
you  on  land  and  sea,  and  with  words  hke  these  flatter 
your  attentive  ears  : 

May  He,  to  whom  both  thou  and  Rome  are  dear. 
Keep  secret  still,  which  is  the  fuller  truth. 
The  love  of  Rome  for  thee,  or  thine  for  her  ! 

vou  would  see  in  them  the  praises  of  Augustus.* 
Wlien  you  suffer  yourself  to  be  called  wise  and 
flawless,  do  you  answer,  pray  tell  me,  in  your  own 
name  ?  "  To  be  sure,  I  hke  to  be  called  a  good 
man  and  •^^•ise,  even  as  you  do."  But  they  who  gave 
vou  this  title  to-day  will,  if  they  so  please,  take  it 
away  to-morrow  ;  even  as,  if  they  bestow  the  hctor's 
rods  on  one  unworthy,  they  will  hkewise  vn-est  them 
from  him. ,  "  Put  that  down,  'tis  ours,"  they  say.  I 
do  so,  and  sadly  withdraw.  If  the  same  people  were 
to  cry  after  me  "Thief!",  call  me  "Profligate," 
insist  that  I  strangled  my  father,  ought  I  to  be  stung 
by  such  lying  charges,  and  change  colour  ?  WTiom 
does  false  honour  delight,  whom  does  lying  calumny 
affright,  save  the  man  who  is  full  of  flaws  and  needs 
the  doctor  ? 

2a  353 


Vir  bonus  est  qiiis  ?     40 
"  qui  consulta  patrum,  qui  leges  iuraque  servat, 
quo  multae  magnaeque  secantur  iudice  lites, 
quo  res  sponsored  et  quo  causae  teste  tenentur." 
sed  videt  hunc  omnis  domus  et  vicinia  tota 
introrsum^  turpem,  speeiosum  pelle  decora.  45 

"  nee  furtum  feci  nee  fugi,"  si  mihi  dicat^ 
servus,  "  habes  pretium,  loris  non  ureris,"  aio. 
"  non  hominem  occidi " :  "  non  pasces  in  cruce  corvos." 
"  sum  bonus  et  frugi  "  :  renuit  negitatque^  Sabellus. 
cautus  enim  metuit  foveam  lupus  accipiterque         60 
suspectos^  laqueos  et  opertum  niiluus  hamum. 
oderunt  peccare  boni  virtutis  amore. 
tu  nihil  admittes  in  te  formidine  poenae  : 
sit  spes  fallendi,  miscebis  sacra  profanis,--'' 
nam  de  mille  fabae  modiis  cum  surripis  unum,         55 
damnum  est,  non  facinus,  mihi  pacto  lenius  isto. 
vir  bonus,  omne  forum  quern  spectat  et  omne  tribunal, 
quandocumque  deos  vel  porco  vel  bove  placat, 
"  lane  pater  !  "  clare,  clare  cum  dixit,  "  Apollo !  " 
labra  movet  metuens  audiri  :   "  pulchra  Laverna,    60 
da  mihi  fallere,  da  iusto  sanctoque®  videri, 
noctem  peccatis  et  fraudibus  obice  nubem," 

Qui  melior  servo,  qui'  liberior  sit  avarus, 
in  triviis  fixum  cum  se  demittit^  ob  assem, 

*  res  sponsore  V:  responsore  mss. 

*  introrsiis  tt"  :  hunc  prorsus,  II.  *  dicit. 

*  negitatque  VE  :  negat  atque  a. 

*  suspectus  M,  II. 

•  iustum  sanctumque  ^i^X. 

'  qui  .  .  .  qui  V,  I :  quo  .  .  .  quo,  II. 

*  demittit  E  :  dimittit  aM. 

"  LI.  41-43  are  the  reply  of  the  person  addressed  by  the 
poet.     This  ought  to  be  Quinctius,  but  the  poet  is  now 


EPISTLES,  I.  XVI.  40-64 

^  Who  is  the  "  good  man  "  ?  "  He  who  observes 
the  Senate's  decrees,  the  statutes  and  laws  ;  whose 
judgement  settles  many  grave  suits  ;  whose  surety 
means  safety  for  property  ;  whose  testimony  wins 
suits  at  law."  "  Yet  this  very  man  all  his  household 
and  all  his  neighbours  see  to  be  foul  within,  though 
fair  without,  under  his  comely  skin.  If  a  slave  were 
to  say  to  me,  "  I  never  stole  or  ran  away  "  :  my 
reply  would  be,  "  You  have  your  reward  ;  you  are 
not  flogged."  "  I  never  killed  anyone."  "  You'll 
hang  on  no  cross  to  feed  crows."  "  I  am  good  and 
honest."  Our  Sabine  friend^  shakes  his  head  and 
says,  "  No,  no  I  "  For  the  wolf  is  wary  and  dreads 
the  pit,  the  hawk  the  suspected  snare,  the  pike  the 
covered  hook.  The  good  hate  vice  because  they 
love  virtue  ;  you "  will  commit  no  crime  because 
you  dread  punishment.  Suppose  there's  a  hope  of 
escaping  detection  ;  you  will  make  no  difference 
between  sacred  and  profane.  For  when  from  a 
thousand  bushels  of  beans  you  steal  one,  my  loss  in 
that  case  is  less,  but  not  your  sin.  This  "  good 
man,"  for  forum  and  tribunal  the  cynosure  of  every 
eye,  whenever  vrith  swine  or  ox  he  makes  atonement 
to  the  gods,  cries  with  loud  voice  "  Father  Janus," 
with  loud  voice  "  Apollo,"  then  moves  his  hps, 
fearing  to  be  heard  :  "  Fair  Lavema,**  grant  me  to 
escape  detection  ;  grant  me  to  pass  as  just  and 
upright,  shroud  my  sins  in  night,  my  lies  in  clouds  !  " 

^^  How  the  miser  is  better  than  a  slave,  or  is  more 
free,  when  he  stoops  at  the  cross-roads  to  pick  up 

carrying   on   a   dialogue   with   an   imaginary  interlocutor. 
So  "  tu  "  in  1.  53. 

*  By  Sabellus  Horace  means  one  of  his  honest  Sabine 

•  i.e.  the  slave.  ^  The  goddess  of  theft. 



non  video  ;  nam  qui  cupiet,  metuet  quoque  ;  porro,  65 
qui  metuens  vivet,  liber  mihi  non  erit  umquam. 
perdidit  arma,  locum  Virtutis  deseruit,  qui 
semper  in  augenda  festinat  et  obruitiu*  re. 
vendere  cum  possis  captivum,  occidere  noli ; 
serviet  utiliter  ;  sine  pascat  durus  aretque,  70 

naviget  ac  mediis  hiemet  mercator  in  undis, 
annonae  prosit,  portet  frumenta  penusque. 

Vir  bonus  et  sapiens  audebit  dicere  :  "  Pentheu, 
rector  Thebarum,  quid  me  perferre  patique 
indignum  coges  ?  " 

"  Adiraam  bona." 

"  Nempe  pecus,  rem,     75 
lectos,  argentum  :  toUas  licet." 

"  In  manieis  ot 
compedibus  saevo  te  sub  custode  tenebo." 
"  Ipse  deus,  simul  atque  volam,  me  solvet."     opinor, 
hoc  sentit  "  moriar."     mors  ultima  linea  rerum  est.^ 

^  est  omitted  by  E. 

"  We  are  told  that  Roman  boys  would  solder  a  coin  to 
the  pavement  and  then  ridicule  those  who  tried  to  pick  it 
up  (so  scholiast  on  Persius,  v.  111). 

*  Such  a  man  is  really  a  slave,  and  should  be  treated  as 

"  As  opposed  to  the  man  called  bonus  in  11.  32  and  57. 

•*  The  dialogue  following  is  paraphrased  from  Euripides, 
Bacchae,  492-8,  a  scene  where  the  disguised  Dionysus  defies 


EPISTLES,  I.  XVI.  65-79 

the  copper  fastened  there,"  I  do  not  see :  for  he 
who  covets  will  also  have  fears  ;  further,  he  who 
hves  in  fear,  will  never,  to  my  mind,  be  free.  A  man 
has  lost  his  weapons,  has  quitted  his  post  with  Virtue, 
who  is  ever  busied  and  lost  in  making  money.  When 
you  can  sell  a  captive,*  don't  kill  him :  he  will 
make  a  useful  slave.  If  hardy,  let  him  be  shepherd 
or  ploughman  :  let  him  go  to  sea,  and  winter  as  a 
trader  in  the  midst  of  the  waves  :  let  him  help  the 
market  :  let  him  carry  food  and  fodder. 

^2  The  truly  good  and  wise  man  "  will  have  courage 
to  sav:"*  "  Pentheus,  lord  of  Thebes,  what  shame 
will  you  compel  me  to  stand  and  suffer  ?  " 

"  I  will  take  away  your  goods." 

"  You  mean  my  cattle,  my  substance,  couches, 
plate  ?     You  may  take  them." 

"  I  will  keep  you  in  handcuffs  and  fetters,  under 
a  cruel  jailer." 

"  God  himself,  the  moment  I  choose,  will  set  me 
free."  This,  I  take  it,  is  his  meaning  :  "  I  will 
die."  *     Death  is  the  line  that  marks  the  end  of  all.' 

Pentheus,  king  of  Thebes.  The  latter,  intent  on  suppressing 
the  Bacchic  worship,  has  made  a  prisoner  of  the  Lydian 
stranger,  who,  being  really  a  god,  sets  the  king's  threats 
at  nought. 

•  The  moriar  does  not  belong  to  the  scene.  The  Stoics 
sanctioned  suicide  as  an  escape  from  life's  evils. 

'  A  chalk-line  marked  the  goal  in  the  race-course. 




The  subject  of  this  and  the  following  Epistle  is 
personal  independence,  as  illustrated  in  the  relations 
of  patron  and  protege.  Horace's  own  happy  con- 
nexion with  Maecenas,  which  he  sets  forth  so  ad- 
mirably in  Epist.  i.  7,  furnished  him  with  an  experi- 
ence which  possibly  led  others  to  seek  his  advice  as 
to  their  conduct  toward  men  of  high  station.  As 
to  Scaeva,  however,  nothing  is  known  about  him, 
and  it  is  quite  possible  that  there  was  no  such  person 
in  real  life,  but  that  the  name  was  chosen  to  fit  an 
assumed  character,  it  being  the  same  as  o-kuios, 
"  awkward  "  or  "  gauche." 

After  disclaiming  any  peculiar  right  to  give  advice 
on  such  a  subject  (1-5),  and  assuring  Scaeva  that  if 
he  really  wants  to  live  a  quiet,  comfortable  life,  he 
should  retire  from  Rome  altogether  (6-10),  Horace 
proceeds  in  reality  to  defend  himself  against  the 
attacks  made  on  him  as  a  sycophant  of  the  great. 
He  therefore  contrasts  the  conduct  of  the  Cyrenaic 
Aristippus,  who  had  plenty  of  savoir  faire  and 
could  adapt  himself  to  any  circumstances,  with  the 
less  sensible  behaviour  of  Diogenes,  the  boorish 
Cynic,  who  courted  the  common  people  and  knew  how 
to  live  only  amid  sordid  surroundings  (13-32).     To 



gain  distinction  in  life  oneself  is  the  highest  ambition, 
but  it  is  also  no  mean  achievement  to  win  favour 
with  the  great.  He  who  succeeds  in  doing  so  is  a 
true  man  and  plays  a  manly  part  (33-42). 

Here  the  tone  abruptly  changes,  and  in  the  last 
twenty  lines  (43-62)  Horace  lays  down  rules  which  the 
young  aspirant  for  favour  is  supposed  to  follow.  In 
this  part  the  poet  is  far  from  serious,  but,  after  his 
fashion,  is  indulging  in  good-natured  irony. 



Quamvis,  Scaeva,  satis  per  te  tibi  consulis  et  scis, 
quo  tandem  pacto  deceat  maioribus  iiti, 
disee,  docendus  adhuc  quae  censet  amiculus,  ut  si 
caecus  iter  monstrare  velit  ;  tamen  aspice  si  quid 
et  nos,  quod  cures  proprium  fecisse,  loquamur.  5 

Si  te  grata  quies  et  primam  somnus  in  horam 
delectat,  si  te  pulvis  strepitusque  rotarum, 
si  laedit^  caupona,  Ferentinum  ire  iubebo. 
nam  neque  divitibus  contingunt  gaudia  solis, 
nee  vlxit  male,  qui  natus  moriensque  fefellit.  10 

si  prodesse  tuis  pauloque  benignius  ipsum 
te  tractare  voles,  accedes  siccus  ad  unctum.^ 

"  Si  pranderet  holus  patienter,  regibus  uti 
nollet  Aristippus."     "  si  sciret  regibus  uti, 
fastidiret  holus  qui  me  notat."     utrius  horum  15 

verba  probes  et  facta  doce,  vel  iunior  audi 
cur  sit  Aristippi  potior  sententia.     namque 
mordacem  Cynicum  sic  eludebat,  ut  aiunt : 

1  laedet  aM,  11. 
^  ad  unctum  Porph.  ass.  :  inunctum  V :  adinunctum  E. 

"  A  quiet  country  town  in  the  Alban  region  of  Latium, 
according  to  Professor  W.B.M'DanielM.P.^.xliii.  pp.  67  ff.). 

*"  According  to  the  Epicurean  precept,  \  ^nvaas. 

"  This  remark  is  made  by  Diogenes  the  Cynic.  The  story 
referred  to  is  found  in  Diogenes  Laertius,  ii.  8.  68.  The 
Cynic  was  cleaning  vegetables  for  dinner,  when  Aristippus 
passed  by.     Said  the  former:  "  if  you  had  learned  to  put  up 


Epistle  XVII 

Even  though,  Scaeva,  you  look  after  your  ovm 
interests  quite  -wisely  by  yourself,  though  you  know  on 
what  terms,  in  fine,  one  should  handle  greater  folk, 
yet  learn  the  views  of  your  humble  friend,  who  still 
needs  some  teaching.  It  is  as  if  a  blind  man  sought 
to  show  the  way  ;  yet  see  whether  even  I  have 
aught  to  say,  which  you  may  care  to  make  your  own. 

^  If  pleasant  ease  and  sleep  till  sunrise  be  your 
delight,  if  dust  and  noise  of  wheels,  or  if  tavern 
offend  you,  I  shall  order  you  off  to  Ferentinum." 
For  jovs  fall  not  to  the  rich  alone,  and  he  has  not 
Uved  amiss  who  from  birth  to  death  has  passed 
unknovvTi.''  But  if  you  wish  to  help  your  friends 
and  to  treat  yourself  a  httle  more  generously, 
you  in  your  hunger  vvill  make  for  a  rich  table. 

^3  "If  Aristippus  could  be  content  to  dine  on 
greens,  he  would  not  want  to  Hve  with  princes."  " 
"If  he  who  censures  me  knew  how  to  hve  with 
princes,  he  would  sniff  at  greens."  Of  these  two 
sages  tell  me  whose  words  and  deeds  you  approve  ; 
or,  since  you  are  the  younger,  hear  why  the  \iew  of 
Aristippus  is  the  better.  For  this  is  the  way,  as  the 
story  goes,  that  he  dodged  the  snapping  cynic :    "  I 

with  this,  you  would  not  be  courting  princes."  To  this  gibe 
Aristippus  replied,  "and  you,  if  you  knew  how  to  consort 
witii  men,  would  not  be  cleaning  greens." 

36 1 


"  scurror  ego  ipse  mihi,  populo  tu  ;  rectius*  hoc  et 
splendidius  multo  est.     equus  ut  me  portet,  alat  rex, 
officium  facio  ;   tu  poscis  vilia,  verum^  21 

dante  minor,  quamvis  fers  te  nullius  egentem." 
omnis  Aristippum  deeuit  color  et  status  et  res, 
temptantem  maiora,  fere  praesentibus  aequum, 
contra,  quem  duplici  panno  patientia  velat,  25 

mirabor,  vitae  via  si  conversa  decebit. 
alter  purpureum  non  exspectabit  amictum, 
quidlibet  indutus  celeberrima  per  loca^  vadet, 
personamque  feret  non  inconcinnus  utramque  ; 
alter  Mileti  textam  cane  peius  et  angui  30 

vitabit^  chlamydem,  morietur  frigore,  si  non 
rettuleris  pannum.     refer  et  sine  vivat  ineptus. 
Res  gerere  et  captos  ostendere  civibus  hostis 
attingit  solium  lovis  et  caelestia  temptat : 
principibus  placuisse  viris  non  ultima  laus  est.  36 

non  cuivis  homini  contingit  adire  Corinthum. 
sedit  qui  timuit  ne  non  succederet 

"  Esto. 
quid,  qui  pervenit,^  fecitne  viriliter  ?  "     atqui 
hie  est  aut  nusquam,  quod  quaerimus.  hie  onus  horret, 
ut  parvis  animis  et  parvo  corpore  maius  ;  40 

'  regibus  (p^. 

*  verum  or  verum  es,  I,  II :  rerum  {to  be  taken  with  vilia) 
only  inferior  Mss. 

'  ioca,  //.  *  vitavit  aM.  '  pervenerit,  II. 

"  Scurror  means  "  play  the  scurra."  In  effect,  Diogenes 
had  taunted  him  with  being  a  parasite. 

"  The  cloak  worn  by  the  Cynics  is  called  pannus  in 
contempt.  They  wore  no  under-garment,  but  doubled  the 
cloak  instead.     Hence  it  was  called  di-irXoU. 

*  The  poet  refers  in  a  general  way  to  the  triumphal  career 
of  Augustus. 


EPISTLES,  I.  x\ai.  19-40 

play  the  buffoon  "  for  my  own  profit,  you  for  the 
people's.  My  conduct  is  better  and  nobler  by  far. 
I  do  service  that  I  may  have  a  horse  to  ride  and  be 
fed  by  a  prince  :  you  sue  for  paltry  doles  ;  but  you 
become  inferior  to  the  giver,  though  you  pose  as 
needing  no  man."  To  Aristippus  every  form  of  life 
was  fitting,  every  condition  and  circumstance  ;  he 
aimed  at  higher  things,  but  as  a  rule  was  content 
with  what  he  had.  On  the  other  hand,  take  the  man 
whom  endurance  clothes  ^\^th  its  double  rags  *  :  I 
shall  marvel  if  a  changed  mode  of  hfe  befit  him. 
The  one  ^vill  not  wait  for  a  purple  mantle  ;  he  will 
put  on  anything  and  walk  through  the  most  crowded 
streets,  and  in  no  inelegant  fashion  will  play  either 
part.  The  other  ^^ill  shun  a  cloak  woven  at  Miletus 
as  worse  than  a  dog  or  a  snake,  and  will  die  of  cold  if 
you  do  not  give  him  back  his  rags.  Give  them  back 
and  let  him  live  his  uncouth  life. 

^  To  achieve  great  deeds  and  to  display  captive 
foemen  to  one's  fellow-citizens  is  to  touch  the  throne 
of  Jove  and  to  scale  the  skies. "^  Yet  to  have  won 
favour  with  the  foremost  men  is  not  the  lowest 
glory.  It  is  not  every  man's  lot  to  get  to  Corinth.'' 
He  who  feared  he  might  not  win  sat  still.* 

Be  it  so — what  of  him  who  reached  the  goal  ?  Did 
he  play  the  man  ?  Nay,  but  here  or  nowhere  is 
what  we  look  for.  One  dreads  the  burden  as  too 
big  for  his  small  soul  and  small  body  :    another  Ufts 

*  A  rendering  of  the  Greek  proverb,  Ov  -wavTbi  dt-Spos  ^s 
KSpivdof  1(76'  6  ttXoOs,  which  originally  referred  to  the  great 
expense  of  a  self-indulgent  life  at  Corinth.  Here,  however, 
the  application  is  very  different,  viz.  that  not  everyone  can 
gain  the  prize  of  virtue. 

•  i.e.  never  entered  the  race. 



hie  subit  et  perfert.     aut  virtus  nomen  inane  est, 
aut  decus  et  pretium  recte  petit  experiens  vir. 

Coram  rege  sua^  de  paupertate  tacentes 
plus  poscente  ferent^  :   distat,  sumasne  pudenter 
an  rapias  ;   atqui  rerum  caput  hoc  erat,  hie  fons.     45 
"  indotata  mihi  soror  est,  paupercula  mater, 
et  fundus  nee  vendibilis  nee  pascere  firmus," 
qui  dicit,  elamat,  "  victum  date  !  "  succinit  alter, 
"  et  mihi  !  "  dividuo  findetur  munere  quadra, 
sed  tacitus  pasci  si  posset  corvus,  haberet  50 

plus  dapis  et  rixae  multo  minus  invidiaeque. 

Brundisium  comes  aut  Surrentum  ductus  amoenum 
qui  queritur  salebras  et  acerbum  frigus  et  imbres, 
aut  cistam  effractam  et  subducta  viatica  plorat, 
nota  refert  meretricis  acumina,  saepe  catellam,       55 
saepe  periscelidem  raptam  sibi  flentis,  uti  mox 
nulla  fides  damnis  verisque  doloribus  adsit. 
nee  semel  irrisus  triviis  attollere  curat 
fracto  crure  planum,  licet  ilh  plurima  manet 
lacrima,  per  sanctum  iuratus  dicat  Osirim  :  GO 

"  credite,  non  ludo  ;  crudeles,  tollite  claudum  !  " 
"  quaere  peregrinum,"  vicinia  rauca  reclamat. 

^  sua  Bentley :  suo  Mss.  ^  ferunt  E. 

"  In  comedy  the  term  rex  is  used  by  a  parasite  of  his 
patron ;  cf.  Plautus,  Capt.  92 ;  Terence,  PJiormio  338. 
So  ^aaiXeds  in  Greek  comedy  ;   cf.  Meineke,  fragm.  p.  774 

^  Viz.  getting  as  much  as  possible. 

•  As  a  result  of  so  much  begging  no  one  gets  a  whole  loaf. 


EPISTLES,  I.  XVII.  41-62 

it  and  carries  it  to  the  end.  Either  manhood  is  an 
empty  name,  or  the  man  who  makes  the  attempt 
justly  aims  at  honour  and  reward. 

*3  Those  who  in  the  presence  of  their  patron  **  say 
nothing  of  their  own  need  >vill  get  more  than  one 
who  begs.  It  makes  a  difference  whether  you  take 
modestly  or  snatch  greedily.  And  yet  this  ^  was 
the  head  and  front  of  all.  "  My  sister  has  no  dower, 
mv  poor  mother  is  a  beggar,  my  farm  is  neither 
salable  nor  able  to  support  us."  He  who  so  speaks, 
cries  aloud,  "  Give  us  food."  His  neighbour  chimes 
in  with  "  me  too."  So  the  gift  will  be  divided  and 
the  morsel  split."  But  if  the  crow  could  feed  in 
quiet,  he  would  have  more  meat,  and  much  less 
WTangling  and  envy."* 

=2  The  man  who,  when  taken  as  companion  to 
Brundisium  or  lovely  Surrentum,  grumbles  about  bad 
roads  and  bitter  cold  and  rain,  or  moans  over  his 
box  broken  open  and  his  stores  pilfered,  recalls  the 
familiar  tricks  of  a  mistress  who  oft  bewails  a  pretty 
chain,  oft  a  stolen  anklet,  so  that  by  and  by  her  real 
losses  and  griefs  win  no  belief.  And  he  who  has 
once  been  fooled  does  not  care  to  Hft  up  at  the 
crossings  a  beggar  with  a  broken  leg,  though  many 
a  tear  flow  down  his  cheeks,  though  he  swear  by  holy 
Osiris  and  cry  :  "  Believe  me,  I'm  in  earnest  ;  cruel 
men,  lift  up  the  lame  !  "  "  Look  for  a  stranger," 
the  neighbours  bawl  back  till  they  are  hoarse. 

^  The  crow's  cawing  calls  other  crows  to  share  in  the 
booty  it  has  found. 



A  true  friend,  Lollius,  never  plays  the  parasite, 
yet  on  the  other  hand  never  shows  his  independence 
by  rudeness  or  by  insistence  upon  trifles  (1-20). 

As  protege,  you  must  not  try  to  emulate  your  patron 
in  his  ostentation  or  other  weaknesses,  for  you  will 
merely  earn  his  contempt  or  hatred.  Neither  should 
you  pry  into  his  secrets,  though  if  he  entrust  any  to 
you  you  must  keep  them  faithfully  (21-38). 

Do  not  emphasize  your  own  tastes  in  contrast  with 
your  patron's.  If  he  wishes  to  go  a-hunting,  put 
your  books  aside,  even  as  Amphion  gave  up  the 
lyre  to  humour  Zethus,  The  sport  will  whet  your 
appetite  ;  it  is  a  national  pastime  and  you  have 
always  been  a  good  athlete  and  soldier.  You  have 
been  cheered  on  the  Campus  Martins,  and  crowds 
have  witnessed  your  mimic  reproduction  of  the 
Battle  of  Actium  (39-66). 

Be  discreet  in  your  criticism  of  others  ;  covet  not 
your  patron's  slaves  ;  be  careful  to  introduce  only 
people  who  will  not  humiliate  you  later,  but  should 
you  make  a  mistake,  don't  fail  to  acknowledge  it, 
so  that,  if  necessary,  you  may  be  able  to  defend 
those  who  really  deserve  your  aid.  Remember  that 
some  day  you  yourself  may  be  bitten  by  the  tooth  of 

EPISTLES,  I.  xvin. 

slander.  A  protege,  you  see,  must  be  ever  watchful 
of  his  conduct.  He  must  fall  in  w-ith  his  patron's 
moods  and  at  all  times  show  a  cheery  face  (67-95). 

Above  all,  you  must  study  the  words  of  the  wise 
and  learn  the  secret  of  a  tranquil  life.  That  is  what 
/  have  found  in  my  peaceful  country  home,  where  I 
pray  the  gods  for  the  blessings  of  life,  for  the  means 
of  living,  and  for  a  goodly  supply  of  books.  The 
aeqiius  animus  I  will  see  to  myself  (96-112). 

This  Epistle  is  addressed  to  the  Lollius  whom  we 
have  already  met  in  the  second  Epistle  of  this  book. 
Yet  the  main  theme  of  the  letter  is  the  same  as  that 
already  treated  in  the  seventeenth,  viz.  the  manner 
in  which  a  person  should  conduct  himself  in  his 
intercourse  with  the  great.  Lollius,  however,  is  not 
what  Scaeva  is  conceived  to  have  been,  poor  and  of 
lowly  station.  He  has  an  ancestral  estate,  large 
enough  to  be  the  scene  of  an  historical  pageant,  and 
he  was  probably  the  son  of  the  Lollius  who  was 
Consul  in  21  b.c,'(c/.  Epist.  i.  20.  28). 

It  is  commonly  supposed  that  the  young  Lollius 
is  thinking  of  attaching  himself  to  a  man  of  great 
prominence  in  the  state,  with  whom  he  would  be  on 
terms  of  confidential  intimacy  (11.  37  f.  ;  68  ff.),  and 
that  he  has  consulted  Horace,  who  has  himself  been 
so  successful  ^\ith  a  patron.  But  most  commentators 
take  the  letter  too  seriously.  It  is  a  satire  and  the 
poet  is  in  a  playful  mood  (see  e.g.  11.  72  ff.).  So, 
under  the  guise  of  a  Professor  of  Social  Philosophy, 
he  gives  his  young  friend  a  lecture  in  Stoic  fashion 
on  his  favourite  theme  bene  vivere,  which  here  may 
be  taken  to  mean  "  How  to  get  on  in  the  world." 



Si  bene  te  no^^,  metues,  liberrime  Ldlli, 
scurrantis  speciem  praebere,  professus  amicum 
ut  matrona  meretrici  dispar  erit  atque 
discolor,  infido  scurrae  distabit  amicus, 
est  huic  diversum  vitio  vitium  prope  maius,  5 

asperitas  agrestis  et  inconcinna  gravisque, 
quae  se  commendat  tonsa  cute,  dentibus  atris, 
dum  volt  libertas  dici  mera  veraque  virtus, 
virtus  est  medium  vitiorum  et  utrimque^  reductum. 
alter  in  obsequium  plus  aequo  pronus  et  imi  10 

derisor  lecti  sic  nutum  divitis  horret, 
sic  iterat  voces  et  verba  cadentia  toUit, 
ut  puerum  saevo  credas  dictata  magistro 
reddere  vel  partis  mimum  tractare  secundas. 
alter  rixatur^  de  lana  saepe  caprina,^  15 

propugnat  nugis  armatus  :   "  scilicet,  ut  non 
sit  mihi  prima  fides,  et  vere  quod  placet  ut  non 
acriter  elatrem  !     pretium  aetas  altera  sordet." 

^  utrumque  aR. 

*  rixatur  uss.  :  rixatus  V :  fixator  Muretus, 

^  caprina  et  Bentley. 

«  Cf.  Epist.  i.  17.  19  and  note. 

*  fji,€<T6Tris  Suo  KaKidv  (Arist.  Nicomach.  Eth.  ii.  6). 

•  Cf.  Sat.  ii,  8.  40  f.,  where  the  scurrae  were  with  the  host 
on  the  lowest  couch. 


Epistle  XVIII 

If  I  know  you  well,  my  Lollius,  most  outspoken 
of  men,  you  will  shrink  from  appearing  in  the  guise 
of  a  parasite  <*  when  you  have  professed  the  friend. 
As  matron  and  mistress  will  differ  in  temper  and 
tone,  so  ^\•ill  the  friend  be  distinct  from  the  faithless 
parasite.  There  is  a  \'ioe  the  opposite  of  this — 
perhaps  a  greater  one — a  clo^^^lish  rudeness,  awkward 
and  offensive,  which  commends  itself  by  scraped 
skin  and  black  teeth,  while  fain  to  pass  for  simple 
candour  and  pure  virtue.  Virtue  is  a  mean 
between  vices,''  remote  from  both  extremes.  The 
one  man,  over-prone  to  servihty,  a  jester  of  the 
lowest  couch,"  so  reveres  the  rich  man's  nod,  so 
echoes  his  speeches,  and  picks  up  his  words  as  they 
fall,  that  you  would  think  a  schoolboy  was  repeating 
his  lessons  to  a  stern  master  or  a  mime-player  acting 
a  second  part."*  The  other  man  \\Tangles  often  about 
goat's  wool,*  and  donning  his  armour  fights  for  trifles  : 
"  To  think,  forsooth,  that  I  should  not  find  credence 
first,  or  that  I  should  not  blurt  out  strongly  what  I 
really  think  !     A  second  life  were  poor  at  such  a 

*  In  the  mimes  the  actor  playing  second  part  commonly 
imitated  the  chief  actor  in  word  and  gesture. 

*  The  question  whether  the  hair  of  goats  could  be 
called  lana  or  wool,  was  proverbial  for  a  matter  of  no  im- 

2  b  S69 


ambigitur  quid  enim  ?   Castor  sciat  an  Dolichos^  plus ; 
Brundisium  Minuci  melius  via  ducat  an  Appi.  20 

Quern  damnosa  Venus,  quern  praeceps  alea  nudat, 
gloria  quem  supra  vires  et  vestit  et  unguit, 
quern  tenet  argenti  sitis  importuna  famesque, 
quem  paupertatis  pudor  et  fuga,  dives  amicus, 
saepe  decem  vitiis  instructior,  odit  et  horret,  26 

aut,  si  non  odit,  regit  ac  veluti  pia  mater 
plus  quam  se  sapere  et  virtutibus  esse  priorem 
volt  et  ait  prope  vera  :   "  meae  (contendere  noli) 
stultitiam  patiuntur  opes  ;   tibi  parvola  res  est. 
arta  decet  sanum  comitem  toga  ;   desine  mecum     30 
certare."     Eutrapelus,  cuicumque  nocere  volebat, 
vestimenta  dabat  pretiosa  :   "  beatus  enim  iam 
cum  pulchris  tunicis  sumet^  nova  consilia  et  spes, 
dormiet  in  lucem,  scorto  postponet  honestum 
officium,  nummos  alienos  pascet,  ad  imum  35 

Thraex  erit  aut  holitoris  aget^  mercede  caballum." 

Arcanum  neque  tu  scrutaberis  illius*  umquam, 
commissumque  teges  et  vino  tortus  et  ira. 
nee  tua  laudabis  studia  aut  aliena  reprendes,^ 
nee,  cum  venari  volet  ille,  poemata  panges.®  40 

gratia  sic  fratrum  geminorum,  Amphionis  atque 
Zethi,  dissiluit,  donee  suspecta  severo 
conticuit  lyra.     fraternis  cessisse  putatur 
moribus  Amphion  :  tu  cede  potentis  amici 

1  docilis  Mss.  *  sumit  E.  '  aget  E  :  agit  aM. 

*  ullius  MSS.  *  rependes  E.  •  pangas  E. 

"  These  were  actors  or  gladiators. 

*  The  story  of  how  the  brothers  Zethus  and  Amphion 
quarrelled  about  the  rival  merits  of  music  and  hunting  was 
set  forth  by  Euripides  in  his  Antlnpe,  and  was  reproduced 
in  a  play  oiP  the  same  name  by  Pacuvius. 


EPISTLES,  I.  XVIII.  19-44 

price."  WTiy,  what's  the  question  in  dispute  ? 
\\Tiether  Castor  or  Dolichos  "  has  more  skill  ;  which 
is  the  better  road  to  Brundisium,  that  of  Minucius 
or  that  of  Appius  ! 

-^  The  man  whom  ruinous  passion  or  desperate 
gambling  strips  bare,  whom  vanity  dresses  up  and 
perfumes  beyond  his  means,  who  is  possessed  by  an 
insatiate  hunger  and  thirst  for  money,  by  the  shame 
and  dread  of  poverty,  his  rich  friend,  though  often 
ten  times  as  well  equipped  with  \ices,  hates  and 
abhors  :  or  if  he  does  not  hate  him  schools  him  and 
like  a  fond  mother  would  have  him  \^'iser  and  more 
\'irtuous  than  himself.  He  says  to  him  what  is  pretty 
nearly  true  :  "  My  wealth — don't  try  to  rival  me — 
allows  of  foUv  :  your  means  are  but  trifling.  A 
narrow  toga  befits  a  chent  of  sense  ;  cease  to  vie  with 
me."  Eutrapelus,  if  he  wished  to  injure  someone, 
would  give  him  costly  clothes  :  "  for  now,"  said  he, 
"  the  happy  fellow  will,  together  ^^^th  his  fine  tunics, 
put  on  new  plans  and  hopes,  will  sleep  till  dawn, 
vnl\  postpone  honest  business  for  a  wanton,  ^vill  swell 
his  debts,  and  at  last  ^\ill  become  a  gladiator,  or 
the  hired  driver  of  a  greengrocer's  nag." 

^  You  \n\\  never  pry  into  your  patron's  secrets, 
and  if  one  is  entrusted  to  you,  you  will  keep  it, 
though  wine  or  anger  puts  you  on  the  rack.  Again, 
you  will  neither  praise  your  own  tastes,  nor  find 
fault  with  those  of  others,  nor  when  your  friend 
would  go  a-hunting,  will  you  be  penning  poems. 
'Twas  so  that  the  brotherly  bond  between  the  twins 
Amphion  and  Zethus  parted  asunder,  till  the  lyre,  on 
Avhich  the  stem  one  looked  askance,  was  hushed.'' 
Amphion,  'tis  thought,  yielded  to  his  brother's  mood  : 
do  you  yield  to  your  great  friend's  gentle  biddings  ; 




lenibus  imperiis,  quotiensque  educet^  in  agros  45 

Aetolis^  onerata  plagis  iumenta  canesque, 
surge  et  inhumanae  senium  depone  Camenae, 
cenes  ut  pariter  pulmenta  laboribus  empta  : 
Romanis  sollemne  viris  opus,  utile  famae 
vitaeque  et  membris  ;  praesertim  cum  valeas  et     50 
vel  cursu  superare  canem  vel  viribus  aprum 
possis.     adde  virilia  quod  speciosius  arma 
non  est  qui  tractet ;   scis,  quo  clamore  coronae 
proelia  sustineas  campestria  ;   denique  saevam 
niilitiam  puer  et  Cantabrica  bella  tulisti  65 

sub  duce  qui  templis  Parthorum  signa  refigit 
nunc  et,  si  quid  abest,  Italis^  adiudicat  armis.* 

Ac  ne  te  retrahas  et  inexcusabilis  absis, 
quamvis  nil  extra  numerum  fecisse  modumque 
curas,  interdum  nugaris  rure  paterno  : 
partitur  lintres  exercitus,  Actia  pugna 
te  duce  per  pueros  hostili  more^  refertur  ; 
adversarius  est  frater,  lacus  Hadria,  donee 
alterutrum  velox  Victoria  fronde  coronet, 
consentire  suis  studiis  qui  crediderit  te,  65 

fautor  utroque  tuum  laudabit  polHce  ludum. 

1  educit  M :  ducit  or  ducet,  //. 

«  Aeoliis  van  Vliet.  '  abest  aliis  ir. 

*  arvis  Bentley.  '  mole  E. 

"  Probably  a  literary  epithet,  reminding  the  reader  of 
the  mythical  boar-hunt  of  Meleager  in  Calydon.  The  con- 
jectural Aeoliis  is  explained  as  equivalent  to  Cumanis,  because 
flax,  which  made  strong  nets  (Pliny,  N.H.  xix.  1.  10),  grew 
near  Cumae,  a  colony  from  Cyme  in  Aeolia. 

*  Cf.  "  tu  pulmentaria  quaere  sudando,"  Sat.  ii.  2.  20. 

«  Cf.  Sat.  ii.  2.  10  f.,  where  hunting  is  called  Romana 

<*  i.e.  the  sports  of  the  Campus  Martius. 

*  In  20  B.C.  Augustus  recovered  from  the  Parthians  by 


EPISTLES,  I,  XVIII.  45-66 

and  when  he  takes  out  into  the  country  his  mules 
laden  with  Aetolian  *  nets,  and  his  dogs,  up  with  you 
and  cast  aside  the  glumness  of  your  unsocial  Muse, 
that  you  may  share  his  supper  with  a  relish,  whereof 
toil  has  been  the  price  * — 'tis  the  wonted  pastime 
of  the  heroes  of  Rome,"  is  good  for  fame  as  well  as 
for  hfe  and  limb — especially  when  you  are  in  health, 
and  can  outdo  either  the  hound  in  speed  or  the  boar 
in  strength.  Add  that  there  is  none  who  more  grace- 
fully handles  manly  weapons  :  you  know  how  loudly 
the  ring  cheers  when  you  uphold  the  combats  of  the 
Campus."*  In  fine,  while  a  mere  youth,  you  served  in 
a  hard  campaign,  and  in  the  Cantabrian  wars,  under 
a  captain  who  even  now  is  taking  down  our  standards 
from  the  Parthian  temples  *  and,  if  aught  is  still 
beyond  our  sway,  is  assigning  it  to  the  arms  of  Italy. 
^  Further,  that  you  may  not  draw  back  and  stand 
aloof  without  excuse,  bear  in  mind  that,  however 
much  you  take  care  to  do  nothing  out  of  time  and 
tune,  you  do  sometimes  amuse  yourself  at  your 
father's  country-seat  :  your  troops  divide  the  skiffs  ^  ; 
with  you  as  captain,  the  Actian  fight  is  presented  by 
your  slaves  in  true  foemen's  style  ;  opposing  you  is 
your  brother,  the  lake  is  the  Adriatic  ;  till  winged 
Victory  crowns  with  leafage  one  or  the  other  chief- 
tain. He  who  believes  that  you  fall  in  with  his 
pursuits  will  with  both  thumbs  "  eagerly  commend 
your  sport. 

treaty  the  standards  they  had  taken  from  Crassus  ;  cf.  Epist. 
i.  12.  28. 

^  In  a  sham  fight  on  their  father's  estate,  Lollius  and  his 
brother  have  represented  the  famous  battle  of  Actium. 

»  A  reference  to  the  way  in  which  the  audience  in  the 
amphitheatre  expressed  approval.  The  precise  form  of  the 
gesture  referred  to  is  doubtful. 



Protinus  ut  moneam  (si  quid  monitoris  eges  tu) 
quid  de  quoque  viro  et  cui  dicas,  saepe  videto. 
percontatorem  fugito  :  nam  garrulus  idem  est, 
nee  retinent  patulae  commissa  fideliter  aures,  70 

et  semel  emissum  volat  irrevocabile  verbum. 
non  ancilla  tuum  iecur  ulceret  ulla  puerve 
intra  marmoreum  venerandi  limen  amici, 
ne  dominus  pueri^  pulchri  caraeve  puellae 
munere  te  parvo  beet  aut  incommodus  angat.  75 

qualem  commendes,  etiam  atque  etiam  aspice,  ne  mox 
incutiant  aliena  tibi  peccata  pudorem. 
fallimur  et  quondam  non  dignum  tradimus  :   ergo 
quern  sua  culpa  premet,  deceptus  omitte  tueri, 
ut  penitus  notum,  si  temptent  crimina,  serves  80 

tuterisque  tuo  fidentem'^  praesidio  :   qui 
dente  Theonino  cum  eircumroditur,  ecquid^ 
ad  te  post  paulo  ventura  pericula  sentis  ? 
nam  tua  res  agitur,  paries  cum  proxinuis  avdet, 
et  neglecta  solent  incendia  sumere  vires.  85 

Dulcis  inexpertis  cultura  potentis  amici  : 
expertus  metuit.^     tu,  dum  tua  navis  in  alto  est, 
hoc  age,  ne  mutata  retrorsum  te  ferat  aura, 
oderunt  hilarem  tristes  tristemque  iocosi, 
sedatum  celeres,  agilem  navumque  remissi  ;  90 

potores  [bibuli  media  de  nocte  Falerni^ 
oderunt]  porrecta  negantem  pocula,  quamvis 
nocturnos  iures  te  formidare  tepores. 

^  pueri  dominus  E,  lemma  in  Porph. 

2  fidens  est  4>\p'\l :  fidenter.  ^  et  quid  A^ER. 

*  metuit  aM :  metuet  E,  II, 

*  Line  91  does  not  occur  in  any  good  ms.  sinless  inserted 
by  a  late  hand.  Meineke  deleted  bibuli  .  .  .  oderunt  and 
retained  potores. 

"  Proverbial  for  calumny,  though  the  origin  of  the  ex- 
pression is  unknown. 


EPISTLES,  I.  XVIII.  67-93 

"  To  continue  my  advice,  if  you  need  advice  in 
aught — think  often  of  what  you  say,  and  of  whom, 
and  to  whom  you  say  it.  Avoid  a  questioner,  for  he 
is  also  a  tattler.  Open  ears  Nvill  not  keep  secrets 
loyally,  and  the  word  once  let  slip  flies  beyond  recall. 
Let  no  maid  or  boy  within  your  worshipful  friend's 
marble  threshold  inflame  your  heart,  lest  the  owner 
of  the  pretty  boy  or  dear  girl  make  you  happy  with 
a  present  so  trifling  or  torment  you  if  disobliging. 
What  sort  of  a  person  you  introduce,  consider  again 
and  again,  lest  by  and  by  the  other's  failings  strike 
you  with  shame.  At  times  we  err  and  present  some- 
one unworthy  :  therefore,  if  taken  in,  forbear  to 
defend  him  whose  ovm  fault  drags  him  do^\Ti,  in  order 
that,  if  charges  assail  one  you  know  thoroughly,  you 
may  watch  over  and  protect  the  man  who  relies  on 
your  championship.  For  when  he  is  nibbled  at  with 
Theon's  tooth  "  of  slander,  don't  you  feel  that  a  httle 
later  the  peril  will  pass  to  yourself?  'Tis  your  own 
safety  that's  at  stake,  when  your  neighbour's  wall 
is  in  flames,  and  fires  neglected  are  wont  to  gather 

^^  Those  who  have  never  tried  think  it  pleasant  to 
court  a  friend  in  power  ;  one  who  has  tried  dreads 
it.  While  your  barque  is  on  the  deep,  see  to  it  lest 
the  breeze  shift  and  bear  you  back.  The  grave 
dislike  the  gay,  the  merry  the  grave,  the  quick  the 
staid,  the  lazy  the  stirring  man  of  action  :  drinkers 
[who  quaff"  Falernian  in  midnight  hours]  ^  hate  the 
man  who  declines  the  proffered  cups,  however  much 
you  swear  that  you  dread  fevers  at  night.     Take  the 

*  The  words  bracketed  in  the  Latin  were  probably  intro- 
duced an  a  gloss  from  Epist.  i.  14.  3i. 



deme  supercilio  nubem  :   plerumque  modestus 
occupat  obscuri  speciem,  taciturnus  acerbi.  95 

Inter  cuncta  leges  et  percontabere  doctos, 
qua  ratione  queas  traducere  leniter  aevum, 
num  te  semper  inops  agitet  vexetque  cupido, 
num^  pavor  et  rerum  medioeriter  utilium  spes, 
virtutem  doctrina  paret  Naturane  donet,  100 

quid  minuat  curas,  quid  te  tibi  reddat  amicum, 
quid  pure  tranquillet,  honos  an  dulce  lucellum, 
an  secretum  iter  et  fallentis  semita  vitae. 

Me  quotiens  reficit  gelidus  Digentia  rivus, 
quern  Mandela  bibit,  rugosus  frigore  pagus,  105 

quid  sentire  putas  ?     quid  credis,  amice,  precari  ? 
sit  mihi  quod  nunc  est,  etiam  minus,  et^  mihi  vivam 
quod  superest  aevi,  si  quid  superesse  volunt  di ; 
sit  bona^  librorum  et  provisae  frugis  in  annum 
copia,  neu  fluitem  dubiae  spe  pendulus  horae.^       110 

Sed  satis  est  orare  lovem,  qui^  ponit®  et  aufert, 
det   vitam,    det    opes  ;     aequum    mi    animum    ipse 

^  num  .  .  .  num  all  good  ass.,  V:  ne  or  non. 

2  et  V,  II :  ut  aEM  Porph. 

'  spes  bona  E.  *  aurae. 

*  quae  a,  II.  •  ponit  V,  11 :  donat,  I. 

"  i.e.  philosophers. 

*  These  are  things  which  may  be  contrasted  with  virtue, 
the  summiim  bonum,  e.g.  our  possessions,  classed  by  the 
Stoics  as  a5id<popa,  indifferent  things. 

'  Whether  virtue  can  be  taugnt  {8i5aKTri,  cf.  doctrina)  is 
discussed  in  I'lato's  Meno. 


EPISTLES,  I.  xviii.  94-112 

cloud  from  your  brow  ;  shyness  oft  gets  the  look  of 
secrecy,  silence  of  sour  temper. 

^  Amid  all  this  you  must  read  and  question  the 
wise,"  how  you  may  be  able  to  pass  your  days  in 
tranquillity.  Is  greed,  ever  penniless,  to  drive  and 
harass  you,  or  fears  and  hopes  about  things  that 
profit  little  ?  ^  Does  wisdom  beget  virtue,"  or 
Nature  bring  her  as  a  gift  ?  What  will  lessen  care  ? 
What  will  make  you  a  friend  to  yourself  ?  What 
gives  you  unruffled  calm — honour,  or  the  sweets  of 
dear  gain,  or  a  secluded  journey  along  the  pathway 
of  a  life  unnoticed  **  ? 

^^^  For  me,  oft  as  Digentia  *  refreshes  me,  the  icy 
brook  of  which  Mandela  drinks,  that  village  -wrinkled 
with  cold,  what  deem  you  to  be  my  feeUngs  ?  What, 
think  you,  my  friend,  are  my  prayers  ?  May  I  have 
my  present  store,  or  even  less  ;  may  I  live  to  myself 
for  what  remains  of  life,  if  the  gods  will  that  aught 
remain.  May  I  have  a  goodly  supply  of  books  and 
of  food  to  last  the  year  ;  nor  may  I  waver  to  and  fro 
with  the  hopes  of  each  uncertain  hour. 

^^  But  'tis  enough  to  pray  Jove,  who  gives  and 
takes  away,  that  he  grant  me  life,  and  grant  me 
means  :   a  mind  well  balanced  I  will  myself  provide.^ 

"  Cf.  Epist.  i.  17.  10. 

•  Cf.  Epist.  i.  16.  5,  with  its  note  b.  Mandela,  now 
Cantalupo  Bardella,  is  a  lofty  village,  whose  people  came 
down  to  the  Digentia  for  their  water. 

'  i.e.  the  gods  may  give  me  life,  and  the  means  of  ex- 
istence, but,  as  Henley  says,  "  I  am  the  captain  of  my  soul." 




Writing  shortly  before  the  publication  of  this  book, 
in  20  B.C.,  Horace  replies  to  the  adverse  criticism 
which  had  been  levelled  against  his  Epodes  and 
Odes  (Books  i.-iii.).  These,  it  was  claimed,  lacked 
originaUty  and  were  mere  imitations  of  Greek  ex- 
emplars. Horace  therefore  contrasts  the  rude  and 
servile  imitation,  to  which  he  has  himself  been  sub- 
jected, with  his  o^vn  generous  use  of  noble  models, 
according  to  rules  followed  by  the  great  Greek  poets 
themselves  (1-34.). 

But  the  real  reason  why  Horace  has  been  assailed 
hes  in  the  fact  that  the  poet  has  not  tried  to  please 
the  general  public  or  his  offended  critics.  He  refuses 
to  resort  to  the  usual  methods  of  winning  approval, 
and  is  therefore  supposed  to  be  arrogant.  Tliis  is  a 
charge  which  he  dechnes  to  face  (35-i9). 



Frisco  si  credis,  Maecenas  docte,  Cratino, 
nulla  placere  diu  nee  vivere  carmina  possunt, 
quae  scribuntur  aquae  potoribus.^     ut  male  sanos 
adscripsit  Liber  Satyris  Faunisque  poetas, 
vina  fere  dulces  oluerunt  mane  Camenae.  5 

laudibus  arguitur  vini  vinosus  Homerus  ; 
Ennius  ipse  pater  numquam  nisi  potus  ad  arma 
prosiluit  dicenda.     "  Forum  Putealque  Libonis 
mandabo  siccis,  adimam  cantare  severis  "  : 
hoc  simul  edixi,^  non  cessavere  poetae  10 

nocturno  certare  mero,  putere  diurno. 
quid  ?     si  quis  voltu  torvo  ferus  et  pede  nudo 
exiguaeque  togae  simulet  textore^  Catonem, 
virtutemne  repraesentet  moresque  Catonis  ? 
rupit  larbitam  Timagenis  aemula  lingua,'*  15 

dum  studet  urbanus  tenditque  disertus  haberi. 

1  potioribus  ERir.  "  edixi  E,  Porph.  :  edixit  a. 

'  ex  ore  <p^ :  extore  B.  *  cena  aE. 

•  On  Cratinus  see  Index.  In  his  HvtIvt)  he  jested  upon 
his  own  intemperance. 

*  Cf.  Iliad,  vi.  261  av8pl  8i  K€K/JL7]uyn  ix^vos  fj.4ya  olvos  a^^et, 
and  the  use  of  epithets  applied  to  wine,  such  as  evTivujp,  rjSvwoTos, 
/xeXirjSris,  ixe\i(ppuv. 

"  Ennius    says   of   himself,    "numquam   poetor    nisi   si 

Epistle  XIX 

If  you  follow  old  Cratinus,"  my  learned  Maecenas, 
DO  poems  can  please  long,  nor  live,  which  are  written 
by  water-drinkers.  From  the  moment  Liber  en- 
listed brain-sick  poets  among  his  Satyrs  and  Fauns, 
the  sweet  Muses,  as  a  rule,  have  had  a  scent  of  wine 
about  them  in  the  morning.  Homer,  by  his  praises 
of  wine,  is  convicted  as  a  winebibber.*  Even  Father 
Ennius  never  sprang  forth  to  tell  of  arms  save  after 
much  drinking."  "  To  the  sober  I  shall  assign  the 
Fonun  and  Libo's  WelH ;  the  stern  I  shall  debar 
from  song."  Ever  since  I  put  forth  this  edict,*  poets 
have  never  ceased  to  vie  in  wine-drinking  by  night, 
to  reek  of  it  by  day.  What,  if  a  man  were  to  ape 
Cato  with  grim  and  savage  look,  with  bare  feet  and 
the  cut  of  a  scanty  gown,  would  he  thus  set  before 
us  Cato's  virtue  and  morals  ?  In  coping  with  Tima^ 
genes,  his  tongue  brought  ruin  to  larbitas '  ;  so 
keen  was  his  aim  and  effort  to  be  deemed  a  man  of 

"*  Cf.  Sat.  ii.  6.  35.  The  expression  forum  putealque 
Libon  in  denotes  a  life  of  business. 

•  For  the  term  used  cf.  Sat.  ii.  2.  51. 

'  The  precise  meaning  of  rupit  is  uncertain.  Porphyrio 
takes  it  literally,  as  if  the  attempt  to  rival  the  eloquence 
of  Timagenes  (a  rhetorician  of  the  day)  made  larbitas 
"  burst  asunder."  More  probably  the  word  has  the  general 
sense  of  "  ruined." 



decipit  exemplar  vitiis  imitabile  :   quod  si 

pallerem^  casu,  biberent  exsangue  cuminum. 

o  imitatores,  servum  pecus,  ut  mihi  saepe 

bilem,  saepe  iociim  vestri  movere  tumultus  !  20 

Libera  per  vacuum  posui  vestigia  princeps, 
non  aliena  meo  pressi  pede.     qui  sibi  fidet,^ 
dux  reget^  examen.     Parios^  ego  primus  iambos 
ostendi  Latio,  numeros  animosque  secutus 
Archilochi,  non  res  et  agentia  verba  Lycamben.      26 
ac  ne  me  foliis  ideo  brevioribus  ornes, 
quod  timui  mutare  modos  et  carminis  artem, 
temperat  Archilochi  Musam  pede  mascula  Sappho, 
temperat  Alcaeus,  sed  rebus  et  ordine  dispar, 
nee  socerum  quaerit,  quem  versibus  oblinat^  atris,   30 
nee  sponsae  laqueum  famoso  carmine  nectit. 
hunc  ego,  non  alio  dictum  prius  ore,  Latinus^ 
volgavi  fidicen.     iuvat  immemorata  ferentem 
ingenuis^  oculisque  legi  manibusque  teneri. 

Scire  velis,  mea  cur  ingratus  opuscula  lector         35 
laudet  ametque  domi,  premat  extra  limen  iniquus  ; 
non  ego  ventosae  plebis  sufFragia  venor 
impensis  cenarum  et  tritae  munere  vestis  ; 
non  ego,  nobilium  scrip torum  auditor*  et  ultor, 

1  pallerent  R-k.  «  fidit  ^/'Xi. 

^  regit.  *  patrios,  //.  *  obtinet  II. 

®  Latinis  \l,  '  ingeniis.  *  adiutor. 

"  A  pale  complexion  was  supposed  to  result  from  drinking 

*  i.e.  in  the  Epodes. 

"  Sappho  was  worthy  to  rank  with  men.  M.  B.  Ogle 
argues  (against  Bentley)  in  fa%rour  of  construing  Musam 
with  Archilochi^  and  of  interpreting  temperat  as  "  moderates  " 
(A.J.P.  xliij.  (1922)  pp.  55  ff.). 

•*  A  reference  to  Neobule  and  her  father  Lycambes,  who 
were  assailed  by  Archilochus  ;  c/.  Epod.  vi.  13. 

EPISTLES,  I.  XIX.  17-39 

wit  and  eloquence.     A  pattern  •with  faults  easy  to 
copy  leads  astray.     So  if  by  chance  I  lost  my  colour, 
these    poets    would    drink   the    bloodless  cummin."^- 
O  you  mimics,  you  slavish  herd  !     How  often  yotlr 
pother  has  stirred  my  spleen,  how  often  my  mirth  ! 

^  I  was  the  first  to  plant  free  footsteps  on  a  virgin 
soil;  I  walked  not  where  others  trod.  Who  trusts 
himself  will  lead  and  rule  the  swarm.  I  was  the 
first  to  show  to  Latium  the  iambics  *  of  Paros,  follow- 
ing the  rhythms  and  spirit  of  Archilochus,  not  the 
themes  or  the  words  that  hounded  Lycambes.  And 
lest  you  should  crown  me  ^^ith  a  scantier  wreath 
because  I  feared  to  change  the  measures  and  form 
of  verse,  see  how  manlike  *  Sappho  moulds  her  Muse 
by  the  rhythm  of  Archilochus  ;  how  Alcaeus  moulds 
his,  though  in  his  themes  and  arrangement  he  differs, 
looking  for  no  father-in-law  to  besmear  ^ith  deadly 
verses,  and  weaving  no  halter  for  his  bride  **  with 
defaming  rh}'me.  Him,  never  before  sung  by  other 
lips,  I,  the  lyrist  of  I^atium,  have  made  known.*  It  is 
my  joy  that  I  bring  things  untold  before,  and  am  read 
by  the  eyes  and  held  in  the  hands  of  the  gently  born. 

^  Would  you  know  why  the  ungrateful  reader 
praises  and  loves  my  pieces  at  home,  unjustly  decries 
them  abroad  ?  I  am  not  one  to  hunt  for  the  votes 
of  a  fickle  public  at  the  cost  of  suppers  and  gifts  of 
worn-out  clothes/     I  am  not  one  who,  hstening  to 

*  The  poet  referred  to  in  hunc  (1.  32)  is  Alcaeus,  not 
Arciiilochus,  and  Horace  is  now  boasting,  not  of  his  Epodes, 
but  of  his  Odes. 

'  The  poet  here  contrasts  himself  with  the  politician 
seeking  votes.  Pie  does  not  invite  people  to  come  together 
to  hear  his  poems,  and  then  by  unworthy  means  seek  to 
win  their  approval. 



grammaticas  ambire  tribus  et  pulpita  dignor.  4.0 

hinc  illae  lacrimae.     "  spissis  indigna  theatris 
scripta  pudet  recitare  et  nugis  addere  pondus," 
si  dixi,  "  rides,"  ait,  "  et  lovis  auribus  ista 
servas  :   fidis  enim  manare  poetica  mella 
te  solum,  tibi  pulcher."     ad  haec  ego  naribus  uti    45 
formido  et,  luctantis  acuto  ne  secer  ungui, 
"  displicet  iste^  locus,"  clamo  et  diludia  posco. 
ludus  enim  genuit  trepidum  certamen  et  iram, 
ira  truces  inimicitias  et  funebre  bellum. 

1  ille,  II. 

"  I  take  nohiles  as  used  in  irony,  not  in  seriousness,  for 
the  opening  words  of  Juvenal  "  Semper  ego  auditor  tantum  ? 
numquamne  reponam  .  .  .  ?  "  show  what  1.  39  means  as 
a  whole.  Ultor  is  also  ironical ;  after  listening  to  those 
who  called  themselves  nobiles  scrlptores  the  poet  takes  his 
revenge  by  reciting.  Others  take  nohiles  scriptores  to  mean 
PoUio,  Virgil,  Varius,  etc.,  so  that  Horace  says,  "  I  hear 
such  good  poets  that  I  neglect  and  so  offend  the  professors 
of  literature."     In  this  case,  ultor  is  added  by  way  of  jest.  _ 

*  The  grammatici,  who  lecture  upon  the  poets  from  their 
pulpita  or  platforms,  are  the  professional  teachers  of  litera- 
ture.    Tribus  is  said  in  contempt. 


EPISTLES,  1.  XIX.  40-49 

"  noble  writers  "  and  taking  my  revenge,^  deign  to 
court  the  tribes  of  lecturing  professors.  ^  "  Hence 
those  tears."*  If  I  say,  "  I  am  ashamed  to  recite 
my  worthless  writings  in  your  crowded  halls,  and  give 
undue  weight  to  trifles,"  "  You  are  in  merry  mood," 
says  one,  "  and  keep  your  lines  for  the  ears  of  Jove."* 
Fair  in  your  o^vn  eyes  you  are,  and  beUeve  that  you, 
and  you  alone,  distil  the  honey  of  poesy."  At  this 
I  am  afraid  to  turn  up  a  scornful  nose,  and  lest,  if 
he  wrestle  with  me,  I  be  torn  by  his  sharp  nails, 
"  The  place  *  you  choose  suits  me  not,"  I  cry,  and 
call  for  a  truce  in  the  sports.  For  such  sport  begets 
tumultuous  strife  and  wrath,  and  ^vrath  begets  fierce 
quarrels,  and  war  to  the  death. 

«  This  expression,  first  used  literally  by  Terence  in  his 
Andria  (1.  1-25).  where  Pamphilus  shed  tears  of  sympathy  at 
the  funeral  of  Chrysis,  became  proverbial  in  Latin  literature, 
and  was  used,  as  here,  even  when  there  were  no  actual  tears ; 
cf.  Cic.  Pro  Gael.  25.  61. 

*  t.^.  Augustus.     Cf.  Sat.  ii.  6.  52. 

*  The  battle  of  wits  has  become  a  gladiatorial  contest. 
In  this,  a  combatant,  if  he  thought  his  opponent  had  an 
unfair  advantage  in  position,  might  call  for  a  pause  in  the 
struggle  (diludia),  and  an  adjustment  of  conditions. 

2c  385 



This  is  an  Epilogue  to  the  collection  of  Epistles, 
now  ready  for  publication. 

The  poet  addresses  his  Book,  as  if  it  were  a  young 
and  handsome  slave,  who  is  eager  to  escape  from  his 
master's  house  and  to  see  something  of  the  great 
world.  There  are  untold  perils  in  the  path.  After 
a  brief  vogue,  the  book  ■will  be  neglected  or  sent  to 
the  pro\inces,  and  finally  its  doom  ^nll  be  sealed 
when  it  becomes  a  school-book  for  lads  to  learn  their 
letters  from ! 

Yet,  when  the  book  finds  an  audience,  the  poet 
would  have  it  impart  some  information  about  his  own 
life  and  characteristics. 



/         Vertumnum  lanumque,  liber,  spectare  videris, 
scilicet  ut^  prostes  Sosiorum  pumice  mundus.^ 
odisti  clavis  et  grata  sigilla  pudico  ; 
paucis  ostendi  gecpis  et  communia  laudas, 
non  ita  nutritus.     fuge  quo  descendere  gestis.  5 

non  erit  emisso  reditus  tibi.  "  quid  miser  egi  ? 
quid  volui  ?  "  dices,  ubi  quis^  te  laeserit,  et  scis 
in  breve  te  cogi,  cum  plenus  languet  amator. 

Quod  si  non  odio  peccantis  desipit  augur, 
carus  eris  Romae,  donee  te  deserat*  aetas  ;  10 

contrectatus  ubi  manibus  sordescere  volgi 
coeperis,  aut  tineas  pasces  tacitm-nus  inextis 
aut  fugies  Uticam  aut  vinctus  mitteris  Ilerdam. 
ridebit  monitor  non  exauditus,  ut  ille 
qui  male  parentem  in  rupes  protrusit^  asellum  15 

iratus  :   quis  enim  invitum  servare  laboret  ? 
hoc  quoque  te  manet,  ut  pueros  elementa  docentem 
occupet  extremis  in  vicis  balba^  senectus. 

1  ut  omitted  by  E.  "  nudus  d\p\l. 

*  quid  MSS.         *  deseret.         *  protrudit  E.         •  bella  E. 

"  i.e.  the  booksellers'  quarters  in  Rome.  There  is  a 
double  entendre  in  prostes,  pumice  mundus  and  in  other 
expressions  in  11.  1-8. 

"  The  pumice  was  used  to  smooth  the  ends  of  the  roll. 
For  the  Socii,  well-known  as  booksellers,  see  Ars  Poet.  345. 

"  Referring  to  the  scrinia  or  cases,  in  which  books  were 
kept  under  lock  or  seal. 

■*  As  applied  to  the  book,  in  breve  cogi  means  "  rolled  up 


Epistle  XX 

You  seem,  my  book,  to  be  looking  wistfully 
toward  Vertumnus  and  Janus,"  in  order,  forsooth, 
that  you  may  go  on  sale,  neatly  poUshed  with  the 
pumice  *  of  the  Sosii.  You  hate  the  keys  and  seals," 
so  dear  to  the  modest  ;  you  grieve  at  being  shown 
to  few,  and  praise  a  life  in  pubhc,  though  I  did  not 
rear  you  thus.  Off  wth  you,  dovm  to  where  you 
itch  to  go.  When  you  are  once  let  out,  there  will 
be  no  coming  back.  "  What,  alas  !  have  I  done  ? 
What  did  I  want  ?  "  you  will  say,  when  someone 
hurts  you,  and  you  find  yomself  packed  into  a 
comer,"*  whenever  your  sated  lover  grows  languid. 

^  But  unless  hatred  of  your  error  makes  the 
prophet  lose  his  cunning,  you  will  be  loved  in  Rome 
till  your  youth  leave  you  ;  when  you've  been  well 
thumbed  by  vulgar  hands  and  begin  to  grow  soiled, 
you  will  either  in  silence  be  food  for  vandal  moths, 
or  will  run  away  to  Utica,  or  be  sent  in  Ijonds  to 
Ilerda.*  Your  monitor,  from  whom  you  turned  away 
your  ear,  will  then  have  his  laugh,  hke  the  man  who 
in  anger  pushed  his  stubborn  ass  over  the  chff :  for 
who  would  care  to  save  an  ass  against  his  will  ?  This 
fate,  too,  awaits  you,  that  stammering  age  will  come 
upon  you  as  you  teach  boys  their  A  B  C  in  the  city's 

small."    With  reference  to  the  slave,  it  means  "  brought  to 
poverty,"  '  i.e.  sent  to  the  provinces. 



Cum  tibi  sol  tepidus  pluris  admoverit  auris,^ 

me  libertino  natum  patre  et  in  tenui  re  20 

maiores  pinnas  nido  extendisse  loqueris, 

ut  quantum  generi  demas  virtutibu?  addas  ; 

me  primis  urbis  belli  placuisse  domique, 

corporis  exigui,  praecanum,  solibus  aptum, 

irasci  celerem,  tamen  ut  placabilis  essem.  25 

forte  meum  si  quis  te  percontabitur  aevum, 

me  quater  undenos  sciat  imple\isse  Decembris, 

collegam  Lepidum  quo  duxit^  Lollius  anno. 

^  annos. 

*  duxit  Mss.  Porph. :  dixit  urged  by  Keller,  accepted  by 
Wilkins,  Rol/e. 


EPISTLES,  I.  XX.  19-28 

^^  When  the  milder  sun  brings  you  a  larger 
audience,  you  will  tell  them  about  me  :  that  I  was 
a  freedman's  son,  and  amid  slender  means  spread 
wings  too  wide  for  my  nest,  thus  adding  to  my  merits 
what  you  take  from  my  birth  ;  that  I  found  favour, 
both  in  war  and  peace,  with  the  foremost  in  the 
State  ;  of  small  stature,  grey  before  my  time,  fond 
of  the  sun,  quick  in  temper,  yet  so  as  to  be  easily 
appeased.  If  one  chance  to  inquire  my  age,  let  him 
know  that  I  completed  my  forty-fourth  December  in 
the  year  when  Lollius  drew  Lepidus  for  colleague." 

•  Lollius  was  consul  in  21  b.c.  The  other  consulship, 
first  intended  for  Augustus  himself,  was  later  filled  by  the 
appointment  of  Lepidus. 


B««K  II 


In  his  Life  of  Horace,  Suetonius  tells  us  that  the  poet 
composed  this  Epistle  for  Augustus  after  the  em- 
peror, on  reading  certain  of  his  Sermones,  had  com- 
plained because  none  of  them  were  addressed  to 
him  :  "  Augustus  scripta  quidem  eius  usque  adeo 
probavlt  .  .  .  ut  .  .  .  post  sermones  vero  quosdam 
lectos  nullam  sul  mentionem  habitam  ita  sit  questus  : 
'  irasci  me  tibi  scito,  quod  non  in  plerisque  eiusmodi 
scriptis  mecum  potissimum  loquaris.  An  vereris  ne 
apud  posteros  infame  tibi  sit,  quod  videaris  familiaris 
nobis  esse  ?  '  Expressitque  eclogam  ad  se  cuius 
initium  est  cum  tot  sustineas,"  '^  etc.  It  is  quite  im- 
probable that  the  sermones  here  referred  to  are 
either  the  Satires,  which  were  published  sixteen  years 
earlier,  or  the  First  Book  of  Epistles,  published  some 

<»  "  Augustus  appreciated  his  writings  so  highly  that,  after 
reading  some  of  his  Sermones  and  finding  no  mention  therein 
of  himself,  he  sent  him  this  complaint :  '  Know  that  I  am 
angry  with  you,  because  in  your  several  writings  of  tliis  type 
you  do  not  address  me — me  above  all.  Is  it  your  fear  that 
posterity  may  deem  it  to  your  discredit,  that  you  seem  to  be 
intimate  with  me  ? '  And  so  he  wrung  from  ttie  poet  the 
selection  addressed  to  him,  beginning  cum  tot  sustineas." 



six  years  before  They  must  be  the  Epistles  addressed 
to  Florus  (ii.  2),  and  to  the  Pisones  {Ars  Poetica),  the 
present  Epistie,  therefore,  being  the  latest  of  the 
three  in  composition. 

Burdened  as  you  arc,  9  Caesar,  with  cares  of 
State,  you  must  not  be  approached  by  me  in  a  long 
discourse  (l-'i). 

Unhke  the  demigods  of  story,  whose  benefits  to 
mankind  were  recognized  only  after  death,  your 
great  services  to  the  world  are  acknowledged  in 
your  Hfetime  (5-17),  but  this  principle  is  not  elsewhere 
applied  by  the  Romans  to  contemporary  merit,  for 
they  admire  only  what  is  ancient,  and  defend  their 
attitude  on  the  ground  that  the  best  works  of  the 
Greeks  were  their  earliest  (18-33).  But  how  can  a 
line  be  drawn  strictly  between  ancient  and  modern 
(34-19)  ? 

Take  a  list  of  the  older  poets,  and  note  how  secure 
they  are  in  the  reputation  assigned  them  by  the 
critics.  Ennius,  for  example,  their  "  second  Homer," 
cares  httle  whether  the  promises  of  his  Pythagorean 
dreams  are  fulfilled.  Naevius  is  as  familiar  to  us  as 
if  he  were  a  recent  writer.  So  with  Pacuvius  and 
Accius  in  tragedy  ;  Afranius,  Plautus,  Caecihus,  and 
Terence  in  comedy  (50-62). 

This  admiration  should  be  more  discriminating, 
for  these  early  wTiters  are  far  from  perfect  and  often 
call  for  our  indulgence  rather  than  our  approval. 
It  is  really  envy  of  contemporary  merit  that  accounts 
for  this  undue  praise  of  the  old  writers  and  a 
depreciation  of  the  new  (63-89). 

How  different  was  the  attitude  of  the  Greeks 
toward  novelty  !  ©nee  rid  of  war,  they  turned  like 
children  from  one  amusement  to  another — athletics, 



sculpture,  painting,  music,  and  tragedy,  but  in  Rome 
we  have  been  more  serious,  devoting  ourselves  to 
practical  affairs,  and  only  now,  in  these  late  days, 
turning  to  the  writing  of  verses,  as  I  am  doing 
myself  (90-117). 

This  craze  is  not  without  its  advantages.  Poets 
are  free  from  many  vices.  They  promote  the  educa- 
tion of  the  young  and  serve  the  cause  of  religion 
(118-138).  Let  us  look  at  the  history  of  dramatic 
poetry.  Beginning  M'ith  rude  Fescennine  verses, 
whose  scurrility  had  to  be  checked  by  law,  it  came 
under  the  refining  influence  of  Greek  art,  which  led 
to  the  almost  complete  elimination  of  the  earlier 
rusticity  (139-160).  For  tragedy  the  Romans  have 
a  natural  aptitude,  but  they  lack  the  finishing  touch. 
Comedy  is  supposed  to  involve  less  labour,  but  for 
that  very  reason  failure  can  not  be  so  easily  excused. 
Plautus,  for  instance,  is  careless  and  slipshod,  being 
more  anxious  to  fill  his  purse  than  to  write  good 
plays  (161-176).  The  dramatic  writer  depends  for 
success  upon  his  audience,  and  therefore  I  renounce 
the  stage.  The  masses  call  for  bears  and  boxers, 
and  even  the  educated  care  more  for  what  delights 
the  restless  eye  than  for  good  drama.  If  ©emocritus 
were  alive  to-day,  he  would  laugh,  not  at  the  scene 
on  the  stage,  but  at  the  audience,  who  applaud  the 
actor  before  he  utters  a  word,  simply  because  of  his 
fine  clothes  (177-207)  !  Yet  don't  suppose  that  I 
undervalue  an  art  which  I  cannot  handle,  for  to  me 
a  great  dramatic  poet,  who  can  move  my  soul  with 
his  airy  creations,  is  a  wondrous  magician  (208-213). 

But  I  pray  you,  @  Caesar,  to  bestow  a  share  of 
your  patronage  on  those  who  write,  not  for  spectators, 
but  for  readers  (214-218). 


We  poets,  I  know,  often  behave  foolishly.  We 
are  tactless,  over-sensitive  to  criticism,  and  expect 
too  much  consideration.  But,  after  all,  great  merits 
call  for  great  poets  to  celebrate  them.  Alexander 
was  a  good  judge  of  painting  and  sculpture,  but  in 
poetry  his  taste  was  Boeotian,  for  he  paid  the  'WTCtched 
Choerilus  for  his  poor  verses.  You,  on  the  contrary, 
have  chosen  Virgil  and  Varius  to  sing  your  exploits, 
and  you  know  that  no  sculptor  reproduces  the  features 
of  heroes  more  faithfully  than  the  poet  does  their 
souls  (219-250).  If  I  could  do  so,  I  should  much 
prefer  to  sing  your  exploits,  but  you  are  worthy  of  a 
greater  poet,  and  I  will  not  run  "the  risk  of  bringing 
discredit  upon  you  as  well  as  upon  myself.  I  should 
no  more  hke  to  have  a  poor  waxen  portrait  of  myself 
offered  for  sale  than  to  be  sung  in  uncouth  verses 
which  sooner  or  later  must  come  to  an  ignoble  end, 
and  provide  wrapping  material  in  a  grocer's  shop 
''250-270)  I 



Cum  tot  sustineas  et  tanta  negotia  solus, 
res  Italas  armis  tuteris,  moribus  ernes, 
legibus  emendes,  in  publica  commoda  peccem, 
si  longo  sermone  morer  tua  tempora,  Caesar. 

Romulus  et  Liber  pater  et  cum  Castore  Pollux,     5 
post  ingentia  facta^  deorum  in  templa  recepti, 
dum  terras  hominumque  colunt  genus,  aspera  bella 
componunt,  agros  assignant,  oppida  condunt, 
ploravere  suis  non  respondere  favorem 
speratum  meritis.     diram  qui  contudit  hydram       10 
notaque^  fatali  portenta  labore  subegit, 
comperit  invidiam  supremo  fine  domari. 
urit  enim  fulgore  suo,  qui  praegravat  artis 
infra  se  positas  ;   exstinctus  amabitur  idem, 
praesenti  tibi  maturos  largimur  honores,  15 

iurandasque  tuum  per  numen^  ponimus  aras, 
nil  oriturum  alias,  nil  ortum  tale  fatentes. 

Sed  tuus  hie*  populus  sapiens  et  iustus  in  uno, 
te  nostris  ducibus,  te  Grais  anteferendo, 

*  fata  Bentley.  ^  totaque  E. 

'  numen  VE  :  nomen  aM.  *  hoc  Bentley. 

<•  Augustus  initiated  many  social  reforms,  in  an  effort  to 
improve  the  morals  of  the  people,  cf.  Odes  iii.  24.  35  ;  iv. 
5.  22  ;  iv.  15.  9.  '  Hercules. 



Epistle  I 

Seeing  that  you  alone  carry  the  weight  of  so  many 
great  charges,  guarding  our  Itahan  state  vriih  arms, 
gracing  her  with  morals,"  and  reforming  her  \vith 
laws,  I  should  sin  against  the  public  weal  if  with  long 
talk,  O  Caesar,  I  were  to  delay  your  busy  hours. 

*  Romulus,  father  Liber,  Pollux  and  Castor,  who, 
after  mighty  deeds,  were  welcomed  into  the  temples 
of  the  gods,  so  long  as  they  had  care  for  earth  and 
human  kind,  settling  fierce  wars,  assigning  lands, 
and  founding  towns,  lamented  that  the  goodwill 
hoped  for  matched  not  their  deserts.  He''  who 
crushed  the  fell  Hydra  and  laid  low  with  fated 
toil  the  monsters  of  story  found  that  Envy  is  quelled 
only  by  death  that  comes  at  last.  For  a  man  scorches 
with  his  brilHance  who  outweighs  merits  lowlier  than 
his  own,  yet  he,  too,  ^vill  \sin  affection  when  his 
light  is  quenched.  Upon  you,  however,  wliile  still 
among  us,  we  bestow  honours  betimes,  set  up  altars  " 
to  swear  by  in  your  name,  and  confess  that  nought 
like  you  will  hereafter  arise  or  has  arisen  eie  now. 

^  Yet  this  people  of  yours,  so  wise  and  just  in 
one    respect,    in     ranking    you    above     our     own, 

*  According  to  Suetonius  {Claud.  11.),  an  altar  was  first 
set  up  to  Augustus  at  Lugdunum  (Lyons)  in  12  b.c,  yet 
this  Epistle  must  be  a  year  or  two  earlier  than  that  date. 



cetera  nequaquam  simili  ratione  modoque  20 

aestimat  et,  nisi  quae  terris  semota  suisque 
temporibus  defuncta  videt,  fastidit  et  odit ; 
sic  fautor  veterum,  ut  tabulas  peccare  vetantis, 
quas  bis  quinque  viri  sanxerunt,  foedera  regum 
vel  Gabiis  vel  cum  rigidis  aequata  Sabinis,  25 

pontificum  libros,  annosa  volumina  vatum 
dictitet^  Albano  Musas  in  monte  locutas. 

Si,  quia  Graiorum^  sunt  antiquissima  quaeque 
scripta  vel  optima,  Romani  pensantur  eadem 
scriptores  trutina,  non  est  quod  multa  loquamur  ;   30 
nil  intra  est  olea,^  nil  extra  est  in  nuce  duri  ; 
venimus  ad  summum  fortunae,  pingimus  atque 
psallimus  et  luctamur  Achivis  doctius*  unctis. 

Si  meliora  dies,  ut  vina,  poemata  reddit, 
scire  velim,  chartis  pretium  quotus  arroget  annus.  35 
scriptor  abhinc  annos  centum  qui  decidit,  inter 
perfectos  veteresque^  referri  debet  an  inter 
vilis  atque  novos  ?     excludat  iurgia  finis. 
"  est  vetus  atque  probus,  centum  qui  perficit  annos." 
quid,  qui  deperiit  minor  uno  mense  vel  anno,  40 

inter  quos  referendus  erit  ?     veteresne  poetas, 
an  quos  et  praesens  et  postera  respuat®  aetas  ? 

1  dirat  et  0/'Xi :  dicit  et  Rtt. 

^  Graiorum  VE:  Graecorum  aM,  II- 

3  olea  Bentley  after  some  inferior  mss.  :  oleaiii  uss. 

*  scitius.  *  veteresne,  //. 

*  respuat  V:  respuit  M:  respuet  (t>\l/\l. 

"  The  Twelve  Tables,  drawn  up  by  the  Decemvirs. 

"  A  copy  of  a  treaty  made  by  Tarquinius  Superbus  with 
Gabii  and  written  in  archaic  letters  on  bull's  hide  was  still 
in  existence  in  the  time  of  Dionysius  of  Halicarnassus,  i.e. 
the  Augustan  age  (Dion.  Hal.  iv.  58). 

'  Books  of  ritual  and  religious  law. 


EPISTLES.  II.  T.  20-42 

above  Greek  leaders,  judges  all  other  things  by  a 
wholly  different  rule  and  method,  and  scorns  and 
detests  all  save  what  it  sees  has  passed  from  earth 
and  hved  its  davs.  So  strong  is  its  bias  toward 
things  ancient,  that  the  Tables  *  forbidding  trans- 
gression, which  the  ten  men  enacted,  treaties  in 
which  our  kings  made  equal  terms  %vith  Gabii  ^  or 
the  sturdy  Sabines,  the  Pontiffs'  records,"  the  mouldy 
scrolls  of  seers  <* — these,  it  tells  us  over  and  over, 
were  spoken  by  the  Muses  on  the  Alban  mount. 

^  If,  because  among  Greek  wTitings  the  oldest  are 
quite  the  best,  we  are  to  weigh  Roman  wTiters  in  the 
same  balance,  there  is  no  need  of  many  words.  The 
olive  has  no  hardness  ^\ithin,  the  nut  has  none 
without  *  ;  we  have  come  to  fortune's  summit  ;  we 
paint,  we  play  and  sing,  we  v.Testle  with  more  skill 
than  the  well-oiled  Greeks. 

^  If  poems  are  like  wine  which  time  improves,  I 
should  like  to  know  what  is  the  year  that  gives  to 
■wTitings  fresh  value.  A  wTiter  who  dropped  off  a 
hundred  vears  ago,  is  he  to  be  reckoned  among  the 
perfect  and  ancient,  or  among  the  worthless  and 
modern  ?  Let  some  limit  banish  disputes.  "  He  is 
ancient,"  vou  say,  "  and  good,  who  completes  a 
hundred  years."  "  What  of  one  who  passed  away 
a  month  or  a  year  short  of  that,  in  what  class  is  he 
to  be  reckoned  ?  The  ancient  poets,  or  those  whom 
to-day  and  to-morrow  must  treat  with  scorn  ?     "  He 

•*  Such  as  the  Sibylline  books. 

*  The  Greeks  and  Romans  may  differ  in  the  development 
of  their  genius  just  as  much  as  olives  and  nuts,  both  of 
which  are  fruits,  may  differ  in  character  from  each  other. 
Moreover,  though  we  have  conquered  the  world,  it  does  not 
follow  that  we  are  superior  to  the  Greeks  in  painting,  in 
music,  and  in  wTiting. 



"  iste  quidem  veteres  inter  ponetur  honeste, 

qui  vel  mense  brevi  vel  toto  est  iunior  anno." 

utor  permisso,  caudaeque  pilos  ut  equinae  45 

paulatim  vello  et  demo  unum,  demo  etiam^  unum, 

dum  cadat^  elusus  ratione  ruentis  acervi, 

qui  redit  in^  fastos*  et  virtutem  aestimat  annis 

miraturque  nihil  nisi  quod  Libitina  saeravit. 

Ennius  et  sapiens  et  fortis  et  alter  Homerus,        50 
ut  critici  dicunt,  leviter  curare  videtur, 
quo  promissa  cadant  et  somnia  Pythagorea. 
Naevius  in  manibus  non  est  et  mentibus  haeret 
paene  recens  ?  adeo  sanctum  est  vetus  omne  poema. 
ambigitur  quotiens,  uter  utro  sit  prior,  aufert  65 

Pacuvius  docti  famam  senis,  Accius  alti, 
dicitur  Afrani  toga  convenisse  Menandro, 
Plautus  ad  exemplar  Siculi  properare  Epicharmi, 
vincere  Gaecilius  gravitate,  Terentius  arte. 

^  etiam,  7:  et  item  {or  idem),  II. 

*  cadet  M.  "  ad  E,  Porph.  *  fastus  aMRir. 

"  Horace  makes  use  of  the  logical  puzzle  known  as 
sorites  {a-wpds,  a  heap).  How  many  grains  of  sand  make 
a  heap  or  pile  ?  The  addition  of  no  one  grain  will  make  that 
a  heap  which  was  not  a  heap  before.  He  also  seems  to  have 
asked  how  many  hairs  make  a  tail.  See  Plutarch's  story 
of  the  two  horses  in  his  Sertorius. 

*  Horace  is  giving  a  summary  of  the  conventional  literary 
opinions  of  his  day  as  to  the  old  writers.  Ennius  is  called 
sapiens  because  of  his  philosophical  poems,  and  fortis, 
because  in  his  Annales  he  recounted  the  fortia  facta 
patrum.  As  to  alter  Homerus,  this  exaggerated  phrase  was 
used  of  him  by  Lucilius  (ed.  Marx,  frag.  1189). 

"  Ennius  tells  us  that  Homer,  appearing  to  him  in  a 
dream,  informed  him  that  his  soul  now  dwelt  in  Ennius's 


EPISTLES,  II.  I.  43-59 

surely  ■will  find  a  place  of  honour  among  the  ancients, 
who  is  short  by  a  brief  month  or  even  a  whole  year." 
I  take  what  you  allow,  and  like  hairs  in  a  horse's 
tail,  first  one  and  then  another  I  pluck  and  pull  away 
little  by  Bttle,  till,  after  the  fashion  of  the  falling 
heap,<*  he  is  baffled  and  thrown  do\\Ti,  who  looks 
back  upon  the  annals,  and  values  worth  by  years, 
and  admires  nothing  but  what  the  goddess  of  funerals 
has  hallowed. 

**  Ennius,*'  the  v^ise  and  valiant,  the  second  Homer 
(as  the  critics  style  him),  seems  to  care  but  httle 
what  becomes  of  his  promises  and  Pythagorean 
dreams."  Is  not  Nae\'ius  in  our  hands,  and  chnging 
to  our  minds,  almost  as  of  yesterday  ?  **  So  holy  a 
thing  is  every  ancient  poem.  As  often  as  the  ques- 
tion is  raised,  which  is  the  better  of  the  two,  Pacu\ius 
gains  fame  as  the  learned  old  writer,  Accius  as  the 
lofty  one.  The  gown  *  of  Afranius,  'tis  said,  was  of 
Menander's  fit  ;  Plautus  hurries  along '  hke  his 
model,  Epicharmus  of  Sicilv.  Caecilius  wins  the 
prize  for  dignity,  Terence  for  art.     These  authors 

body.  This  doctrine  of  transmigration  of  souls  was  taught 
by  Pythagoras. 

*  Naevius  died  in  199  b.c.  He  wrote  both  tragedies  and 
comedies,  as  well  as  an  epic,  the  Bellum  Ptinicum  (this  in 
Saturnian  metre).  Of  the  other  writers  named  here, 
Pacuvius  and  Accius  were  tragic  poets ;  the  rest  comic  poets. 
For  Livius  see  note  a  overleaf. 

'  Horace  mentions  the  toga  of  Afranius,  because  that 
writer's  plays  were  called  togatae,  being  comedies  based  on 
Italic  characters  and  customs,  in  contrj^  with  the  palliatae, 
which  were  Greek  throughout. 

^  The  verb  properare  implies  rapiditj-  of  movement, 
which  we  are  to  associate  with  Epicharmus,  the  great  writer 
of  Sicilian  comedv.  This  was  "  essentially  burlesque " 
(Jevons,  Uist.  of  Greek  Lit.  p.  240). 

2d  401 


hos  ediscit^  et  hos  arto  stipata  theatre  60 

spectat  Roma  potens  ;  habet  hos  numeratque  poetas 
ad  nostrum  tempus  Livi  scriptoris  ab  aevo. 

Interdum  volgus  rectum  videt,  est  ubi  peccat. 
si  veteres  ita  miratur  laudatque  poetas, 
ut  nihil  anteferat,  nihil  illis  comparet,  errat.  65 

si  quaedam  nimis  antique,  si  pleraque  dure 
dicere  credit  eos,  ignave  multa  fatetur, 
et  sapit  et  mecum  facit  et  love  iudicat  aequo, 
non  equidem  insector  delendave^  carmina  Livi^ 
esse  reor,  memini  quae  plagosum  mihi  parvo  70 

Orbilium  dictare  ;   sed  emendata  videri 
pulchraque  et  exactis  minimum  distantia  miror. 
inter  quae  verbum  emicuit  si  forte  decorum,  et* 
si  versus  paulo  concinnior  unus  et  alter, 
iniuste  totum  ducit  venditque  poema.  75 

Indignor  quicquam  reprehendi,  non  quia  crasse 
compositum  illepideve  putetur,  sed  quia  nuper, 
nee  veniam  antiquis,  sed  honorem  et^  praemia  posci. 
recte  necne^  crocum  floresque  perambulet'  Attae 
fabula  si  dubitem,  clament  periisse  pudorem  80 

cuncti  paene  patres,  ea  cum  reprehendere  coner, 
quae  gravis  Aesopus,  quae  doctus  Roscius  egit ; 
vel  quia  nil  rectum,  nisi  quod  placuit  sibi,  ducunt,® 

^  ediscet  JRtt.  *  -que,  //. 

*  Livii  M :  lev!  aE  {hence  Bentley  read  Laevi). 

*  et  ilf,  7:  omitted  in  aE.       ^  ac  E  Goth.       *  necne]  nee. 

'  perambulat  aMRir.  *  dicunt  Eir. 

"  Livius  Andronicus,  earliest  of  Latin  writers,  brought 
out  two  plays,  a  tragedy  and  a  comedy,  in  240  b.c.  He 
died  in  204  b.c. 

*  For  recte  perambulat  cf.  recto  stet  fabula  talo  (1.  176 
below).  The  name  Atta  is  said  by  Festus  to  have  been  a 
nickname  meaning  "  one  with  a  light,  tripping  step." 

*  The  stage  was  perfumed  with  saffron-water.     In /lores 


EPISTLES,  II.  I.  60-83 

mighty  Rome  learns  by  heart ;  these  she  views, 
when  packed  in  her  narrow  theatre  ;  these  she 
counts  as  her  muster-roll  of  poets  from  the  days  of 
LiWus  "  the  >vriter  to  our  own. 

*^  At  times  the  pubhc  see  straight ;  sometimes 
they  make  mistakes.  If  they  admire  the  ancient 
poets  and  cry  them  up  so  as  to  put  nothing  above 
them,  nothing  on  their  level,  they  are  wrong.  If 
they  hold  that  sometimes  their  diction  is  too  quaint, 
and  ofttimes  too  harsh,  if  they  admit  that  much  of 
it  is  flat,  then  they  have  taste,  they  take  my  side, 
and  give  a  verdict  vriih  Jove's  assent.  Mark  you  ! 
I  am  not  crying  down  the  poems  of  Livius — I  would 
not  doom  to  destruction  verses  which  I  remember 
Orbilius  of  the  rod  dictated  to  me  as  a  boy  :  but  that 
they  should  be  held  faultless,  and  beautiful,  and 
well-nigh  perfect,  amazes  me.  Among  them,  it  may 
be  a  pleasing  phrase  shines  forth,  or  one  or  two  hnes 
are  somewhat  better  turned — then  these  unfairly 
carry  off  and  sell  the  whole  poem. 

'*  I  am  impatient  that  any  work  is  censured,  not 
becavise  it  is  thought  to  be  coarse  or  inelegant  in 
style,  but  because  it  is  modern,  and  that  what  is 
claimed  for  the  ancients  should  be,  not  indulgence, 
but  honour  and  rewards.  If  I  were  to  question 
whether  a  play  of  Atta's  keeps  its  legs  ''  or  not 
amidst  the  saffron  and  flowers,"  nearly  all  our  elders 
would  cry  out  that  modesty  is  dead,  when  I  attempt 
to  blame  what  stately  Aesopus  and  learned  Roscius 
once  acted  ;  either  because  they  think  nothing  can 
be   right    save    what    has    pleased    themselves,    or 

Porphyrio  finds  a  reference  to  a  play  of  Atta's  called  Matertera, 
in  which  a  great  number  of  flowers  were  enumerated.  Atta, 
a  writer  of  togat<ie,  died  in  78  b.c.  He  was,  therefore,  not 
very  ancient,  though  his  fragments  show  many  archaisms. 



vel  quia  turpe  putant  parere  minoribus,  et  quae 
imberbes^  didicere  senes  perdenda  fateri.  86 

iam  Saliare  Numae  carmen  qui  laudat  et  illud, 
quod  mecum  ignorat,  solus  volt  scire  videri, 
ingeniis  non  ille  favet  plauditque  sepultis, 
nostra  sed  impugnat,  nos  nostraque  lividus  edit. 

Quod  si  tarn  Graecis  novitas  invisa  fuisset  90 

quam  nobis,  quid  nunc  esset  vetus  ?  aut  quid  haberet  ^ 
quod  Icgeret  tereretque  viritim^  publicus  usus  ? 

Ut  primum  positis  nugari  Graecia  bellis 
coepit  et  in  vitium  fortuna  labier  aequa, 
nunc  athletarum  studiis,  nunc  arsit  equorum,  95 

marmoris  aut  eboris  fabros  aut  aeris  amavit, 
suspendit  picta  voltum  mentemque  tabella, 
nunc  tibicinibus,  nunc^  est  gavisa  tragoedis  ; 
sub  nutrice  puella  velut  si  luderet  infans, 
quod  cupide  petiit,  mature  plena  reliquit.  100 

quid  placet  aut  odio  est,  quod  non  mutabile  credas  ?^ 
hoc  paces  habuere  bonae  ventique  secundi. 

Romae  dulce  diu  fuit  et  sollemne  reclusa 
mane  domo  vigilare,  clienti  promere  iura, 
cautos  nominibus  rectis  expendere  nummos,  105 

maiores  audire,  minori  dicere,  per  quae 
crescere  res  posset,  minui  damnosa  libido. 

*  imberbes  uss. :  imberbi  Cruquius. 

*  haberes,  II.  '  Quiritum  Ur sinus.  *  tunc,  II. 

*  Line  101  gives  a  fair  sense  here.  Lachmann,  hotcever, 
transposed  it  so  as  to  follow  107  and  most  editors  accept  his 
verdict.     Vollmer  puts  it  after  102. 

"  The  hymns  of  the  Salii,  a  priesthood  of  Mars  instituted 
by  Numa,  were  almost  uninteUigible  to  the  priests  them- 
selves in  the  days  of  Quintilian  ;  "Saliorum  carmina  vix 
sacerdotibus  suis  satis  intellecta"  (Quint,  i.  6.  40). 

*  Probably  a  reference  to  the  Persian  wars,  which  were 


EPISTLES,  II.  I.  84-107 

because  they  hold  it  a  shame  to  yield  to  their  juniors, 
and  to  confess  in  their  old  age  that  what  they  learned 
in  beardless  youth  should  be  destroyed.  Indeed, 
whoever  cries  up  Numa's  Salian  hymn,"  and  would 
alone  seem  to  understand  what  he  knows  as  little  of 
as  I  do,  that  man  does  not  favour  and  applaud  the 
genius  of  the  deaa,  but  assails  ours  to-day,  spitefully 
hating  us  and  everything  of  ours. 

*^  But  if  novelty  had  been  as  offensive  to  the  Greeks 
as  it  is  to  us,  what  in  these  days  would  be  ancient  ? 
What  would  the  pubhc  have  to  read  and  thumb, 
each  according  to  his  taste  ? 

^^  From  the  day  she  dropped  her  wars,^  Greece 
took  to  trifling,  and  amid  fairer  fortunes  drifted  into 
folly  :  she  was  all  aglow  with  passion,  now  for 
athletes,  now  for  horses  ;  she  raved  over  workers  in 
marble  or  ivory  or  bronze  ;  with  eyes  and  soul  she 
hung  enraptured  on  the  painted  panel  ;  her  joy  was 
now  in  flautists,  and  now  in  actors  of  tragedy.  Like 
a  baby-girl  playing  at  its  nurse  s  feet,  what  she 
wanted  in  impatience,  she  soon,  when  satisfied,  cast 
off.  What  hkes  and  dislikes  are  there  that  you 
would  not  think  easily  changed  ?  Such  was  the 
effect  of  happy  times  of  peace  and  prosperous  gales. 

^^  At  Rome  it  was  long  a  pleasure  and  habit  to  be 
up  at  daw'n  with  open  doors,  to  set  forth  the  laAV  for 
clients,  to  pay  out  to  sound  debtors  money  under 
bonds,  to  give  ear  to  one's  elders  and  to  tell  one's 
juniors  how  an  estate  might  be  increased  and  ruinous 

followed  by  a  wonderful  literary  and  artistic  epocfi  in 
Athens.  In  what  follows  Horace  speaks  of  the  various  arts 
and  pursuits  of  peace  from  the  old  Roman  point  of  view. 
When  the  Iloman  was  not  at  war,  he  \vaj>  at  work  (c/.  U. 
103  ff.). 



mutavit  mentem  populus  levis  et  calet  uno 
scribendi  studio  ;  pueri^  patresque  severi 
fronde  comas  vincti  cenant  et  carmina  dictant.       110 
ipse  ego,  qui  nuUos  me  adfirmo  scribere  versus, 
invenior  Parthis  mendacior,  et  prius  orto 
sole  vigil  calamum  et  chartas  et  scrinia  posco. 
navem  agere  ignarus  navis  timet  ;  habrotonum  aegro 
non  audet  nisi  qui  didieit  dare  ;  quod  medicorum^  est 
promittunt  medici^  ;  tractant  fabrilia  fabri  :  116 

scribimus  indocti  doctique  poemata  passim. 

Hie  error  tamen  et  levis  haec  insania  quantas 
virtutes  habeat,  sic  collige.     vatis  avarus 
non  temere  est  animus;  versus  amat,  hocstudetunum; 
detrimenta,  fugas  servorum,  incendia  ridet ;  121 

non  fraudem  socio  puerove  incogitat^  ullam 
pupillo  ;  vivit  siliquis  et  pane  secundo  ; 
militiae  quamquam  piger  et  malus,  utilis  urbi, 
si  das  hoc,  parvis  quoque  rebus  magna  iuvari.         125 
OS  tenerum  pueri  balbumque  poeta  figurat, 
torquet  ab  obscenis  iam  nunc  sermonibus  aurem, 
mox  etiam  pectus  praeceptis  format  amicis, 
asperitatis  et  invidiae  corrector  et  irae, 
recte  facta  refert,  orientia  tempora  notis  130 

instruit  exemplis,  inopem  solatur  et  aegrum. 
castis  cum  pueris  ignara  puella  mariti 
disceret  unde  preces,  vatem  ni  Musa  dedisset  ? 
poscit  opem  chorus  et  praesentia  numina  sentit, 
caelestis  implorat  aquas  docta  prece  blandus,^        135 
avertit  morbos,  metuenda  pericula  pellit, 

*  puerique  inferior  mss.,  Bentley. 

*  melicorum,  melici  Bentley :    modicorum,  modici  /.  S. 
Phillimore.  *  puero  vel  cogitat  E.  *  blandos  a. 

"  Even  while  dining,  they  have  an  amanuensis  ready  and 
they  wear  the  ivy  sacred  to  poets  instead  of  the  usual  garland 
of  flowers. 

EPISTLES,  II.  I.  loS-136 

indulgence  curbed.  The  fickle  public  has  changed 
its  taste  and  is  fired  throughout  with  a  scribbling 
craze  ;  sons  and  grave  sires  sup  crowned  with  leaves 
and  dictate  their  lines."  I  myself,  who  declare  that 
I  write  no  verses,  prove  to  be  more  of  a  liar  than  the 
Parthians  :  before  sunrise  I  wake,  and  call  for  pen, 
paper,  and  writing-case.  A  man  who  knows  nothing 
of  a  ship  fears  to  handle  one  ;  no  one  dares  to  give 
southernwood  to  the  sick  unless  he  has  learnt  its 
use  ;  doctors  undertake  a  doctor's  work  ;  carpenters 
handle  carpenters'  tools  :  but,  skilled  or  unskilled, 
we  scribble  poetry,  all  ahke. 

^^  And  yet  this  craze,  this  mild  madness,  has  its 
merits.  How  great  these  are,  now  consider.  Seldom 
is  the  poet's  heart  set  on  gain  :  verses  he  loves  ; 
this  is  his  one  passion.  Money  losses,  runaway 
slaves,  fires — he  laughs  at  all.  To  cheat  partner  or 
youthful  ward  he  never  plans.  His  food  is  pulse 
and  coarse  bread.  Though  a  poor  soldier,  and  slow 
in  the  field,  he  serves  the  State,  if  you  grant 
that  even  by  small  things  are  great  ends  helped. 
The  poet  fashions  the  tender,  lisping  hps  of  child- 
hood ;  even  then  he  turns  the  ear  from  unseemly 
words  ;  presently,  too,  he  moulds  the  heart  by 
kindly  precepts,  correcting  roughness  and  envy  and 
anger.  He  tells  of  noble  deeds,  equips  the  rising 
age  with  famous  examples,  and  to  the  helpless  and 
sick  at  heart  brings  comfort,  ^^'hence,  in  company 
with  chaste  boys,  would  the  unwedded  maid  learn 
the  suppliant  hymn,  had  the  Muse  not  given  them 
a  bard  ?  Their  chorus  asks  for  aid  and  feels  the 
presence  of  the  gods,  calls  for  showers  from  heaven, 
winning  favotir  \nth  the  prayer  he  has  taught,  averts 
disease,  drives  away  dreaded  dangers,  gains  peace 



impetrat  et  pacem  et  locupletem  frugibus  annum, 
carmine  di  superi  placantur,  carmine  Manes. 

Agricolae  prisci,  fortes  parvoque  beati, 
condita  post  frumenta  levantes  tempore  festo         140 
corpus  et  ipsum  animum  spe  finis  dura  ferentem, 
cum  sociis  operum  et  pueris^  et  coniuge  fida, 
Tellurem  porco,  Silvanum  lacte  piabant, 
floribus  et  vino  Genium  memorem  brevis  aevi 
Fescennina  per  hunc  inventa-  licentia  morem  145 

versibus  alternis  opprobria  rustica  fudit, 
libertasque  recurrentis  accepta  per  annos 
lusit  amabiliter,  donee  iam  saevus  apertam 
in  rabiem  coepit  verti  iocus  et  per  honestas 
ire  domos  impune  minax.     doluere  cruento  150 

dente  lacessiti  ;  fuit  intactis  quoque  cura 
condicione  super  communi  ;   quin  etiam  lex 
poenaque  lata,^  malo  quae  nollet  carmine  quemquam 
describi  :  vertere  modum,  formidine  fustis 
ad  bene  dicendum  delectandumque  redacti.  155 

Graecia  capta  ferum  victorem  cepit  et  artis 
intulit  agresti  Latio.     sic  horridus  ille 

^  et  pueris  E :  pueris  (et  omitted)  aR 
invecta  Poliziano,  Bentley,  ^  i 

nata,  //. 

"  In  11.  131-133,  Horace  is  thinking  chiefly  of  the  chorus 
of  boys  and  girls  who  sang  the  Carmen  Saecularc  in  17  b.c.  ; 
in  11.  134-137,  he  sets  forth  the  function  of  the  chorus, 
especially  in  association  with  religious  ceremonies. 

*  This  account  of  the  development  of  a  Latin  drama  from 
a  rustic  origin  may  be  compared  with  Virgil's  sketch  of  the 
rise  of  the  drama  in  Georg.  ii.  385  ff.,  and  with  the  outline 
given  by  Livy  in  Book  vii.  2. 

'  Each  man's  guardian  spirit ;  cf.  Epist.  i.  7.  94. 

"*  These  Fescennine  verses,  the  earliest  form  of  Italian 
drama,  survived  in  later  times  in  the  abusive  songs  sung 
at  weddings  and  in  triumphal  processions.     They  were  so 


EPISTLES.  II.  I.  137-157 

and  a  season  rich  in  fruits.  Song  wins  grace  with 
the  gods  above,  song  wins  it  with  the  gods  below .<* 

^^  The  farmers  ^  of  old,  a  sturdy  folk  >\'ith  simple 
wealth,  when,  after  harvesting  the  grain,  they  sought 
relief  at  holiday  time  for  the  body,  as  well  as  for  the 
soul,  which  bore  its  toils  in  hope  of  the  end,  together 
>vith  slaves  and  faithful  \\ife,  partners  of  their 
labours,  used  to  propitiate  Earth  with  swine,  Silvanus 
with  milk,  and  \vith  flowers  and  wine  the  Genius  ' 
who  is  ever  mindful  of  the  shortness  of  life.  Through 
this  custom  came  into  use  the  Fescennine  hcence, 
which  in  alternate  verse  poured  forth  rustic  taunts  •* ; 
and  the  freedom,  welcomed  each  returning  year, 
was  innocently  gay,  till  jest,  now  growing  cruel, 
turned  to  open  frenzy,  and  stalked  amid  the  homes 
of  honest  folk,  fearless  in  its  threatening.  Stung  to 
the  quick  were  they  who  were  bitten  by  a  tooth 
that  drew  blood  ;  even  those  untouched  felt  concern 
for  the  common  cause,  and  at  last  a  law  *  was  carried 
with  a  penalty,  forbidding  the  portrayal  of  any  in 
abusive  strain.  Men  changed  their  tune,  and  terror 
of  the  cudgel  led  them  back  to  goodly  and  gracious 
forms  of  speech. 

156  Greece,  the  captive,  made  her  savage  victor 
captive,  and  brought  the  arts  into  rustic  Latium. 

named  either  from  the  town  of  Fescennium  in  Etruria,  or 
from  the  fact  that  a  symbol  of  life  (fascinum)  was  often 
carried  in  procession  in  order  to  ward  oif  the  evil  eye.  Such 
a  phallic  symbol  was  in  common  use  among  the  Greeks, 
and  it  is  a  well-known  fact  that  the  germ  of  Greek  comedy 
is  to  be  found  in  the  phallic  songs  sung  in  the  Dionysiac 

*  In  the  Twelve  Tables,  viz.,  as  given  by  Cicero,  De  rep. 
iv.  10.  12,  "  si  quis  occentavisset  sive  carmen  condidisset  quod 
infamiam  faceret  flagitiumve  alteri."     Cf.  Sat.  ii.  1.  82. 



defluxit  Humerus^  Saturnius,  et  grave  virus 

munditiae  pepulere^  ;  sed  in  longum  tamen  aevum 

manserunt  hodieque  manent  vestigia  ruris.  160 

serus  enim  Graecis  admovit  acumina  chartis 

et  post  Punica  bella  quietus  quaerere  coepit, 

quid  Sophocles  et  Thespis  et  Aeschylus  utile  ferrent. 

temptavit  quoque  rem,  si  digne  vertere  posset, 

et  placuit  sibi,  natura  sublimis  et  acer  :  165 

nam  spirat  tragicum  satis  et  feliciter  audet, 

sed  turpem  putat  inscite^  metuitque  lituram. 

Creditur,  ex  medio  quia  res  accersit,*  habere 
sudoris  minimum,  sed  habet  Comoedia  tanto  169 

plus  oneris,  quanto  veniae  minus,     adspice,  Plautus 
quo  pacto  partis  tutetur  amantis  ephebi, 
ut  patris  attenti,  lenonis  ut  insidiosi, 
quantus  sit  Dossennus  edacibus  in  parasitis, 
quam  non  adstricto  percurrat  pulpita  socco. 
gestit  enim  nummum  in  loculos  demittere,^  post  hoc 
securus  cadat  an  recto  stet  fabula  talo.  176 

Quem  tulit  ad  scaenam  ventoso  Gloria  curru, 

^  numeris  i2</>i/'.  *  peperere  (t>^\l. 

3  inscit(a)e  a,  II:  inscriptis  VEi  inscitiae  FVJ/, 

*  accersit  o,  II,  Porph. :  accessit  VE. 

^  dimittere  aM. 

"  This  ancient  Italian  metre,  now  generally  believed  to 
be  based  on  accent  instead  of  quantity,  was  used  by  Naevius 
in  his  epic  on  the  Punic  War,  and  is  illustrated  by  numerous 
inscriptions.  With  the  introduction  of  Greek  literature  into 
Rome,  it  gave  way  to  the  hexameter  and  other  Greek 
metrical  forms. 

''  The  word  vertere  means  not  merely  to  "translate," 
but  rather  to  "  transfer,"  i.e.  from  the  Greek  to  the  Roman 

''■  i.e.  as  Pope  says  of  Dryden,  he  lacks  "  the  last  and 
greatest  art,  the  art  to  blot." 

"*  Dossennus,  the  sly  villain,  was  one  of  the  stock  characters 


EPISTLES,  II.  I.  158-177 

Thus  the  stream  of  that  rude  Satumian  measure  " 
ran  dry  and  good  taste  banished  the  offensive 
poison ;  yet  for  many  a  year  hved  on,  and  still  live 
on,  traces  of  our  rustic  past.  For  not  till  late  did 
the  Roman  turn  his  wit  to  Greek  \^Ti tings,  and  in 
the  peaceful  days  after  the  Punic  wars  he  began  to 
ask  what  service  Sophocles  could  render,  and  Thespis 
and  Aeschylus.  He  also  made  essay,  whether  he 
could  reproduce  *  in  worthy  style,  and  took  pride  in 
his  success,  being  gifted  with  spirit  and  vigour ;  for 
he  has  some  tragic  inspiration,  and  is  happy  in  his 
ventures,  but  in  ignorance,  deeming  it  disgraceful, 
hesitates  to  blot.'' 

168  "Tis  thought  that  Comedy,  drawing  its  themes 
from  daily  hfe,  calls  for  less  labour  ;  but  in  truth  it 
carries  a  hea\ier  burden,  as  the  indulgence  allowed 
is  less.  See  how  Plautus  plays  the  part  of  the 
youthful  lover,  how  he  plays  that  of  the  close 
father,  or  of  the  tricky  pander  ;  what  a  Dossennus  <* 
he  is  among  his  greedy  parasites  ;  with  what  a  loose 
sock  *  he  scours  the  scene.  Yes,  he  is  eager  to 
drop  a  coin  into  his  pocket  and,  that  done,  he  cares 
not  whether  his  play  fall  or  stand  square  on  its  feet.' 

^"  The  man  whom  Glory  carries  to  the  stage  in 

in  the  Atellan  farce  of  the  Oscans.  The  nomen  of  Plautus, 
viz.  Maccius,  is  plausibly  derived  from  another  of  these 
stock  characters,  i.e.  Maccus,  the  buffoon. 

'  The  soccus,  or  low  slipper  worn  by  the  actors,  represents 
Comedy,  as  the  cothurnus,  or  high  buskin,  stands  for 

f  Horace,  wedded  to  classical  standards,  could  not 
appreciate  Plautus  fairly.  Thus  he  here  imputes  to  him  a 
sordid  motive  for  characteristics  which  were  probably  due 
to  the  influence  of  native  forms  of  drama.  See  the  trans- 
lator's edition  of  the  Andria  of  Terence  (Introduction, 
p.  xxviiij. 



exanimat  lentus  spectator,  sedulus  inflat : 
sic  leve,  sic  parvum  est,  animum  quod  laudis  avarum 
subruit  aut  reficit.     valeat  res  ludicra,  si  me  180 

palma  negata  macrum,  donata  reducit  opimum. 

Saepe  etiam  audacem  fugat  hoc  terretque  poetam, 
quod  numero  plures,  virtute  et  honore  minores, 
indocti  stolidique  et  depugnare  parati, 
si  discordet  eques,  media  inter  carmina  poscunt     185 
aut  ursum  aut  pugiles  :   his  nam  plebecula  gaudet.^ 
verum  equitis  quoque  iam  migravit  ab  aura  voluptas 
omnis  ad  incertos  oculos  et  gaudia  vana. 
quattuor  aut  pluris  aulaea  premuntur  in  horas, 
dum  fugiunt  equitum  turmae  peditumque  catervae  ; 
mox  trahitur  manibus  regum  fortuna  retortis,         191 
esseda  festinant,  pilenta,  petorrita,  naves, 
captivum  portatur  ebur,  captiva  Corinthus. 
si  foret  in  terris,  rideret  Democritus,  seu 
diversum  confusa  genus  panthera  camelo  195 

sive  elephans  albus  volgi  converteret^  ora  ; 
spectaret  populum  ludis  attentius  ipsis 
ut  sibi  praebentem  nimio^  spectacula  plura  : 
scriptores  autem  narrare  putaret  asello 
fabellam  surdo.     nam  quae  pervincere  voces  200 

evaluere  sonum,  referunt  quem  nostra  theatra  ? 
Garganum  mugire  putes  nemus  aut  mare  Tuscum  ; 
*  plaudet,  II. 
*  converterit  Priscian,  Bentley. 
'  nimio  V,  I:  mimo,  II  Porph.;  so  Bentley,  Orelli,  Vollmer. 

"  i.e.  always  looking  for  something  fresh.  For  the 
knights  cf.  Sat.  i.  10.  76.  They  occupied  the  first  fourteen 
rows  in  the  theatre,  in  accordance  with  the  law  of  Roscius. 

*  i.e.  the  performance  continues.  In  the  ancient  theatre 
the  curtain  was  lowered  into  the  floor  at  the  beginning  and 
raised  from  it  at  the  end  of  a  play. 

*  i.e.  the  laughing  philosopher.     See  Epist.  i.  12.  12. 
''  The  camelopard  or  giraffe. 


EPISTLES,  II.  I.  178-202 

her  windy  car,  the  listless  spectator  leaves  spiritless, 
the  eager  one  exultant  ;  so  light,  so  small  is  what 
casts  do^vn  or  upbuilds  a  soul  that  craves  for  praise. 
Farewell  the  conaic  stage,  if  denial  of  the  palm  sends 
me  home  lean,  its  bestowal  plump  ! 

^*-  Often  even  the  bold  poet  is  frightened  and  put 
to  rout,  when  those  who  are  stronger  in  number,  but 
weaker  in  worth  and  rank,  unlearned  and  stupid  and 
ready  to  fight  it  out  if  the  knights  dispute  with  them, 
call  in  the  middle  of  a  play  for  a  bear  or  for  boxers: 
'tis  in  such  things  the  rabble  delights.  But  now- 
adays all  the  pleasure  even  of  the  knights  has  passed 
from  the  ear  to  the  vain  delights  of  the  wandering  " 
eye.  For  four  hours  or  more  the  curtains  are  kept 
down,**  while  troops  of  horse  and  files  of  foot  sweep 
by :  anon  are  dragged  in  kings,  once  fortune's 
favourites,  their  hands  bound  behind  them  :  with 
hurry  and  scurry  come  chariots,  carriages,  wains, 
and  ships  ;  and  borne  in  triumph  are  spoils  of  ivory, 
spoils  of  Corinthian  bronze.  Were  Democritus " 
still  on  earth,  he  would  laugh  ;  whether  it  were  some 
hybrid  monster — a  panther  crossed  with  a  camel  •* 
— or  a  white  elephant,  that  drew  the  eyes  of  the  crowd 
— he  would  gaze  more  intently  on  the  people  than 
on  the  play  itself,  as  giving  him  more  by  far  worth 
looking  at.  But  for  the  authors — he  would  suppose 
that  they  were  telUng  their  tale  to  a  deaf  ass.*  For 
what  voices  have  ever  prevailed  to  dro\\'n  the  din 
with  which  our  theatres  resound  ?  One  might  think 
it  was  the  roaring  of  the  Garganian  forest  or  of  the 

*  By  introducing  asello,  Horace  varies  the  old  proverbial 
.saying  for  wasted  labour,  surdo  fahellam  narrare  {cf. 
Terence,  Heaiit.  222).  There  was  a  Greek  saying,  6v<p  tu 
iXeye  fivdov  •  b  di  to.  Stra  iKivei,  "a  man  told  a  story  to  an  ass; 
the  ass  only  shook  his  ears." 



tanto  cum  strepitu  ludi  spectantur  et  artes 
divitiaeque  peregrinae,  qiiibus  oblitus  actor 
cum  stetit  in  scaena,  concurrit  dextera  laevae.^      205 
"  dixit  adhuc  aliquid  ?  "     "nil  sane."     "  quid  placet 

ergo  ?  " 
"  lana  Tarentino  \'iolas  imitata^  veneno." 
ac  ne  forte  putes  me,  quae  facere  ipse  recusem, 
cum  recte  tractent  alii,  laudare  maligne, 
ille  per  extentum^  funem  mihi  posse  videtur  210 

ire  poeta,  meum  qui  pectus  inaniter  angit, 
irritat,  mulcet,  falsis  terroribus  implet, 
ut  magus,  et  modo  me  Thebis,  modo  ponit  Athenis. 

Verum  age  et  his,  qui  se  lectori  credere  malunt 
quam  spectatoris  fastidia  ferre  superbi,  215 

curam  redde  brevem,  si  munus  Apolline  dignum 
vis  complere  libris  et  vatibus  addere  calcar, 
ut  studio  maiore  petant  Helicona  virentem. 

Multa  quidem  nobis  facimus  mala  saepe  poetae 
(ut  vineta  egomet  caedam  mea),  cum  tibi  librum     220 
sollicito  damus  aut  fesso  ;  cum  laedimur,  unum 
si  quis  amicorum  est  ausus  reprehendere  versum  ; 
cum  loca  iara  recitata  revolvimus  irrevocati  ; 
cum  lamentamur  non  apparere  labores 
nostros  et  tenui  deducta  poemata  filo  ;  225 

cum  speramus  eo  rem  venturam*  ut,  simul  atque 
carmina  rescieris  nos  fingere,  commodus  ultro 
arcessas^  et  egere  vetes  et  scribere  cogas. 

^  laeva,  //.  *  imitare,  //.  '  extensum  M. 

*  eo  rem]  forem  Rn- :  item  fore  venturum  cpypXl. 

*  accersas  E. 

»  i.e.  the  actor's  dress. 

*  The  library  founded  by  Augustus  in  Apollo's  temple  on 
the  Palatine  ;  cf.  Epist.  i.  3.  17. 


EPISTLES,  II.  1.  203-228 

Tuscan  Sea  :  amid  such  clamour  is  the  entertain- 
ment \ae\ved,  the  works  of  art,  and  the  foreign 
finery,  and  when,  overlaid  vriih  this,  the  actor 
steps  upon  the  stage,  the  right  hand  clashes  with 
the  left.  "  Has  he  yet  said  anything  ?  "  Not 
a  word.  "  Then  what  takes  them  so  ?  "  "Tis  the 
woollen  robe  "  that  \ies  with  the  violet  in  its  Taren- 
tine  dye.  And  lest,  perchance,  you  may  think  that 
I  begrudge  praise  when  others  are  handhng  well 
what  I  decline  to  try  myself,  methinks  that  poet  is 
able  to  walk  a  tight  rope,  who  ^vith  airy  nothings 
wrings  m}'  heart,  inflames,  soothes,  fills  it  with  vain 
alarms  hke  a  magician,  and  sets  me  down  now  at 
Thebes,  now  at  Athens. 

^*  But  come,  upon  those,  too,  who  prefer  to  put 
themselves  in  a  reader's  hands,  rather  than  brook 
the  disdain  of  a  scornful  spectator,  bestow  a  moment's 
attention,  if  you  wish  to  fill  with  volumes  that  gift 
so  worthy  of  Apollo,*  and  to  spur  on  our  bards  to 
seek  with  greater  zeal  HeUcon's  verdant  lawns. 

^^  Wc  poets  doubtless  often  do  much  mischief  to 
our  own  cause — let  me  hack  at  my  own  vines  "— 
when  you  are  anxious  or  weary  and  we  offer  you 
our  book  ;  when  we  are  hurt  if  a  friend  has  dared 
to  censure  a  single  verse  ;  when,  unasked,  we  turn 
back  to  passages  already  read;  when  we  complain 
that  men  lose  sight  of  our  labours,  and  of  our  poems 
so  finely  spun  ;  when  we  hope  it  will  come  to  this, 
that,  as  soon  as  you  hear  we  are  composing  verses, 
you  will  go  so  far  as  kindly  to  send  for  us,  banish  our 
poverty,  and  compel  us  to  wTite.     None  the  less, 

'  Proverbial  of  doing  something  to  one's  own  injury. 
Horace  humorously  include  himself  among  the  poetasters 
who  are  so  annoying. 



sed  tamen  est  operae  pretium  cognoscere,  qualis 

aedituos  habeat  belli  spectata  domique  230 

Virtus,  indigno  non  committenda  poetae. 

gratus  Alexandre  regi  magno  fuit  ille 

Choerilus,  incultis  qui  versibus  et  male  natis 

rettulit  acceptos,  regale  nomisma,  Philippos; 

sed  veluti  tractata  notam  labemque  remittunt       235 

atramenta,  fere  scriptores  carmine  foedo 

splendida  facta  linunt.     idem  rex  ille,  poema 

qui  tam  ridiculum  tarn  care  prodigus  emit, 

edicto  vetuit,  ne  quis  se  praeter  Apellen 

pingeret,  aut  alius  Lysippo  duceret  aera  240 

fortis  Alexandri  voltum  simulantia.     quod  si 

iudicium  subtile  videndis  artibus  illud 

ad  libros  et  ad  haec  Musarum  dona  vocares, 

Boeotum  in  crasso  iurares  aere  natum. 

At  neque  dedecorant  tua  de  se  iudicia  atque      245 
munera,  quae  multa  dantis  cum  laude  tulerunt 
dilecti  tibi^  Vergilius  Variusque^  poetae, 
nee  magis  expressi  voltus  per  aenea  signa, 
quam  per  vatis  opus  mores  animique  virorum 
clarorum  apparent,     nee  sermones  ego  mallem      250 
repentis  per  humum  quam  res  componere  gestas, 
terrarumque  situs  et  flumina  dicere,  et  arces 
montibus  impositas  et  barbara  regna,  tuisque 
auspiciis  totum  confecta  duella  per  orbem, 
claustraque  custodem  pacis  cohibentia  lanum,        255 
1  tui  E.  "  Varusque  V. 

"  Virtus,  the  sum  total  of  a  great  man's  merits,  is  here 
personified,  and  poets  are  spoken  of  as  the  priests  in  her 

*  The  Philippi  were  gold  coins  which  bore  the  image  of 
Philip  of  Macedon,  and  circulated  freely  throughout  the 
Greek  world.     Choerilus  was  an  epic  poet  of  lasos  in  Caria, 
mentioned  again  in  Ars  Poetica,  357. 

EPISTLES,  II.  I.  229-255 

'tis  worth  inquiring  what  manner  of  minis  trants 
attend  on  Merit,*  tried  at  home  and  in  the  field, 
and  never  to  be  entrusted  to  an  unworthy  poet. 
Well-pleasing  to  the  great  king  Alexander  was  that 
poor  Choerilus,  who  could  thank  his  uncouth  and 
misbegotten  verses  for  the  philips  ^ — good  royal  coin 
— that  he  received ;  but  as  ink  when  handled  leaves 
mark  and  stain,  so  ofttimes  with  unseemly  verse 
poets  put  a  blot  on  bright  exploits.  That  same  king 
who  lavishly  paid  so  dearly  for  a  poem  so  foolish,  by 
an  edict  forbade  anyone  save  Apelles  to  paint  him, 
or  any  other  than  Lysippus  to  model  bronze  in  copy- 
ing the  features  of  brave  Alexander.  But  call  that 
judgement,  so  nice  for  viewing  works  of  art,  to  books 
and  to  these  gifts  of  the  Muses,  and  you'd  swear 
that  he'd  been  born  in  Boeotia's  heavy  air." 

But  Virgil  and  Varius,  those  poets  whom  you  love, 
discredit  not  your  judgement  of  them  nor  the  gifts 
which,  to  the  giver's  great  renown,  they  have 
received  ;  and  features  are  seen  -with  no  more  truth, 
when  moulded  in  statues  of  bronze,  than  are  the 
manners  and  minds  of  famous  heroes,  when  set  forth 
in  the  poet's  work.  And  for  myself,  I  should  not 
prefer  my  "  chats,"  that  crawl  along  the  ground,'*  to 
the  story  of  great  exploits,  the  tale  of  distant  lands 
and  rivers,  of  forts  on  mountain  tops,  of  barbaric 
realms,  of  the  ending  of  wars  under  your  auspices 
throughout  the  world,  of  bars  that  close  on  Janus, 

«  As  the  heavy  air  of  the  moist  lowlands  of  Boeotia  was 
contrasted  with  the  clear  atmosphere  of  Attica,  so  the 
Boeotians  were  proverbially  dull,  the  Athenians  sharpn 
witted  ;  cf.  Cicero,  De  fato,  iv.  7. 

■*  Under  sermones  Horace  includes  both  his  Satires  and 
Epistles,  which  are  inspired  by  a  Musa  pedestris  {Sat.  ii. 
6.  17). 

2b  417 


et  formidatam  Parthis  te  principe  Romam, 

si  quantum  cuperem  possem  quoque  ;    sed  neque 

carmen  maiestas  recipit  tua,  nee  meus  audet 
rem  temptare  pudor  quam  vires  ferre  recusent. 
sedulitas  autem  stulte  quem  diligit  urget,  260 

praecipue  cum  se  numeris  commendat  et  arte  ; 
discit^  enim  citius  meminitque  libentius  illud 
quod  quis  deridet,  quam  quod  probat  et  veneratur. 
nil  moror  officium  quod  me  gravat,  ac  neque  ficto 
in  peius  voltu  proponi  cereus  usquam  206 

nee  prave  factis  decorari  versibus  opto, 
ne  rubeam  pingui  donatus  munere,  et  una 
cum  scriptore  meo,  capsa  porrectus^  operta,' 
deferar  in  vicum  vendentem  tus  et  odores 
et  piper  et  quidquid  chartis  amicitur  ineptis.*         270 

*  discet  V.  ^  porreptus  E. 

*  aperta.  *  inemptis. 

"  For  the  closing  of  the  temple  of  Janus  in  peace  cf. 
Odes,  iv.  15.  9,  and  with  11.  252,  253  cf.  "arces  Alpibus 
impositas  tremendis,"  in  Odes  iv.  14.  11. 

^  That  Augustus  was  sensitive  about  being  made  the 
subject  of  poor  eulogies  is  stated  by  Suetonius  {Augustus, 

*  i.e.  to  have  one's  portrait  in  wax  offered  for  sale. 

*  Horace  means  that  sooner  or  later  the  work  of  a  poor 


EPISTLES,   II.  I.   256-270 

guardian  of  peace,"  and  of  that  Rome  who  under 
your  sway  has  become  a  terror  to  Parthians — if  only 
I  had  power  equal  to  my  longing  ;  but  neither  does 
your  majesty  admit  of  a  lowly  strain,''  nor  does  my 
modesty  dare  to  essay  a  task  beyond  my  strength 
to  bear.  Nay,  zeal  is  foolish  to  worry  those  it 
loves,  above  all  when  it  commends  itself  by  numbers 
and  by  art ;  for  men  more  quickly  learn  and  more 
gladly  recall  what  they  deride  than  what  they 
approve  and  esteem.  Not  for  me  attentions  that 
are  burdensome,  and  I  want  neither  to  be  displayed 
anywhere  in  wax,"  with  my  features  misshaped,  nor 
to  be  praised  in  verses  ill-^^Tought,  lest  I  have  to 
blush  at  the  stupid  gift,  and  then,  along  with  my 
poet,  outstretched  in  a  closed  chest,  be  carried  into 
the  street  where  they  sell  frankincense  and  perfumes 
and  pepper  and  everything  else  that  is  wrapped  in 
sheets  of  useless  paper .<* 

poet  is  found  to  be  worthless,  and  his  books  can  be  used 
only  for  waste  paper.  Thus,  under  the  figure  of  a  funeral 
the  poet  is  borne  to  his  last  resting-place — the  grocer's  shop  ! 
Cf.  Euphues'  Anatomy  of  Wit :  "  We  constantly  see  the 
booke  that  at  Christmas  lieth  bound  on  the  stacioner's  stall, 
at  Easter  be  broken  in  the  haberdasher's  shop."  In  1.  269 
there  is  an  amusing  pun  on  Vicus  Tuscus,  the  name  of  a 
street  leading  out  of  the  Forum,  along  which  were  all  kinds 
of  shops  ;  ef.  Sat.  ii.  3.  228. 




If  one  were  to  offer  a  slave  for  sale,  and  declare 
his  defects,  the  purchaser  would  have  no  right  to 
complain  of  these  later.  So  you,  Florus,  must  not 
grumble  at  my  not  writing  to  you,  for  I  warned  you 
before  you  started  that  I  never  answer  letters.  And 
then,  over  and  above  this,  you  complain  of  my 
breaking  my  word,  when  you  receive  from  me  no 
poems  (1-25). 

Let  me  remind  you  of  the  story  of  a  certain 
soldier  of  Lucullus.  One  night  he  had  all  his  sa\ings 
stolen.  Upon  this  he  rushed  off  furiously  to  storm 
a  castle,  and  won  thereby  both  glory  and  a  rich 
reward.  But  later,  when  his  general  invited  him  to 
repeat  the  exploit,  he  declined,  and  advised  the 
officer  to  send  somebody  who  had  lost  his  purse.  I 
am  like  that  soldier.  I  lost  everything  at  Philippi, 
and  took  to  poetry  to  make  a  living,  but  now  that 
I  have  a  competence  I  should  be  mad  if  I  did  not 
prefer  ease  to  writing  (26-54). 

But  there  are  other  reasons  why  I  do  not  write. 
Time  is  stealing  from  me  my  poetical  power,  as  it 
has  already  taken  from  me  my  youth.  After  all, 
too,  tastes  vary,  and  while  you  are  asking  for  Odes, 
others  call  for  Epodes  or  Satires.    Besides,  how  can 



you  expect  a  man  to  write  amid  all  the  distractions 
of  Rome  ?  The  poet  must  live  in  seclusion,  and  then 
he  becomes  quite  unfit  for  active  life.  If  this  is  true 
of  Athens,  how  much  more  so  is  it  of  noisy  Rome  ? 
How  then  can  I  deign  to  write  poetry  here  ?  (55-86). 

"  Deign,"  did  I  say  ?  Why,  the  only  way  to  win 
success  here  as  a  poet  is  to  join  some  mutual  admira- 
tion club,  and  for  my  part  I  am  no  longer  suing  for 
favour — I  am  no  longer  writing,  and  I  can  decline  to 
listen  to  the  recitations  of  others  (87-105). 

Poor  poets,  however  much  derided,  are  well 
satisfied  with  themselves.  But  the  writing  of  good 
poetry  is  a  very  serious  matter,  and  demands  a  fine 
taste  and  careful  discrimination  in  the  choice  of 
language.  The  result  will  seem  easy,  but  that  ease 
is  the  product  of  much  labour.  Perhaps  it  is  better 
to  be  one  of  those  self-complacent  writers  than  to 
be  ever  finding  fault  with  oneself.  The  man  at 
Argos  learned  what  a  misfortune  it  is  to  be  robbed 
of  one's  illusions  (106-140). 

The  truth  is,  it  is  time  for  a  man  of  my  years  to 
throw  aside  mere  toys  like  poetry  and  take  up  the 
serious  business  of  life,  that  of  philosophy.  So, 
beginning  with  the  elements,  I  repeat  to  myself  the 
wise  precepts  that  I  have  picked  up.  Avarice,  for 
example,  is  as  much  a  disease  as  dropsy.  For  the 
latter  you  consult  a  doctor,  and  when  the  course 
prescribed  brings  no  relief,  you  change  the  treatment 
or  the  doctor.  Should  not  avarice  be  dealt  with  in 
like  manner  ?  (141-154). 

If  wealth  could  make  you  wise,  you  ought  to  devote 
yourself  wholly  to  it.  And  yet  what  comes  from  all 
this  struggle  to  make  money  ?  Ownership  brings 
no  more  satisfaction  than  the  right  to  use  and  enjoy, 

EPISTLES,  II.  11. 

and  even  the  law  recognizes  the  fact  that  this 
usucapio  is  the  same  in  the  end  as  dominium  or  owner- 
ship. As  a  matter  of  fact,  there  is  no  such  thing  as 
out  and  out  ownership,  or  o\vnership  in  perpetuity, 
for  Death  prevents  that  (155-179). 

In  any  case,  wealth  takes  many  forms,  and  some 
care  nothing  for  what  others  value  so  highly.  WTiy 
this  is  so,  I  cannot  say,  but  for  my  part  I  hold  that 
Ufe's  pleasures  are  to  be  enjoyed  in  moderation. 
Let  me  but  be  free  from  squalor,  and  I  shall  be  just 
as  happv  saihng  on  hfe's  sea  in  a  small  as  in  a  large 
ship  (180-204). 

But  avarice  is  not  the  only  e\il  that  may  assail  the 
heart,  and  the  wise  man  will  free  himself  from  all 
disturbing  passions  and  fears.  If  one  cannot  hve 
well,  he  should  give  way  to  those  who  can.  When 
a  man  has  had  his  share  in  the  banquet  of  hfe,  it  is 
time  to  \vithdraw  (205-216). 

The  Florus  of  this  Epistle  is  the  Julius  Florus  to 
whom  Epist.  i.  3  is  also  addressed.  He  is  still  in 
the  suite  of  Tiberius,  and  as  there  is  a  great  similarity 
of  tone  between  this  Epistle  and  the  first  of  the  First 
Book,  it  is  likely  that  it  was  \vritten  shortly  after  the 
pubhcation  of  that  book  in  20  B.C.  At  any  rate,  in 
view  of  the  writer's  renunciation  of  lyric  poetry  in 
this  Epistle,  it  can  hardly  have  been  written  in  the 
years  when  the  Carmen  Saeculare  and  the  Fourth 
Book  of  Odes  came  into  being  (17-13  B.C.). 



Flore,  bono  claroque  fidelis  amice  Neroni, 
si  quis  forte  velit  puerum  tibi  vendere  natura 
Tibure  vel  Gabiis,  et  tecum  sic  agat :   "  hie  et 
candidus  et  talos  a  vertice  pulcher  ad  imos 
fiet  eritque  tuus  nummorum  milibus  octo,  6 

verna  ministeriis  ad  nutus  aptus  erilis, 
litterulis  Graecis  imbutus,  idoneus  arti 
cuilibet  ;  argilla  quidvis^  imitaberis^  uda  ; 
quin  etiam  canet  indoctum  sed  dulce  bibenti. 
multa  fidem  promissa  levant,  ubi  plenius  aequo       10 
laudat  venalis  qui  volt  extrudere^  merces. 
res  urget  me  nulla  ;  meo  sum  pauper  in  aere. 
nemo  hoc  mangonum  faceret  tibi  ;   non  temere  a  me 
quivis  ferret  idem,     semel  hie  cessavit  et,  ut  fit, 
in  scalis  latuit  metuens  pendentis  habenae  :  15 

des  nummos,  excepta  nihil  te  si  fuga  laedit*  "  : 
ille  ferat  pretiium  poenae  securus,  opinor. 
prudens  emisti  vitiosum  ;  dicta  tibi  est  lex^ : 

^  quavis  E.         *  imitabimur,  II.  ^  excludere  V,  II. 

*  laedit  V,  Bentley  :  laedat  mss.  Orelli.  *  est  tibi  lex,  /. 

"  Tiberius  Claudius  Nero,  the  future  Emperor  Tiberius : 
c/.  Epist.  i.  3.  2.  ^  i.e.  iioine-born,  not  foreign. 

'  i.e.  the  strap  which  was  hanging  up  where  all  could 
see  it. 

^  i.e.  because  he  has  not  represented  the  slave  as  faultless, 
but  has  expressly  mentioned  {excepta)  a  defect.  Cf.  Sat. 
ii.  3.  286.     Editors  who  {e.g.  Orelli)  read  laedat  (1.  16)  make 


Epistle  II 

My  Florus,  loyal  friend  of  great  and  good  Nero,* 
suppose  someone  by  chance  should  wish  to  sell  you 
a  slave,  born  at  Tibur  or  Gabii,"  and  should  deal 
with  you  thus  :  "  Here's  a  handsome  boy,  comely 
from  top  to  toe  ;  you  may  take  him,  to  have  and  to 
hold,  for  eight  thousand  sesterces  ;  home-bred  he  is, 
apt  for  ser\ice  at  his  owner's  beck,  knows  a  bit  of 
Greek  learning,  and  can  master  any  art  ;  the  clay 
is  soft — you  \vill  mould  it  to  what  you  will ;  more- 
over, he  will  sing  for  you  over  your  cups  in  a  sweet 
if  artless  fashion.  Too  many  promises  lessen  con- 
fidence, when  a  seller  who  wants  to  shove  off  his 
wares  praises  them  unduly.  I  am  under  no  con- 
straint ;  I  have  slender  means,  but  am  not  in  debt. 
None  of  the  slave-dealers  would  give  you  such  a 
bargain  ;  not  everyone  would  easily  get  the  like 
from  me.  Once  he  played  truant,  and  hid  himself, 
as  boys  \sill  do,  under  the  stairs,  fearing  the  hanging 
strap."  Give  me  the  sum  asked,  if  his  running  off, 
duly  noted,  does  not  trouble  you  "  :  the  seller,  I 
take  it,  would  get  his  price  without  fear  of  penalty.** 
You  bought  him  with  your  eyes  open — fault  and 
all ;  the  condition  was  told  you  ;   do  you  still  pursue 

the  speech  of  the  seller  close  with  line  15,  so  that  both  des  (1. 
16),  and  ferat  (1.  17)  provide  the  apodosis  or  conclusion  to 
«i  quis  forte  relit  (1.  2).  We  prefer  to  follow  Bentley  in 
including  1.  16  in  the  seller's  speech. 



insequeris  tamen  hunc  et  lite  moraris  iniqua  ? 

dixi  me  pigrum  proficiseenti  tibi,  dixi  20 

talibus  officiis  prope  mancum,  ne  mea  saevus 

iurgares  ad  te  quod  epistula  nulla  rediret.^ 

quid  turn  profeci,  mecum  facientia  iura 

si  tamen  attemptas  ?     quereris  super  hoc  etiam,  quod 

exspectata  tibi  non  mittam  carmina  mendax.  25 

Luculli  miles  collecta  viatica  multis 
aerumnis,  lassus  dum  noctu  stertit,  ad  assem 
perdiderat :  post  hoc  vehemens  lupus,  et  sibi  et  hosti 
iratus  pariter,  ieiunis  dentibus  acer, 
praesidium  regale  loco  deiecit,  ut  aiunt,  30 

summe  munito  et  multarum  divite  rerum. 
clarus  ob  id  factum  donis  ornatur  honestis,^ 
accipit  et  bis  dena  super  sestertia  nummum. 
forte  sub  hoc  tempus  castellum  evertere  praetor 
nescio  quod  cupiens  hortari  coepit  eundem  35 

verbis  quae  timido  quoque  possent  addere  mentem  : 
"  i,  bone,  quo  virtus  tua  te  vocat,  i  pede  fausto, 
grandia  laturus  meritorum  praemia.     quid  stas  ?  " 
post  haec  ille  catus,  quantumvis  rusticus  :   "  ibit, 
ibit  eo,  quo  vis,  qui  zonam  perdidit,"  inquit.  40 

Romae  nutriri  mihi  contigit  atque  doceri 
iratus  Grais  quantum  nocuisset  Achilles, 
adiecere  bonae  paulo  plus  artis  Athenae, 
scilicet  ut  vellem^  curvo  dinoscere  rectum 
atque  inter  silvas  Academi  quaerere  verum.  45 

dura  sed  emovere  loco  me  tempora  grato 

1  veniret  (pfXl.  *  opimis  V. 

'  possim,  II:  possem. 

*  LucuUus  commanded  the  Roman  forces  in  the  war  with 
Mithridates,  king  of  Pontus,  from  74  b.c.  to  67  b.c. 
^  He  studied  Homer's  Iliad. 


EPISTLES,  II.  n.  19-46 

the  seller  and  annoy  him  with  an  unjust  suit  ?  I 
told  you  when  you  were  lea\ing  that  I  was  lazy  ;  I 
told  you  that  for  such  duties  I  was  well-nigh  crippled, 
lest  you  should  angrily  scold,  because  no  letter  of 
mine  reached  you  in  reply.  What  good  did  I  then 
do,  if  when  right  is  on  my  side  you  still  attack  it  ? 
And  then,  over  and  above  this,  you  complain  that 
the  verses  you  looked  for  I  fail  to  send,  false  to  my 

^  A  soldier  of  Lucullus,**  by  dint  of  many  toils, 
had  laid  by  savings,  but  one  night,  when  weary  and 
slumbering,  had  lost  all  down  to  the  last  penny. 
After  this,  furious  as  a  wolf,  angry  ^nth  himself  and 
his  foe  ahke,  and  fiercely  showing  hungry  teeth,  he 
dislodged,  they  say,  a  royal  garrison  from  a  strongly 
fortified  site,  rich  in  vast  treasure.  Winning  fame 
therebv,  he  was  decorated  with  gifts  of  honour,  and 
received,  over  and  above,  twenty  thousand  sesterces 
in  coin.  Soon  after  this  it  chanced  that  the  com- 
mander, wishing  to  storm  some  fort,  began  to  urge 
the  man  with  words  that  might  have  given  spirit 
even  to  a  coward  :  "  Go,  sir,  whither  your  valour 
calls  you.  Go,  good  luck  to  you  ! — to  win  big  rewards 
for  your  merits.  Why  stand  still  ?  "  On  this  the 
shrewd  fellow,  rustic  though  he  was,  replied  :  "  Yes, 
he  will  go — go  where  you  -wish — he  who  has  lost  his 

*•■  At  Rome  I  had  the  luck  to  be  bred,  and  taught 
how  much  Achilles'  wrath  had  harmed  the  Greeks.' 
Kindly  Athens  added  somewhat  more  training,  so 
that,  vou  know,  I  was  eager  to  distinguish  the 
straight  from  the  crooked,  and  to  hunt  for  truth  in 
the  groves  of  Academe.  But  troublous  times  tore 
me  from  that  pleasant  spot,  and  the  tide  of  civil 



civilisque  rudem  belli  tulit  aestus  in  arma 

Caesaris  August!  non  responsura  lacertis. 

unde  simul  primum  me  dimisere  Philippi,^ 

decisis  humilem  pennis  inopemque  paterni  50 

et  laris  et  fundi,  paupertas  impulit  audax 

ut  versus  facerem  :   sed  quod  non  desit^  habentem 

quae  poterunt  umquam  satis  expurgare  cicutae, 

ni  melius  dormire  putem  quam  scribere  versus  ? 

Singula  de  nobis  anni  praedantur  euntes  ;  55 

eripuere  locos,  Venerem,  convivia,  ludum  ; 
tendunt  extorquere  poemata  :   quid  faciam  vis  ? 
denique  non  omnes  eadem  mirantur  amantque  : 
carmine  tu  gaudes,  hie  delectatur  iambis, 
ille  Bioneis  sermonibus  et  sale  nigro.  60 

tres  mihi  convivae  prope  dissentire  videntur, 
poscentes  vario  multum  diversa  palato. 
quid  dem  ?     quid  non  dem  ?     renuis  tu,  quod^  iubet 

alter  ; 
quod  petis,  id  sane  est  invisum  acidumque  duobus. 

Praeter  cetera  me  Romaene  poemata  censes        65 
scribere  posse  inter  tot  curas  totque  labores  ? 
hie  sponsum  vocat,  hie  auditum  scripta,  relictis 
omnibus  officiis  ;  cubat  hie  in  colle  Quirini, 
hie  extremo  in  Aventino,  visendus  uterque  ; 
intervalla  vides  humane  commoda.     "  verum  70 

purae*  sunt  plateae,  nihil  ut  meditantibus  obstet." 

^  philippis  (p\p\l. 

*  defit  O.W.  Mooney  in  Hermath.  xv. p.  161 ;  c/,  Tib.  iv.  1 .  100. 

*  quod  tu,  //  {not  5) ;  so  Vollmer. 

*  plures,  II  (plurae  JR). 

»  After  the  defeat  of  Brutus  at  Philippi  Horace  withdrew 
from  the  Republican  cause,  unlike  Pompeius  Varus  and 
other  friends,  who  kept  up  the  struggle  under  Sextus  Pom- 
peius. Cf.  Odes  ii.  7.  15.  The  poet's  estate  at  Venusia  was 
doubtless  confiscated. 

""  Cf.  Sat.  ii.  1.7.  "  Such  as  Horace's  Epodes. 


EPISTLES.  II.  II.  47-71 

strife  flung  me,  a  novice  in  war,  amid  weapons  that 
were  to  be  no  match  for  the  strong  arms  of  Caesar 
Augustus.  Soon  as  Philippi  gave  me  discharge" 
therefrom,  brought  low  with  wings  clipped  and 
beggared  of  paternal  home  and  estate,  barefaced 
poverty  drove  me  to  writing  verses.  But  now  that  I 
have  sufficient  store,  what  doses  of  hemlock  could 
ever  suffice  to  cleanse  my  blood,  if  I  were  not  to  think 
it  better  to  slumber  *•  than  to  scribble  verses  ? 

^  The  years,  as  they  pass,  plunder  us  of  all  joys, 
one  by  one.  They  have  stripped  me  of  mirth,  love, 
feasting,  play  ;  they  are  striving  to  wrest  from  me 
my  poems.  What  would  you  have  me  do  ?  After 
all,  men  have  not  all  the  same  tastes  and  likes. 
Lyric  song  is  your  delight,  our  neighbour  here  takes 
pleasure  in  iambics,*  the  one  yonder  in  Bion's  satires, 
with  their  caustic  wit.**  'Tis,  I  fancy,  much  like 
three  guests  who  disagree  ;  their  tastes  vary,  and 
they  call  for  widely  different  dishes.  What  am  I  to 
put  before  them  ?  what  not  ?  You  refuse  what 
your  neighbour  orders  :  what  you  crave  is,  to  be 
sure,  sour  and  distasteful  to  the  other  two. 

^^  Besides  all  else,  do  you  think  I  can  write  verses 
at  Rome  amid  all  my  cares  and  all  my  toils  ?  One 
calls  me  to  be  surety,  another,  to  leave  all  my  duties 
and  listen  to  his  writings.  One  hes  sick  on  the 
Quirinal  hill,  another  on  the  Aventine's  far  side  ;  I 
must  visit  both.  The  distances,  you  see,  are  com- 
fortably convenient !  "  Yes,  but  the  streets  are 
clear,  so  that  nothing  need  hinder  you  in  conning 

**  Athenian  philosopher  of  the  early  third  cent,  b.c, 
was  famous  for  his  biting  wit.  His  name  represents  Satire 
in  general,  including  Horace's  own  Sermones  or  Satires, 
which  contain  but  a  minimum  of  the  sal  niger  referred  to. 



festinat  calidus  mulis  gerulisque  redemptor, 
torquet  nunc  lapidem,  nunc  ingens  machina  tignum, 
tristia  robustis  luctantur  funera  plaustris, 
hac  rabiosa  fugit  canis,  hac  lutulenta  ruit  sus  :         76 
i  nunc  et  versus  tecum  naeditare  canoros. 
scriptorum  chorus  omnis  amat  nemus  et  fugit  urbem,^ 
rite  cliens  Bacchi  somno  gaudentis  et  umbra  : 
tu  me  inter  strepitus  nocturnes  atque  diurnos 
vis  canere  et  contracta^  sequi  vestigia  vatum  ?         80 
ingenium,  sibi  quod  vacuas  desumpsit  Athenas 
et  studiis  annos  septem  dedit  insenuitque 
libris  et  curis,  statua  taciturnius  exit 
plerumque  et  risu  populum  quatit  :   hie  ego  rerum 
fluctibus  in  mediis  et  tempestatibus  urbis  85 

verba  lyrae  motura  sonum  conectere  digner  ? 
Frater  erat  Romae  consulti  rhetor,  ut^  alter 
alterius  sermone  meros  audiret  honores, 
Gracchus  ut  hie  illi,  foret  huic  ut  Mucius  ille.* 
qui  minus  argutos  vexat  furor  iste  poetas  ?  90 

carmina  compono,  hie  elegos.     mirabile  visu 
caelatumque  novem  Musis  opus  1     adspice  primum, 
quanto  cum  fastu,  quanto  molimine  circum- 
spectemus  vacuam  Romanis  vatibus  aedem  ! 

^  urbes,  //. 

2  contracta  E,  knoton  to  Porph. :    contacta  mss.,  Porph., 

adopted  by  Orelli  and  others :  cantata  Vi  non  tacta  Bentley. 

'  et,  II  {not  S).  Bentley  read  pactus  {for  frater)  and  consulto, 

*  huic  .  .  .  ille  Lambinus,  Bentley,  all  editors  :  hie  .  .  . 
illi  M8S. 

"  Hie,  i.e.  in  Rome,  where  it  is  even  more  difficult  to 
devote  oneself  to  study  than  in  Athens. 

*  Under  such  conditions  self-respect  would  prevent  him 
from  writing.  This  is  further  illustrated  in  the  next 
paragraph.     See  p.  422. 

'  Both  the  Gracchi,  Tiberius  and  Gaius,  were  orators. 
There  were  three  well-known  jurists  named  Mucius  Scaevola. 


EPISTLES,  II.  11.  72-94 

verses."  In  hot  haste  rushes  a  contractor  with  mules 
and  porters  ;  a  huge  crane  is  lioisting  now  a  stone 
and  now  a  beam  ;  mournful  funerals  jostle  massive 
wagons  ;  this  way  runs  a  mad  dog  :  that  way  rushes 
a  mud-bespattered  sow.  Now  go,  and  thoughtfully 
con  melodious  verses.  The  whole  chorus  of  poets 
loves  the  grove  and  flees  the  town,  duly  loyal  to 
Bacchus,  who  finds  joy  in  sleep  and  shade.  Would 
you  wish  me,  amid  noises  by  night  and  noises  by 
day,  to  sing  and  pursue  the  minstrels'  narrow  path- 
way ?  A  gifted  man,  that  has  chosen  for  home 
sequestered  Athens,  that  has  given  seven  years  to  his 
studies  and  grown  grey  over  his  books  and  medi- 
tations, when  he  walks  abroad  is  often  more  mute 
than  a  statue  and  makes  the  people  shake  with 
laughter :  and  here^  amid  the  waves  of  Ufe,  amid 
the  tempests  of  the  town,  am  I  to  deign ''  to  weave 
together  words  which  shall  awake  the  music  of  the 
lyre  ? 

®'  Two  brothers  at  Rome,  a  lawyer  and  a  pleader, 
were  on  such  terms  that  nothing  but  compliments 
would  each  hear  from  the  other's  lips  :  the  one  was 
Gracchus  to  the  other,  the  other  Mucins  to  him.'' 
And  our  singer  poets — how  does  this  madness  trouble 
them  any  the  less  ?  I  compose  lyrics,  my  friend 
elegiacs  :  "  'Tis  wondrous  to  behold  !  A  work  of 
art,  engraven  by  the  Muses  nine  !  "  Mark  you 
first,  with  what  pride,  with  what  importance,  our 
contemplative  gaze  wanders  o'er  the  temple,  now 
open  to  Roman  bards.**     And   by  and  by,  if  haply 

''  The  temple  of  Apollo  on  the  Palatine,  with  -which  was 
associated  a  famous  library  in  two  sections,  one  for  Greek, 
the  other  for  Latin  books.  On  the  walls  were  medallions 
of  famous  authors.     Of.  EpUt.  ii.  1.  216. 



mox  etiam,  si  forte  vacas/  sequere  et  procul  audi,  95 

quid  ferat  et  qua  re  sibi  nectat  uterque  eoronam. 

caedimur  et  totidem  plagis  consumimus  hostem 

lento  Samnites  ad  lumina  prima  duello. 

discedo  Alcaeus  puncto  illius  ;  ille  meo  quis  ? 

quis  nisi  Callimachus  ?     si  plus  adposcere  visus,     100 

fit  Mimnermus  et  optivo  cognomine  crescit. 

multa  fero,  ut  placem  genus  irritabile  vatum, 

cum  scribo  et  supplex  populi  suffragia  capto  ; 

idem  finitis  studiis  et  mente  recepta 

obturem  patulas  impune  legentibus  auris.  105 

Ridentur  mala  qui  componunt  carmina  ;  verum 
gaudent  scribentes  et  se  venerantur  et  ultro, 
si  taceas,  laudant  quidquid  scripsere  beati. 
at  qui  legitimum  cupiet  fecisse  poema, 
cum  tabulis  animum  censoris  sumet  honesti  ;  110 

audebit,  quaecumque  parum  splendoris  habebunt 
et  sine  pondere  erunt  et  honore  indigna  ferentur,^ 
verba  movere  loco,  quamvis  invita  recedant 
et  versentur  adhuc  intra^  penetralia  Vestae  ; 

*  vacat.  ^  feruntur,  /,  5.  '  inter  Mss. 

"  The  two  poets,  indulging  in  mutual  compliments,  and 
inflicting  their  compositions  on  each  other,  are  humorously 
compared  to  a  pair  of  those  heavy-armed  gladiators  known 
as  Samnites,  who  would  engage  in  a  wearisome,  though 
harmless  fight,  till  night  put  an  end  to  the  contest. 

*  It  is  commonly  supposed  that  in  this  whole  scene  the 
second  poet  referred  to  by  Horace  is  Propertius,  the  elegiac 
writer  (c/.  1.  91)  who  called  himself  "the  Roman  Calli- 
machus." Callimachus,  an  Alexandrian  poet  of  the  third 
cent.  B.C.,  was  commonly  held  to  be  the  greatest  of  Greek 
elegists.  For  Mimnermus  cf.  Epist.  i.  6.  65.  He  lived  in 
the  latter  half  of  the  seventh  cent.  B.C.,  and  was  the  first  to 
make  elegy  a  vehicle  for  love-sentiment. 


EPISTLES,  II.  II.  95-114 

you  have  time,  follow,  and  draw  close  to  hear  what 
each  has  to  offer,  and  with  what  he  weaves  for 
himself  a  chaplet.  We  belabour  each  other,  and 
with  tit  for  tat  use  up  our  foe,  hke  Samnites,  in  a 
long-drawn  bout,  till  the  first  lamps  are  lighted." 
By  his  vote  I  come  off  an  Alcaeus.  What  is  he  by 
mine  ?  What,  but  a  CalUmachus  !  If  he  seems  to 
claim  more,  he  becomes  a  Mimnermus,  and  is  glorified 
with  the  title  of  his  choice.*  Much  do  I  endure, 
to  soothe  the  fretful  tribe  of  bards,  so  long  as  I  am 
scribbling,  and  humbly  suing  for  public  favour  ;  but 
now  that  my  studies  are  ended  and  my  \nts  recovered, 
I  would,  without  fear  of  requital,  stop  up  my  open 
ears  when  they  recite." 

106  Xhose  who  vrrite  poor  verses  are  a  jest  ;  yet 
they  rejoice  in  the  ^^Titing  and  revere  themselves  ; 
and,  should  you  say  nothing,  they  themselves  praise 
whatever  they  have  produced — happy  souls  !  But 
the  man  whose  aim  is  to  have  WTOught  a  poem  true 
to  Art's  rules,  when  he  takes  his  tablets,  will  take  also 
the  spirit  of  an  honest  censor.**  He  wll  have  the 
courage,  if  words  fall  short  in  dignity,  lack  weight,  or 
be  deemed  unworthy  of  rank,  to  remove  them  from 
their  place,  albeit  they  are  loth  to  ^vithdraw,  and 
still   hnger  within  Vesta's  precincts.*     Terms  long 

*  Horace  means  that  if  he  does  not  write,  he  need  not 
listen.  Others  prefer  to  connect  impune  with  legentibus. 
The  others  recite  vdthout  fear  of  his  retaliating. 

**  These  lines  were  used  by  Dr.  Johnson  as  the  motto  for 
his  Dictionary. 

*  The  allusion  is  obscure.  Vesta  perhaps  stands  for  the 
most  sacred  traditions  of  Rome,  so  that  the  words  rejected 
by  the  poet  still  remain  in  common  use.  Keller  thinks  that 
Horace  uses  a  quotation  from  Ennius  or  some  other  early 

2p  433 


obscurata  diu  populo  bonus  eruet  atque  118 

proferet  in  lucem  speciosa  vocabula  rerum, 
quae  priscis  memorata  Catonibus  atque  Cethegis 
nunc  situs  informis  premit  et  deserta  vetustas  ; 
adsciscet  nova,  quae  genitor  produxerit  usus. 
vemens  et  liquidus^  puroque  simillimus  amni  120 

fundet  opes  Latiumque  beabit  divite  lingua  ; 
luxuriantia  compescet,  nimis  aspera  sano 
levabit  cultu,  virtute  carentia^  toilet, 
ludentis  speciem  dabit  et  torquebitur,  ut  qui 
nunc  Satyrum,  nunc  agrestem  Cyclopa  movetur.     125 

Praetulerim  scriptor  delirus  inersque  videri, 
dum  mea  delectent  mala  me  vel  denique  fallant, 
quam  sapere  et  ringi.     fuit  baud  ignobilis  Argis,' 
qui  se  credebat  miros  audire  tragoedos 
in  vacuo  laetus  sessor  plausorque  theatre  ;  130 

cetera  qui  vitae  servaret  munia  recto 
more,  bonus  sane  vicinus,  amabilis  hospes, 
comis  in  uxorem,  posset  qui  ignoscere  servis 
et  signo  laeso  non  insanire  lagoenae, 
posset  qui  rupem  et  puteum  vitare  patentem.*       135 
hie  ubi  cognatorum  opibus  curisque  refect  us 
expulit  elleboro  morbum  bilemque  meraco, 
et  redit  ad  sese  :   "  pol,  me  occidistis,  amici, 
non  servastis,"  ait,  "  cui  sic  extorta  voluptas 
et  demptus  per  vim  mentis  gratissimus  error."       140 

*  vehemens  mss.  :  et  vehemens  liquidus  D. 
*  carentia  D^lf :  calentia  Va. 
•  Argus.  *  parentem,  II. 

•  Cf.  Ars  Poetica,  50.  *  Cf.  Ars  Poetica,  71,  72. 

*  Those  who  dance  most  easily  do  so  as  the  result  of  hard 
training  ;  cf.  Pope  : 

As  those  move  easiest  who  have  learn 'd  to  dance. 

'  Ringi  means  literally  "  to  show  one's  teeth  like  a  snarling 


EPISTLES,  II.  n.  115-140 

lost  in  darkness  the  good  poet  will  unearth  for  the 
people's  use  and  bring  into  the  light — picturesque 
terms  which,  though  once  spoken  by  a  Cato  and  a 
Cethegus  of  old.**  now  lie  low  through  unseemly 
neglect  and  dreary  age.  New  ones  he  will  adopt 
which  Use  has  fathered  and  brought  forth.''  Strong 
and  clear,  and  truly  like  a  crystal  river,  he  will  pour 
forth  wealth  and  bless  Latium  with  richness  of 
speech ;  he  will  prune  down  rankness  of  growth, 
smooth  with  wholesome  refinement  what  is  rough, 
sweep  away  what  lacks  force — wear  the  look  of  being 
at  play,  and  yet  be  on  the  rack,  hke  a  dancer  who 
plays  now  a  Satyr,  and  now  a  clownish  Cyclops." 

^^  I  should  prefer  to  be  thought  a  foolish  and 
clumsy  scribbler,  if  only  my  failings  please,  or  at 
least  escape  me,  rather  than  be  wise  and  unhappy .** 
Once  at  Argos  there  w^as  a  man  of  some  rank,  who 
used  to  fancy  that  he  was  listening  to  wonderful 
tragic  actors,  while  he  sat  happy  and  applauded 
in  the  empty  theatre — a  man  who  would  correctly 
perform  all  other  duties  of  hfe,  a  most  worthy 
neighbour,  an  amiable  host,  kind  to  his  wife,  one 
that  could  excuse  his  slaves,  and  not  get  frantic 
if  the  seal  of  a  flask  were  broken,  one  that  could 
avoid  a  precipice  or  an  open  well.  This  man  was 
cured  by  his  kinsmen's  help  and  care,  but  when  with 
strong  hellebore  he  had  driven  out  the  malady  and 
its  bile,  and  had  come  to  himself  again,  he  cried  : 
"  Egad  !  you  have  killed  me,  my  friends,  not  saved 
me  ;  for  thus  you  have  robbed  me  of  a  pleasure  and 
taken  away  perforce  the  dearest  illusion  of  my  heart." 

dog,"  and  is  used  here  of  the  unhappy,  self-critical  poet  who 
is  never  content  with  what  he  produces,  in  contrast  with  the 
contented,  self-complacent  writer. 



Nimirum  sapere  est  abiectis  utile  nugis, 
et  tempestivum  pueris  concedere  ludum, 
ac  non  verba  sequi  fidibus  modulanda  Latinis, 
sed  verae  numerosque  modosque  ediscere  vitae. 
quocirca  mecum  loquor  haec  tacitusque  recorder  :   145 

Si  tibi  nulla  sitim  finiret  copia  lymphae, 
narrares  medicis  :   quod,  quanto  plura  parasti, 
tan  to  plura  cupis,  nulline  faterier  audes  ? 
si  volnus  tibi  monstrata  radice  vel  herba 
non  fieret  levius,  fugeres  radice  vel  herba  150 

proficiente  nihil  curarier  :   audieras,  cui 
rem  di  donarent,  illi  decedere  pravam 
stultitiam  ;   et  cum  sis  nihilo  sapientior  ex  quo 
plenior  es,  tamen  uteris  monitoribus  isdem  ? 

At  si  divitiae  prudentem  reddere  possent,  155 

si  cupidum  timidumque  minus  te,  nempe  ruberes, 
viveret  in  terris  te  si  quis  avarior  uno. 
si  proprium  est,  quod  quis  libra  mercatus^  et  acre  est,^ 
quaedam,  si  credis  consultis,  mancipat  usus  ; 
qui  te  pascit  ager  tuus  est,  et  vilicus  Orbi,  160 

cum  segetes  occat  tibi  mox  frumenta  daturas,^ 
te  dominum  sentit.     das  nummos,  accipis  uvam, 
pullos,  ova,  cadum  temeti  :  nempe  modo  isto 
paulatim  mercaris  agrum,  fortasse  trecentis 
aut  etiam  supra  nummorum  milibus  emptum.         165 
quid  refert,  vivas  numerato  nuper  an  olim  ? 

^  mercatus,  7,  w.  mercatur,  II:  est  omitted,  II. 
2  daturas  V,  II:  daturus,  I. 

"  A  reference  to  the  common  mode  of  conveying  ownership 
in  property,  viz.  by  a  symboHc  sale,  in  which  a  balance, 
held  by  a  third  party,  was  struck  by  the  purchaser  with 
a  copper  coin. 

''  Usucapio,  legal  possession,  uninterrupted  and  continued 
for  a  certain  time,  resulted  in  ownership  (dominium).  But 
perhaps  Horace  jocularly   refers  to   matrimony,  where  in 


EPISTLES,  II.  11.  141-166 

^*^  In  truth  it  is  profitable  to  cast  aside  toys  and 
to  learn  wisdom  ;  to  leave  to  lads  the  sport  that  fits 
their  age,  and  not  to  search  out  words  that  will  fit 
the  music  of  the  Latin  lyre,  but  to  master  the 
rhythms  and  measures  of  a  genuine  life.  There- 
fore I  talk  thus  to  myself  and  silently  recall  these 
precepts : 

If  no  amount  of  water  could  quench  your  thirst, 
you  would  tell  your  story  to  the  doctor  :  seeing  that 
the  more  you  get,  the  more  you  want,  do  you  not 
dare  to  make  confession  to  any  man  ?  If  your 
wound  were  not  relieved  by  the  root  or  herb  pre- 
scribed, you  would  give  up  being  treated  >vith  the 
root  or  herb  that  did  you  no  good  :  you  had  perhaps 
been  told  that  perverse  folly  flees  from  him  to  whom 
the  gods  had  given  wealth  ;  but  though  you  are  no 
wiser  since  you  became  richer,  do  you  still  follow 
the  same  counsellors  ? 

1^  But  surely  if  wealth  could  make  you  wise,  if 
less  wedded  to  desires  and  fears,  you  would  blush  if 
there  hved  upon  earth  a  greater  miser  than  you.  If 
that  is  a  man's  own  which  he  buys  with  bronze  and 
balance,"  there  are  some  things,  if  you  trust  the 
lawyers,  which  use  ^  conveys  ;  the  farm  which  gives 
you  food  is  yours,  and  the  bailiff  of  Orbius,  when  he 
harrows  the  corn-land  which  is  shortly  to  give  you 
grain,  feels  you  to  be  his  master.  You  give  your 
coin  ;  you  receive  grapes,  poultry,  eggs,  ajar  of  wine  : 
in  that  way,  mark  you  !  you  are  buying  bit  by  bit 
the  farm  once  purchased  for  three  hundred  thousand 
sesterces,  or  perhaps  even  more.  What  does  it  matter, 
whether  you   live   on  what  was   paid  out  lately  or 

certain  cases  manus  might  result  from  usus.     So  PoUuck, 
C.R.  xxxi.  (1917). 



emptor  Aricini  quondam^  Veientis  et  arvi 

emptum  cenat  holus,  quamvis  aliter  putat ;   emptis 

sub  noctem  gelidam  lignis  calefactat  aenum  ; 

sed  vocat  usque  suum,  qua^  populus  adsita  certis    170 

limitibus  vicina  refugit^  iurgia  ;  tamquam 

sit  proprium  quicquam,  puncto  quod  mobilis  horae 

nunc  prece,  nunc  pretio,  nunc  vi,  nunc  morte  suprema 

permutet  dominos  et  cedat  in  altera  iura. 

sic*  quia  perpetuus  nulli  datur  usus,  et  heres  176 

heredem  alterius^  velut  unda  supervenit  undam, 

quid  vici  prosunt  aut  horrea  ?     quidve  Calabris 

saltibus  adiecti  Lucani,  si  metit  Orcus 

grandia  cum  parvis,  non  exorabilis  auro  ? 

Gemmas,  marmor,  ebur,  Tyrrhena  sigilla,  tabellas, 
argentum,  vestes  Gaetulo  murice  tinctas  181 

sunt  qui  non  habeant,  est  qui  non  curat  habere, 
cur  alter  fratrum  cessare  et  ludere  et  ungui 
praeferat  Herodis  palmetis  pinguibus,  alter 
dives  et  importunus  ad  umbram  lucis  ab  ortu  185 

silvestrem  flammis  et  ferro  mitiget  agrum, 
scit  Genius,  natale  comes  qui  temperat  astrum, 
naturae  deus  humanae,  mortalis  in  unum 
quodque  caput,  voltu  mutabilis,  albus  et  ater. 
utar  et  ex  modico,  quantum  res  poscet,  acervo       190 
tollam,  nee  metuam  quid  de  me  iudicet  heres, 
quod  non  plura  datis  invenerit ;   et  tamen  idem 
scire  volam,  quantum  simplex  hilarisque  nepoti 

^  quondam  tt*  :  quoniam  V,  most  uss. 

*  quia  EB :  quod  ir.  *  refigit. 

•  sic  E^M' :  si  uss.,  Porph.  *  alternis  Bentley. 

"  Ownership  may  be  transferred  by  donation  in  response 
to  an  appeal  (prece),  and  by  confiscation  {vi),  as  well  as  by 
purchase  and  inheritance. 


EPISTLES,  II.  II.  167-193 

some  time  ago  ?  The  man  who  once  bought  a  farm 
at  Aricia  or  Veii  bought  the  greens  for  his  dinner, 
though  he  thinks  otherwise  ;  he  bought  the  logs 
with  which  he  boils  the  kettle  in  the  chill  of  nightfall. 
Yet  he  calls  it  all  his  own,  up  to  where  the  poplars, 
planted  beside  fixed  boundaries,  prevent  the  wranghng 
of  neighbours:  just  as  though  anything  were  one 'sown, 
which  in  a  moment  of  flitting  time,  now  by  prayer,* 
now  by  purchase,  now  by  force,  now — at  the  last — by 
death,  changes  owners  and  passes  under  the  power  of 
another.  Thus  since  to  none  is  granted  lasting  use, 
and  heir  follows  another's  heir  as  wave  follows  wave, 
what  avail  estates  or  granaries — what  avail  Lucanian 
forests  joined  to  Calabrian,  if  Death  reaps  great  and 
small — Death  who  never  can  be  won  over  with  gold  ? 
^^°  Gems,  marble,  ivory,  Tuscan  vases,  paintings, 
plate,  robes  dyed  in  GaetuHan  purple — there  are 
those  who  have  not ;  there  is  one  who  cares  not  to 
have.  Of  two  brothers  one  prefers,  above  Herod's 
rich  palm-groves,*  idhng  and  playing  and  the  anoint- 
ing of  himself ;  the  other,  wealthy  and  untiring,  from 
dawn  to  shady  eve  subdues  his  woodland  farm  with 
flames  and  iron  plough.  Why  so,  the  Genius  alone 
knows — that  companion  who  rules  our  star  of  birth, 
the  god  of  human  nature,  though  mortal  for  each 
single  life,  and  changing  in  countenance,  white  or 
black."  I  shall  use  and  from  my  modest  heap  take 
what  need  requires,  nor  shall  I  fear  what  my  heii 
will  think  of  me,  because  he  does  not  find  more  than 
1  have  given  him.  And  yet,  withal,  I  shall  wish  to 
know  how  much  the  frank  and  cheerful  giver  is 
distinct  from  the  spendthrift,  how  much  the  frugal 

*  Herod  the  Great  had  famous  groves  of  date-palms  near 
Jericho.  •  Cf.  Epist.  ii.  1.  144. 



discrepet  et  quantum  discordet  parcus  avaro.  194 

distat  enim,  spargas  tua  prodigus,  an  neque  sumptum 
invitus  facias  neque  plura  parare  labores, 
ac  potius,  puer  ut  festis  Quinquatribus  olim, 
exiguo  gratoque  fruaris  tempore  raptim. 
pauperies  immunda  domus^  procul  absit^ :  ego,  utrum 
nave  ferar  magna  an  parva,  ferar  unus  et  idem.     200 
non  agimur  tumidis  velis  Aquilone  secundo  : 
non  tamen  adversis  aetatem  ducimus  Austris, 
viribus,  ingenio,  specie,  virtute,  loco,  re^ 
extremi  primorum,  extremis  usque  priores.  204 

Non  es  avarus  :  abi.     quid  ?   cetera  iam  simul  isto 
cum  vitio  fugere^  ?     caret  tibi  pectus  inani 
ambitione  ?     caret  mortis  formidine  et  ira  ? 
somnia,  terrores  magicos,  miracula,  sagas, 
nocturnos  lemures  portentaque  Thessala  rides  ? 
natalis  grate  numeras  ?     ignoscis  amicis  ?  210 

lenior  et  melior  fis*  accedente  senecta  ? 
quid  te  exempta  iuvat^  spinis  de  pluribus  una  ? 
vivere  si  recte  nescis,  decede  peritis. 
lusisti  satis,  edisti  satis  atque  bibisti  : 
tempus  abire  tibi  est,  ne  potum  largius  aequo        215 
rideat  et  pulset  lasciva  decentius^  aetas. 

^  domus  and  absit  omitted,  II  {only  absit  omitted  in  R). 
Hence  procul  procul  absit  Bentley. 

*  loco  re,  /,  R :  colore,  II. 

»  fugere  i),  //:  fuge  rite  aEM. 

*  sis  E.  *  iuvit  D :  levat.  •  licentius  ir*. 

°  The  Quinquatnis,  or  festival  of  Minerva,  was  a  school- 
vacation  of  five  days,  from  March  19  to  March  23. 

*  ForThessalian  witchcraft  cf.  Epod.  v.  45  ;  Odes,  i.  27. 21. 


EPISTLES,  II.  II.  194-216 

is  at  variance  with  the  miserly.  For  it  does  differ 
whether  you  scatter  your  money  lavishly,  or  whether, 
while  neither  reluctant  to  spend,  nor  eager  to  add 
to  yoiu-  store,  you  snatch  enjoyment  of  the  brief  and 
pleasant  hour,  hke  a  schoolboy  in  the  spring  hohdays." 
Far  from  me  be  squahd  want  at  home  :  yet,  be  my 
vessel  large  or  small,  I,  the  passenger  aboard,  shall 
remain  one  and  the  same.  Not  with  swelling  sails 
are  we  borne  before  a  favouring  north  wind,  yet  we 
drag  not  out  our  hfe  struggling  with  southern  gales  ; 
in  strength,  in  wit,  in  person,  in  virtue,  in  station,  in 
fortune,  behind  the  foremost,  ever  before  the  last. 

^^  You  are  no  miser.  Good  !  What  then  ?  Have 
all  the  other  \'ices  taken  to  flight  with  that  ?  Is 
your  heart  free  from  vain  ambition  ?  Is  it  free  from 
alarm  and  anger  at  death  ?  Dreams,  terrors  of 
magic,  marvels,  witches,  ghosts  of  night,  Thessahan 
portents  ** — do  you  laugh  at  these  ?  Do  you  count 
your  birthdays  thankfully  ?  Do  you  forgive  your 
friends  ?  Do  you  grow  gentler  and  better,  as  old 
age  draws  near  ?  What  good  does  it  do  you  to 
pluck  out  a  single  one  of  many  thorns  ?  If  you 
know  not  how  to  hve  aright,  make  way  for  those 
who  do.  You  have  played  enough,  have  eaten  and 
drunk  enough.  'Tis  time  to  quit  the  feast,"  lest, 
when  you  have  drunk  too  freely,  youth  mock  and 
jostle  you,  playing  the  wanton  >\ith  better  grace. 

*  C/.  Sat.  i.  1.  118,  where,  as  here,  Horace  has  in  mind 
the  famous  passage  in  Lucretius,  De  rerum  nat.  iii.  938, 

cur  non  ut  plenus  vitae  conviva  recedis  ? 




Tins,  the  longest  of  Horace's  poems,  is  found  in 
nearly  all  mss.  under  the  title  Ars  Poetica,  which  is 
also  the  name  assigned  to  it  by  QuintiUan  and  used 
by  the  commentator  Porphyrio.  Yet  the  composi- 
tion is  a  letter  rather  than  a  formal  treatise,  and  it 
is  hard  to  believe  that  Horace  himself  is  responsible 
for  the  conventional  title.  It  has  the  discursive  and 
occasionally  personal  tone  of  an  Epistle,  whereas  it 
lacks  the  completeness,  precision,  and  logical  order 
of  a  well-constructed  treatise.  It  must  therefore  be 
judged  by  the  same  standards  as  the  other  Epistles 
and  Sermones,  and  must  be  regarded  as  an  expression 
of  more  or  less  random  reflections,  suggested  by 
special  circumstances,  upon  an  art  which  peculiarly 
concerned  one  or  more  of  the  persons  addressed. 
These  are  a  father  and  two  sons  of  the  Piso  family, 
but  nobody  knows  with  certainty  what  particular 
Pisos — and  there  are  many  on  record — they  are. 

Though  the  writer  touches  upon  various  kinds  of 
poetry,  yet  as  fully  one-third  of  the  whole  poem  is 
concerned  with  the  drama,  it  is  a  plausible  inference 
that  one  at  least  of  the  Pisos  —  presumably  the 
elder  son  (1.  366) — was  about  to  write  a  play,  perhaps 
one  with  an  Homeric  background  (11.  128,  129),  and 


possibly  one  conforming  to  the  rules  of  the  Greek 
satyric  drama  (11.  220  fF.).  Thus  the  special  interests 
of  the  Pisos  may  have  determined  Horace's  choice 
of  topics. 

The  following  is  a  brief  outline  of  the  main  subjects 
handled  in  the  letter  : 

(a)  A  poem  demands  unity,  to  be  secured  by 
harmony  and  proportion,  as  well  as  a  wise  choice  of 
subject  and  good  diction.  Metre  and  style  must  be 
appropriate  to  theme  and  to  character.  A  good 
model  will  always  be  found  in  Homer  (11.  1-152). 

(b)  Dramatic  poetry  calls  for  special  care — as  to 
character  drawing,  propriety  of  representation,  length 
of  a  play,  number  of  actors,  use  of  the  chorus  and 
its  music,  special  features  for  the  satyric  type,  verse- 
forms,  and  employment  of  Greek  models  (11.  153- 

(c)  A  poet's  qualifications  include  common  sense, 
knowledge  of  character,  adherence  to  high  ideals, 
combination  of  the  dulce  >vith  the  utile,  intellectual 
superiority,  appreciation  of  the  noble  history  and 
lofty  mission  of  poetry,  and  above  all  a  wilHngness 
to  Usten  to  and  profit  by  impartial  criticism  (11. 

The  following  is  a  more  detailed  analysis  : 
In  poetry  as  in  painting  there  must  be  unity  and 
simplicity  (1-23).  We  poets  must  guard  against 
extremes,  and  while  avoiding  one  error  must  not  fall 
into  its  opposite  (24-31).  A  good  sculptor  pays  careful 
attention  to  details,  but  at  the  same  time  makes  sure 
that  his  work  as  a  whole  is  successful  (32-37). 

A  writer  should  confine  himself  to  subjects  within 
his  power.  He  will  then  be  at  no  loss  for  words  and 
will  follow  a  correct  order,  which  will  enable  him  to 



say  the  right  thing  at  the  right  moment  (38-4<5). 
As  to  diction,  he  must  be  careful  in  his  choice  of 
language.  He  can,  by  means  of  a  skilful  combina- 
tion, give  a  fresh  tone  to  familiar  terms,  and  he  may 
even  coin  words  in  moderation  as  the  old  poets  used 
to  do.  Like  all  other  mortal  things,  words  change 
and  pass  out  of  existence,  for  they  are  subject  to 
the  caprice  of  fashion  (46-72). 

The  metres  most  fitting  for  the  several  types  of 
verse  were  established  by  the  great  Greek  poets, 
and  we  must  follow  them  (73-85).  So  with  the  tone 
and  style  of  the  various  kinds.  In  the  drama,  for 
example,  the  tragic  and  the  comic  are  distinct, 
though  occasionally  they  will  overlap  (86-98),  for 
above  all  things  a  play  must  appeal  to  the  feehngs 
of  an  audience,  and  the  language  must  be  adapted 
to  the  characters  impersonated.  Where  there  is 
lack  of  such  agreement,  everybody  will  laugh  in 
scorn  (99-118). 

Either  follow  tradition  or  invent  a  consistent  story. 
Achilles,  Medea,  Orestes,  and  so  on  must  be  portrayed 
as  tliey  are  known  to  us  in  Greek  literature,  while 
new  characters  must  be  handled  with  a  consistency 
of  their  own  (1 19-127).  It  is  hard  to  deal  with  general 
notions,  such  as  anger,  greed,  and  cowardice,  so  as 
to  individualize  them  for  yourself  and  you,  my  friend 
Piso,  are  quite  right  to  dramatize  some  Homeric 
theme,  where  the  characters  introduced  have  well- 
known  traits,  rather  than  attempt  something  dis- 
tinctly original.  And  yet,  even  in  such  public 
property  as  the  Homeric  epics  you  may  win  private 
rights  by  handling  your  material  in  an  original 
fashion.  Make  a  simple  beginning,  like  that  of  the 
Odyssey,  where  the  sequel  becomes  clearer  and 


increases  in  brilliancy.  Homer  indulges  in  no  lengthy 
introduction,  but  hurries  on  ^\^th  his  narrative,  omits 
what  he  cannot  adorn,  and  never  loses  the  thread 
of  his  story  (128-152). 

If  you  want  your  play  to  succeed,  you  must  study 
the  "  strange,  eventful  history  "  of  human  life,  and 
note  the  characteristics  of  the  several  ages  of  man, 
so  that  the  different  periods  may  not  be  confused 
(153-178).  Events  may  be  set  forth  in  action  or, 
less  preferably,  in  narrative.  The  latter  method, 
however,  must  be  used  in  the  case  of  revolting  and 
incredible  incidents  (179-188). 

A  play  should  be  in  five  acts.  The  deus  ex  machina 
should  be  employed  only  rarely,  and  there  should 
never  be  more  than  three  characters  on  the  stage  at 
one  time  (1 89-1 92).  The  Chorus  should  take  a  real 
part  in  the  action  ;  it  should  not  sing  anything 
irrelevant,  and  should  promote  the  cause  of  morality 
and  religion  (193-201).  As  to  the  music,  the  flute  was 
once  a  simple  instrument,  which  accompanied  the 
chorus,  and  was  not  expected  to  fill  large  theatres  as 
nowadays.  With  the  growth  of  wealth  and  luxury 
in  the  state,  and  the  consequent  deterioration  in 
the  taste  and  character  of  the  audience,  the  music 
became  more  florid  and  sensational,  the  diction  more 
artificial,  and  the  sentiments  more  obscure  and 
oracular  (202-219). 

The  satyric  dramn,  \\ith  its  chorus  of  goat-footed 
fauns,  which  was  de\ised  for  spectators  in  their 
lighter  moods,  naturally  assumed  a  gay  and  frolic- 
some tone  as  compared  with  the  serious  tragedy  from 
which  it  sprang,  but  this  does  not  warrant  a  writer 
in  permitting  his  gods  and  heroes  to  use  vulgar 
speech,  or  on  the  other  hand  in  allowing  them  to 



indulge  in  ranting.  There  should  be  a  happy  mean 
between  the  language  of  tragedy  and  that  of  comedy. 
I  would  aim  at  a  familiar  style,  so  that  anyone  might 
think  it  easy  to  write  in  that  fashion,  but  on  trying 
would  find  out  his  mistake.  The  rustic  fauns  must 
not  talk  like  city  wits,  nor  yet  use  such  coarse  language 
that  they  will  give  offence  to  the  better  part  of  an 
audience  (220-250). 

As  to  metre,  the  iambic  is  strictly  a  rapid  measure, 
so  that  a  senarius  is  counted  as  a  trimeter.  But 
the  older  poets  admitted  the  spondee  so  freely,  that 
it  obscured  the  rhythm  and  made  it  heavy.  In  fact, 
it  is  not  every  critic  that  can  detect  unmusical 
verses,  and  too  much  freedom  has  been  allowed  our 
native  poets.  Shall  I  presume  on  this  or  shall  I 
write  with  caution  ?  If  I  follow  the  latter  course,  I 
may  avoid  criticism,  but  I  shall  not  win  praise.  The 
proper  course  is  to  study  Greek  models  m'ght  and 
day.  He  who  is  conversant  with  them  will  see  that 
our  fathers'  admiration  for  the  rhythms,  as  well  as 
the  wit,  of  Plautus,  was  uncalled  for  (251-274). 

Thespis,  we  are  told,  invented  Tragedy,  and  Aes- 
chylus perfected  it.  Old  Attic  Comedy,  too,  won 
no  little  renown  until  its  licence  had  to  be  checked 
by  law  and  its  chorus  was  silenced  (275-284).  Our 
Roman  poets,  besides  following  the  Greeks,  were  bold 
enough  to  invent  forms  of  a  national  drama,  and 
might  have  rivalled  their  masters,  had  they  taken 
more  pains.  I  beg  you,  my  friends,  to  condemn 
every  poem  which  has  not  been  subjected  to  the 
finishing  touch  (285-294). 

The  idea  that  genius  is  allied  to  madness  is  carried 
so  far  that  many  would-be  poets  are  slovenly  in 
appearance  and  neglect  their  health.  It  is  not  worth 


while  to  compose  poetry  at  the  expense  of  your  wits, 
so,  refraining  from  MTiting  myself,  I  will  teach  the 
art  to  others,  even  as  a  whetstone  can  sharpen 
knives,  though  it  cannot  cut  (295-308). 

The  first  essential  is  wisdom.  This  you  can 
cultivate  by  study  of  the  philosophers,  and  when 
you  have  first  learned  from  them  valuable  lessons  of 
life,  you  should  apply  yourself  to  hfe  itself,  and  then 
your  personages  will  speak  like  real  living  beings. 
Sometimes  striking  passages  and  characters  properly 
portrayed  commend  a  mediocre  play  better  than  do 
verses  which  lack  substance,  mere  trifles,  however 
melodious  (309-322). 

The  Greeks  had  genius,  eloquence,  and  ambition  ; 
the  Romans  are  too  practical,  even  in  their  elementary 
schooling.  How  can  we  expect  a  people  thus  trained 
to  develop  poets  ?  Poetry  aims  at  both  instruction 
and  pleasure.  In  your  didactic  passages,  be  not 
long-\vinded  ;  in  your  fiction,  avoid  extravagance. 
Combine  the  utile  with  the  dulce,  for  only  thus  will 
you  produce  a  book  that  will  sell,  and  enjoy  a  wide 
and  lasting  fame  (323-346). 

Absolute  perfection,  however,  is  not  to  be  expected, 
and  we  must  allow  for  slight  defects.  When  I  come 
across  a  good  hne  in  a  poor  poem,  I  am  surprised 
and  amused  ;  I  am  merely  grieved  if  Homer  now 
and  then  nods  (347-360).  The  critic  must  bear  in 
mind  that  poetry  is  hke  painting.  In  each  case  the 
aim  in  view  is  to  be  considered.  A  miniature  should 
bear  close  inspection  ;  a  wall-painting  is  to  be  seen 
from  a  distance.  One  thing  which  may  be  tolerated 
in  other  fields,  but  which  in  the  sphere  of  poetry, 
whose  aim  is  to  give  pleasure,  is  never  allowed,  is 
mediocrity.     I^ike  the  athlete,  therefore,  the  poet 



needs  training — a  truth  overlooked  by  many.  But 
you  are  too  sensible  to  make  a  mistake  here.  You 
will  wi'ite  only  when  Minerva  is  auspicious,  and  what 
you  write  you  will  submit  to  a  good  critic.  Even 
then  you  mil  be  in  no  haste  to  publish  (361-390). 

Remember  the  glorious  history  of  poetry,  which — 
as  the  stories  of  Orpheus  and  Amphion  show — has 
from  the  very  infancy  of  the  race  promoted  the 
cause  of  civihzation.  Then,  from  Homer  on,  it  has 
inspired  valour,  has  taught  wisdom,  has  won  the 
favour  of  princes,  and  has  afforded  relief  after  toil. 
Never  need  you  be  ashamed  of  the  Muse  (391-407). 

The  question  has  been  asked  whether  it  is  natural 
ability  or  teaching  that  makes  the  poet.  Both  are 
necessary.  However  much  people  may  boast  of  their 
gifts,  ability  without  training  will  accomplish  no  more 
in  writing  than  in  running  a  race  or  in  flute-playing 

It  is  easy  for  a  rich  poet  to  buy  applause.  Flatterers 
are  like  hired  mourners  at  a  funeral,  who  feel  no 
grief,  however  much  they  may  weep.  So  be  not 
deceived,  but  take  a  lesson  from  those  kings,  who, 
acting  on  the  adage  in  vino  Veritas,  make  men  disclose 
the  truth  by  plying  them  with  wine  (419-437). 

Quintilius  Varus  was  a  frank  and  sincere  critic, 
and  if  you  would  not  take  his  advice  he  would  leave 
you  to  your  self-conceit.  No  honest  man,  for  fear 
of  giving  offence,  will  conceal  his  friend's  faults  from 
him,  for  those  faults  may  lead  to  serious  consequences 

And  think  of  the  danger  of  a  crazy  poet  roaming 
at  large.  First,  there  is  danger  for  himself,  for  if, 
as  he  goes  about  with  upturned  gaze,  he  fall  into  a 
ditch,  nobody  will  pull  him  out.  Indeed,  he  may 


have  gone  in  on  purpose,  like  Empedocles,  who, 
thinking  himself  divine,  once  leaped  into  burning 
Aetna.  And  secondly,  there  is  danger  for  others, 
for  if  he  is  so  stark,  staring  mad  as  to  be  ever  making 
verses,  he  will  become  a  public  scourge,  and  if  he 
catches  some  poor  wretch  he  will  fasten  on  him  like 
a  leech,  and  make  him  listen  to  his  recitations  until 
he  has  bored  him  to  death  (i53-i76)  ! 

The  sketch  of  a  crazy  poet  with  which  the  poem 
closes  corresponds  to  that  of  the  crazy  painter  with 
which  it  opens.  Both  painter  and  poet  are  used  to 
impress  upon  readers  the  lesson  that  in  poetry  as  in 
other  arts  the  main  principle  to  be  followed  is 
propriety.  This  idea  of  hterary  propriety,  which 
runs  through  the  whole  epistle,  is  illustrated  in 
many  ways,  and  may  be  said  to  give  the  Ars  Poeiica 
an  artistic  unity.  (So  Roy  Kenneth  Hack,  "  The 
Doctrine  of  Literary  Forms  "  in  Harvard  Studies  in 
Classical  Philology,  vol.  xxvii.,  1916.) 

SG  449 


Humano  capiti^  cervicem  pictor  equinam 
iungere  si  velit,  et  varias  inducere  plumas 
undique  collatis  membris,  iit  turpiter  atrum 
desinat  in  piscem  miilier  formosa  superne, 
spectatum  admissi^  risum  teneatis,  amici  ?  6 

credite,  Pisones,*  isti  tabulae  fore  librum 
persimilem,  cuius,  velut  aegri^  somnia,  vanae 
fingentur^  species,  ut  nee  pes  nee  caput  uni 
reddatur  formae.     "  pictoribiis  atque  poetis 
quidlibet"  audendi®  semper  fuit  aequa  potestas."     10 
scinius,     et    banc    veniam    petimusque    daniusque 

vicissim  ; 
sed  non  ut  placidis  coeant  immitia,  non  ut 
serpentes  avibus  geminentur,  tigribus  agni. 

Inceptis  gravibus  plcrumque  et  magna  professis 
purpureus,  late  qui  splendeat,  unus  et  alter  15 

adsuitur  pannus,  cum  lucus  et  ara  Dianae 
et  properantis  aquae  per  amoenos  ambitus  agros 
aut  flumen  Rlienum  aut  pluvius^  describitur  arcus. 
sed  nunc  non  erat  his  locus,     et  fortasse  cupressum 
scis  simulare  :   quid  hoc,  si  fractis  enatat  exspes^**  20 

^  For  the  Ars  Poetica  class  I  of  the  uss.  includes  aBCKM, 
while  class  II  includes  R<fi-^5\lir. 

•  pectori  B^.     ^  missi  EC.     *  pisonis,  //.     *  aegris  a^BIi. 

•  fungimtur  B :  fingentur  or  finguntur. 

'  quodlibet  tt.  *  audiendi  B. 

•  fluvius,  //.  "  expers,  //. 



If  a  painter  chose  to  join  a  human  head  to  the  neck 
of  a  horse,  and  to  spread  feathers  of  many  a  hue  over 
limbs  picked  up  now  here  now  there,  so  that  what  at 
the  top  is  a  lovely  woman  ends  below  in  a  black  and 
ugly  fish,  could  you,  my  friends,  if  favoured  with  a 
private  view,  refrain  from  laughing  ?  Believe  me, 
dear  Pisos,  quite  hke  such  pictures  would  be  a  book, 
whose  idle  fancies  shall  be  shaped  like  a  sick  man's 
dreams,  so  that  neither  head  nor  foot  can  be  assigned 
to  a  single  shape.  "  Painters  and  poets,"  you  say, 
"  have  always  had  an  equal  right  in  hazarding  any- 
thing." We  know  it :  this  licence  we  poets  claim 
and  in  our  turn  we  grant  the  hke  ;  but  not  so  far 
that  savage  should  mate  with  tame,  or  serpents 
couple  with  birds,  lambs  ^^^th  tigers. 

1*  Works  with  noble  beginnings  and  grand  promises 
often  have  one  or  two  purple  patches  so  stitched  on 
as  to  ghtter  far  and  wide,  when  Diana's  grove  and 
altar,  and 

The  winding  stream  a-speeding  'mid  fair  fields 
or  the  river  Rhine,  or  the  rainbow  is  being  described." 
For  such  things  there  is  a  place,  but  not  just  now. 
Perhaps,  too,  you  can  draw  a  cypress.     But  what  of 
that,  if  you  are  paid  to  paint  a  sailor  swimming  from 

•  These  examples  are  doubtless  taken  from  poems  current 
in  Horace's  day. 



navibus,  aere  dato  qui  pingitur  ?     amphora  coepit 

institui  :   currente  rota  cur  urceus  exit  ? 

denique  sit  quod  vis,^  simplex  dumtaxat  et  unum. 

Maxima  pars  vatum,  pater  et  iuvenes  patre  digni, 
decipimur  specie  recti,     brevis  esse  laboro,  25 

obscurus  fio  ;  sectantem  levia^  nervi 
deficiunt  animique  ;  professus  grandia  turget ; 
serpit  humi  tutus  nimium  timidusque  procellae  : 
qui  variare  cupit  rem  prodigialiter  unam, 
delphinum  silvis  appingit,  fluctibus  aprum.  30 

in  vitium  ducit  culpae  fuga,  si  caret  arte. 

Aemilium  circa  ludum  faber  imus^  et  unguis 
exprimet  et  mollis  imitabitur  aere  capillos, 
infelix  operis  summa,  quia  ponere  totum 
nesciet.    hunc  ego  me/  si  quid  componere  curem,  35 
non  magis  esse  velim,  quam  naso  vivere  pravo,^ 
spectandum  nigris  oculis  nigroque^  capillo. 

Sumite  materiam  vestris,  qui  scribitis,  aequam 
viribus  et  versate  diu,  quid  ferre  recusent, 
quid  valeant  umeri.     cui  lecta  potenter  erit  res,      40 
nee  facundia  deseret  hunc  nee  lucidus  ordo. 
ordinis  haec  virtus  erit  et  venus,  aut''  ego  fallor, 
ut*  iam  nunc  dicat  iam  nunc  debentia  dici, 

*  quidvis  K  Bentley.  *  lenia  Bentley. 

3  unus  5^  Bentley.  *  egomet  8(p\p. 

*  parvo  b\ir.  ^  nigrove  BCK. 

'  haut  or  haud  BCK^  II  (except  w).  *  aut,  //. 

'  One  who  has  been  saved  from  a  shipwreck  wants  to 
put  a  picture  of  the  scene  as  a  votive  offering  in  a  temple. 
*  So   the    schoUasts,    imus    being    local    amd    meaning 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  21-43 

his  wrecked  vessel  in  despair  ?  *  That  was  a  wine- 
jar,  when  the  moulding  began  :  why,  as  the  wheel 
runs  round,  does  it  turn  out  a  pitcher  ?  In  short,  be 
the  work  what  you  will,  let  it  at  least  be  simple  and 

**  Most  of  us  poets,  O  father  and  ye  sons  worthy 
of  the  father,  deceive  ourselves  by  the  semblance  of 
truth.  Stri\ing  to  be  brief,  I  become  obsciure. 
Aiming  at  smoothness,  I  fail  in  force  and  fire.  One 
promising  grandeur,  is  bombastic  ;  another,  over- 
cautious and  fearful  of  the  gale,  creeps  along  the 
ground.  The  man  who  tries  to  vary  a  single  subject 
in  monstrous  fashion,  is  like  a  painter  adding  a 
dolphin  to  the  woods,  a  boar  to  the  waves.  Shunning 
a  fault  may  lead  to  error,  if  there  be  lack  of  art. 

^  Near  the  Aemilian  School,  at  the  bottom  of  the 
row,*  there  is  a  craftsman  who  in  bronze  will  mould 
nails  and  imitate  wa\ing  locks,  "but  is  unhappy  in 
the  total  result,  because  he  cannot  represent  a  whole 
figure.  Now  if  I  wanted  to  write  something,  I  should 
no  more  wish  to  be  Hke  him,  than  to  hve  with  my 
nose  turned  askew,  though  admired  for  my  black 
eyes  and  black  hair. 

^  Take  a  subject,  ye  writers,  equal  to  your 
strength ',  and  ponder  long  what  your  shoulders 
refuse,  and  what  they  are  able  to  bear.  Whoever 
shall  choose  a  theme  ^\ithin  his  range,  neither  speech 
will  fail  him,  nor  clearness  of  order.  Of  order,  this,  if 
I  mistake  not,  will  be  the  excellence  and  charm  that 
the  author  of  the  long-promised  poem  shall  say  at 
the  moment  what  at  that  moment  should  be  said, 

"  the  last "  of  a  number  of  shops.  Some,  however,  take 
it  in  the  sense  of  "  humblest."  Bentley's  unus  is  to  be  taken 
closel}'  with  exprimet,  "  mould  better  than  any  others." 



pleraque  difFerat  et  praesens  in  tempus  omittat, 
hoc  amet,  hoc  spernat^  promissi  carminis  auctor.     45 

In  verbis  etiam  tenuis  cautusque  serendis^ 
dixeris^  egregie,  notum  si  calhda  verbum 
reddiderit  iunctura  novum,     si  forte  necesse  est 
indiciis  monstrare  recentibus  abdita  rerum,* 
fingere  cinctutis  non  exaudita  Cethegis  50 

contingetj  dabiturque  hcentia  sumpta  pudenter  : 
et  nova  fictaque^  nuper  habebunt  verba  fidem,  si 
Graeco  fonte  cadent^  parce  detorta.     quid  autem 
CaeciHo  Plautoque  dabit  Romanus  ademptum 
Vergiho  Varioque'  ?     ego  cur,  adquirere  pauca        65 
si  possum,  invideor,  cum  lingua  Catonis  et  Enni 
sermonem  patrium  ditaverit  et  nova  rerum 
nomina  protulerit  ?     hcuit  semperque  hcebit 
signatum  praesente  nota  producere^  nomen. 
ut  silvae  fohis^  pronos  mutantur  in  annos,  60 

prima  cadunt  ;  ita  verborum  vetus  interit  aetas, 
et  iuvenum  ritu  florent  modo  nata  vigentque. 
debemur  morti  nos  nostraque  :   sive  receptus 
terra  Neptunus  classes  Aquilonibus  arcet, 
regis  opus,  sterilisve^"  palus  diu  aptaque  remis         65 

^  spernet  BC. 

*  Bentley  transposed  II.  45  and  46,  and  has  been  followed  by 
most  editors.  The  scholiasts,  however,  had  1. 45  preceding  1. 46. 
Servius,  too,  though  he  cites  I.  45  three  times  {on  Aeneid, 
iv.  413,  415;  Georgics,  ii.  475)  noichere  applies  it  to  diction. 

^  dixerit  B.  *  rerum  et,  //.  *  factaque. 

*  cadant  a,  Servius  on  Virg.  Aen.  vi.  34. 

'  \'aroque  (t>^5.  *  procudere  Bentley. 

'  folia  in  silvis  Diomedes.         "  sterilisque,  /  {except  a). 

"  Bentley's  transposition  of  lines  45  and  46,  making 
hoc  .  .  ,  hoc  refer  to  verbis,  seems  unnecessary.  The  tradi- 
tional order  is  retained  by  Wickham  and  Rolfe.  Horace 
deals  first  with  the  arrangement  of  argumentative  material, 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  44-65 

reserving  and  omitting  much  for  the  present,  loving 
this  point  and  scorning  that." 

*'^  Moreover,  with  a  nice  taste  and  care  in 
weaving  words  together,  you  will  express  yoiuself 
most  happily,  if  a  skilful  setting  makes  a  familiar 
word  new.  If  haply  one  must  betoken  abstruse 
things  by  novel  terms,  you  will  have  a  chance 
to  fashion  words  never  heard  of  by  the  kilted* 
Cethegi,  and  licence  will  be  granted,  if  used  with 
modesty  :  while  words,  though  new  and  of  recent 
make,  will  win  acceptance,  if  they  spring  from  a 
Greek  fount  and  are  drawn  therefrom  but  sparingly.*' 
Why  indeed  shall  Romans  grant  this  licence  to 
Caecihus  and  Plautus,  and  refuse  it  to  Virgil  and 
Varius  ?  And  why  should  I  be  grudged  the  right  of 
adding,  if  I  can,  my  httle  fund,  when  the  tongue  of 
Cato  and  of  Ennius  has  enriched  oiur  mother-speech 
and  brought  to  hght  new  terms  for  things  ?  It  has 
ever  been,  and  ever  ^\i\\  be,  permitted  to  issue  words 
stamped  with  the  mint-mark  of  the  day.  As  forests 
change  their  leaves  with  each  year's  decline,  and  the 
earhest  drop  off  **  :  so  with  words,  the  old  race  dies, 
and,  hke  the  young  of  human  kind,  the  new-born 
bloom  and  thrive.  We  are  doomed  to  death — we  and 
all  things  ours ;  whether  Neptune,  welcomed  within 
the  land,  protects  our  fleets  from  northern  gales — a 
truly  royal  work — or  a  marsh,  long  a  waste  where  oars 
and  in  1.  46  passes  to  diction  (c/.  Fiske,  Lucilius  and  Horace, 
p.  449  and  note  50). 

*  The  cinctus  was  a  loin-cloth  worn  instead  of  the  tunica 
by  the  Romans  in  days  of  old. 

«  As  Wickham  has  seen,  the  metaphor  is  taken  from 
irrigation  ;  "  the  sluices  must  be  opened  sparingly." 

•^  In  Italian  woods,  as  in  Californian,  leaves  may  stay  on 
the  trees  two  or  even  three  years.     Only  the  oldest  {jprima)  {| 
drop  off  each  autumn.  '' 



vicinas  urbes  alit  et  grave  sentit  aratrum, 
sen  cursum  mutavit  iniquum  frugibus  aniiiis 
doctus  iter  melius  :  mortalia  facta  peribunt, 
nedum  sermonum  stet  honos  et  gratia  vivax. 
multa  renascentur  quae  iam  cecidere,  cadentque     70 
quae  nunc  sunt  in  honore  vocabula,  si  volet  usus, 
queni  penes  arbitrium  est  et  ius  et  norma  loquendi. 

Res  gestae  regumque  ducumque  et  tristia  bella 
quo  scribi  possent  numero,  monstravit  Homerus. 
versibus  impariter  iunctis  querimonia  primum,         75 
post  etiam  inclusa  est  voti  sententia  compos  ; 
quis  tamen  exiguos  elegos  emiserit  auctor, 
grammatici  certant  et  adhuc  sub  iudice  lis  est. 
Archilochum  proprio  rabies  armavit  iambo  : 
hunc  socci  cepere  pedem  grandesque  coturni  80 

alternis  aptum  sermonibus  et  popularis 
vincentem  strepitus  et  natum  rebus  agendis. 
musa  dedit  fidibus  divos  puerosque  deorum 
et  pugilem  victorem  et  equum  certamine  primum 
et  iuvenum  curas  et  libera  vina  referre.  85 

descriptas  servare  vices  operumque  color es 

"  Horace  finds  tliree  illustrations  of  human  achievement 
in  certain  engineering  works  planned  by  Julius  Caesar  or 
Augustus.  These  were:  (1)  the  building  of  the  Julian 
Harbour  on  the  Campanian  coast,  where,  under  Agrippa, 
Lakes  Avernus  and  Lucrinus  were  connected  by  a  deep 
channel,  and  the  sandy  strip  between  the  Lucrine  Lake 
and  the  sea  was  pierced  so  as  to  admit  ships  from  the 
Tuscan  Sea;  c/.  Virgil,  Georgics,  ii.  161  fF. ;  (2)  the  draining 
of  the  Pomptine  marshes,  planned  by  Julius  Caesar  and 
perhaps  executed  by  Augustus  ;  (3)  the  straightening  of 
the  Tiber's  course  so  as  to  protect  Rome  fnom  floods. 

"  Cf.  Epistles  ii.  2.  119.  "  The  dactylic  hexameter. 

"^  The  elegiac  couplet,  made  up  of  a  hexameter  and  a 
pentameter  (hence  impariter  iunctis),  was  commonly  used 
in  inscriptions  associated  with  votive  offerings  and  expressed 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  66-86 

were  plied,  feeds  neighbouring  towns  and  feels  the 
weight  of  the  plough  ;  or  a  river  has  changed  the 
course  which  brought  ruin  to  corn-fields  and  has  learnt 
a  better  path  "  :  all  mortal  things  shall  perish,  much 
less  shall  the  glory  and  glamour  of  speech  endure 
and  live.  Many  terms  that  have  fallen  out  of  use 
shall  be  born  again,  and  those  shall  fall  that  are  now 
in  repute,  if  Usage  so  \^ill  it,  in  whose  hands  lies  the 
judgement,  the  right  and  the  rule  of  speech.* 

''  In  what  measure  the  exploits  of  kings  and 
captains  and  the  sorrows  of  war  may  be  written, 
Homer  has  shown.*  Verses  yoked  unequally  first 
embraced  lamentation,  later  also  the  sentiment  of 
granted  prayer  ^  :  yet  who  first  put  forth  humble 
elegiacs,  scholars  dispute,  and  the  case  is  still  before 
the  court.  Rage  armed  Archilochus  with  his  own 
iambus  :  this  foot  comic  sock  and  high  buskins  alike 
adopted,  as  suited  to  alternate  speech,  able  to  drown 
the  clamours  of  the  pit,  and  by  nature  fit  for  action.* 
To  the  l)Te  the  Muse  granted  tales  of  gods  and 
children  of  gods,  of  the  victor  in  boxing,  of  the  horse 
first  in  the  race,  of  the  loves  of  swains,  and  of  freedom 
over  wine.^  If  I  fail  to  keep  and  do  not  understand 
these  well-marked  shifts  and  shades  of  poetic  forms," 

in  the  form  of  epigrams.  The  earliest  elegiacs,  however, 
were  probably  laments,  such  as  those  written  by  Archilochus 
on  the  loss  of  friends  at  sea. 

•  The  iambic  trimeter  was  the  measure  used  in  dialogue, 
both  in  comedies  and  tragedies.  For  Archilochus  see 
Epist.  i.  19.  23  ff. 

'  Greek  Ij-ric  poetry  embraced  hymns  to  the  gods  and 
heroes,  odes  commemorating  victories  in  the  games,  love 
poems,  and  drinking-songs.  For  Pindaric  themes  cf.  Odes, 
iv.  2.  10-24. 

'  From  here  on  Horace  deals  especially  with  dramatic 
poetry.    Tone  and  style,  diction  and  metre  should  all  accord. 



cur  ego  si  nequeo  ignoroque  poeta  salutor  ? 

cur  nescire  pudens  prave  quam  discere  malo  ? 

versibus  exponi  tragicis  res  comica  noii  volt ; 

indignatur  item  privatis  ac  prope  socco  90 

dignis  carminibus  narrari  cena  Thyestae. 

singula  quaeque  locum  teneant  sortita  decentem.'^ 

interdum  tamen  et  vocem  Comoedia  tollit, 

iratusque  Chremes  tumido  delitigat  ore  ; 

et  tragicus  plerumque  dolet  sermone  pedestri  95 

Telephus  et  Peleus,  cum  pauper  et  exsul  uterque 

proicit  ampullas  et  sesquipedalia  verba, 

si  curat^  cor  spectantis  tetigisse  querella. 

Non  satis  est  pulchra  esse  poemata  ;  dulcia  sunto 
et  quocumque  volent^  animum  auditoris  agunto.     100 
ut  ridentibus  arrident,  ita  flentibus  adsunt^ 
humani  voltus  :  si  vis  me  flere,  dolendum  est 
primum  ipsi  tibi  :  tunc^  tua  me  infortunia  laedent, 
Telephe  vel  Peleu  ;   male  si  mandata  loqueris, 
aut  dormitabo  aut  ridebo.     tristia  maestum  105 

voltum  verba  decent,  iratum  plena  minarum, 
ludentem  lasciva,  severum  seria  dictu. 
format  enim  Natura  prius  nos  intus  ad  omnem 
fortunarum  habitum  ;  iuvat  aut  impellit  ad  iram, 
aut  ad  humum  maerore  gravi  deducit  et  angit ;     110 
post  effert  animi  motus  interprete  lingua, 
si  dicentis  erunt  fortunis  absona  dicta, 
Romani  tollent  equites  peditesque  cachinmim. 
intererit  multum,  divusne®  loquatur  an  heros, 
maturusne  senex  an  adhuc  florente  iuventa  116 

^  decentem  VBK:  decenter  aCM,  II. 
•  curas.  '  volunt,  II. 

*  adsunt  MSS. :  adflent  Bentley. 
6  turn  BGK.  «  Davusne  R. 

•  Cf.  Epist.  i.  3.  14. 

THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  87-115 

why  am  I  hailed  as  poet  ?  Why  through  false  shame 
do  I  prefer  to  be  ignorant  rather  than  to  learn  ?  A 
theme  for  Comedy  refuses  to  be  set  forth  in  verses 
of  Tragedy  ;  likewise  the  feast  of  Thyestes  scorns  to 
be  told  in  strains  of  daily  life  that  well  nigh  befit  the 
comic  sock.  Let  each  style  keep  the  becoming 
place  allotted  it.  Yet  at  times  even  Comedy 
raises  her  voice,  and  an  angry  Chremes  storms  in 
swelUng  tones  ;  so,  too,  in  Tragedy  Telephus  and 
Peleus  often  grieve  in  the  language  of  prose,  when, 
in  poverty  and  exile,  either  hero  throws  aside  his 
bombast*  and  Brobdingnagian *  words,  should  he 
want  his  lament  to  touch  the  spectator's  heart. 

^  Not  enough  is  it  for  poems  to  have  beauty  : 
they  must  have  charm,  and  lead  the  hearer's  soul 
where  they  >vill.  As  men's  faces  smile  on  those 
who  smile,  so  they  respond  to  those  who  weep.  If 
you  would  have  me  weep,  you  must  first  feel  grief 
yourself:  then,  O  Telephus  or  Peleus,  will  your 
misfortunes  hurt  me  :  if  the  words  you  utter  are  ill 
suited,  I  shall  laugh  or  fall  asleep.  Sad  tones  befit  the 
face  of  sorrow  ;  blustering  accents  that  of  anger  ;  jests 
become  the  merry,  solemn  words  the  grave.  For 
Nature  first  shapes  us  within  to  meet  every  change 
of  fortune  :  she  brings  joy  or  impels  to  anger,  or 
bows  us  to  the  ground  and  tortures  us  under  a  load 
of  grief ;  then,  with  the  tongue  for  interpreter,  she 
proclaims  the  emotions  of  the  soul.  If  the  speaker's 
words  sound  discordant  with  his  fortunes,  the 
Romans,  in  boxes  and  pit  aUke,  will  raise  a  loud 
guffaw.  Vast  difference  will  it  make,  whether  a  god 
be  speaking  or  a  hero,  a  ripe  old  man  or  one  still  in 

*  Segfiuipedalia  verba,  lit.  "  words  a  foot  and  a  half  in 



fervidus,  et  matrona  potens  an  sedula  nutrix, 
mercatorne  vagus  cultorne  virentis^  agelli, 
Colchus  an  Assyrius,  Thebis  nutritus  an  Argis. 

Aut  famam  sequere  aut  sibi  convenientia  finge. 
scriptor  honoratum^  si  forte  reponis  Achillem,        120 
impiger,  iracundus,  inexorabilis,  acer, 
iura  neget  sibi  nata,  nihil  non  arroget  armis. 
sit  Medea  ferox  invictaque,  flebilis  Ino, 
perfidus  Ixion,  lo  vaga,  tristis  Orestes, 
si  quid  inexpertum  scaenae  committis  et  audes       125 
personam  formare  novam,  servetur  ad  imum, 
qualis  ab  incepto  processerit,  et  sibi  constet. 

Difficile  est  proprie  communia  dicere  ;  tuque 
rectius  Iliacum  carmen  deducis  in  actus, 
quam  si  proferres  ignota  indictaque  primus.  130 

publica  materies  privati  iuris  erit,  si 
non  circa  vilem  patulumque  moraberis  orbem, 
nee  verbo  verbum^  curabis  reddere  fidus 
interpres,  nee  desilies  imitator  in  artum, 
unde  pedem  proferre  pudor  vetet  aut  operis  lex.   135 

^  vigentis  M,  II.  *  Homereum  Bentley. 

*  verbum  verbo  C. 

"  The  Assyrian  would  be  effeminate,  as  compared  with 
the  Colchian,  but  both  would  be  barbarians.  The  Theban 
Creon  is  a  headstrong  tyrant,  while  the  Argive  Agamemnon 
shows  reserve  and  dignity. 

"  In  the  Iliad  Achilles  was  first  scorned  by  Agamemnon 
but  in  the  sequel  (Book  IX,  the  embassy)  highly  honoured. 
Bentley  conjectured  that  honoratum  was  a  corruption  of 
Homereum,  "  the  Achilles  of  Homer,"  but  we  are  dealing 
with  a  not  uncommon  use  of  the  participle.  So  Elmore  in 
G.R.  xxxiii.  (1919)  p.  102  ;  cf.  Sat.  i.  6.  126. 

"'  By  publica  materies  Horace  means  Homer  and  the  epic 
field  in  general.  A  poet  may  make  this  his  own  by  original- 
ity in  the  handling.  Commentators  are  divided  as  to 
whether  communia  (1.  128)  is  identical  with  publica  materies 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  116-135 

the  flower  and  fervour  of  youth,  a  dame  of  rank  or  a 
bustling  nurse,  a  roaming  trader  or  the  tiller  of  a 
verdant  field,  a  Colchian  or  an  Assyrian,  one  bred  at 
Thebes  or  at  Argos," 

^^  Either  follow  tradition  or  invent  what  is  self- 
consistent.  If  haply,  when  you  write,  you  bring 
back  to  the  stage  the  honouring  of  Achilles,*  let  him 
be  impatient,  passionate,  ruthless,  £erce  ;  let  him 
claim  that  laws  are  not  for  him,  let  him  ever  make 
appeal  to  the  sword.  Let  Medea  be  fierce  and  un- 
yielding, Ino  tearful,  Ixion  forsworn,  lo  a  wanderer, 
Orestes  sorrowful.  If  it  is  an  untried  theme  you 
entrust  to  the  stage,  and  if  you  boldly  fashion  a 
fresh  character,  have  it  kept  to  the  end  even  as  it 
came  forth  at  the  first,  and  have  it  self-consistent. 

^^  It  is  hard  to  treat  in  your  o^\^l  way  what  is 
common  :  and  you  are  doing  better  in  spinning  into 
acts  a  song  of  Troy  than  if,  for  the  first  time,  you 
were  giving  the  world  a  theme  unknown  and  unsung. 
In  ground  open  to  all  you  will  win  private  rights," 
if  you  do  not  linger  along  the  easy  and  open  pathway, 
if  you  do  not  seek  to  render  word  for  word  as  a 
slavish  translator,  and  if  in  your  copying  you  do  not 
leap  into  the  narrow  well,  out  of  which  either  shame 
or  the  laws  of  yoiu-  task  will  keep  you  from  stirring 

or  not.  The  language  is  in  the  domain  of  law  and  as  res 
communes,  things  common  to  all  mankind,  as  the  air  and 
sea,  differ  from  res  publicae,  things  which  belong  to  all 
citizens  of  a  state,  as  its  roads  and  theatres,  so  here  communia 
covers  a  larger  field  than  publico,  and  denotes  characteristics 
which  are  common  among  mankind.  These  may  be  com- 
pared to  the  general  truths  {to.  KadoXov)  of  Aristotle  {Poet,  ix.), 
as  distinguished  from  particular  ones  (ri  Ka6'  (KaoTov).  In 
Horace  it  is  obvious  that  communia  does  not  apply  to 
Iliacum  carmen,  which  does,  however,  come  under  the 
publico  tnateries  of  the  poet. 



nee  sie  ineipies  ut  scriptor  cyclicus  olim  : 
"  fortunam  Priami  cantabo  et  nobile^  helium. " 
quid  dignum  tanto  feret  hie  promissor  hiatu  ? 
parturient^  montes,  nascetur  ridiculus  mus. 
quanto  rectius  hie,  qui  nil  molitur  inepte  :  140 

"  die  mihi,  Musa,  virum,  captae  post  tempora  Troiae 
qui^  mores  hominum  multorum  vidit  et  urhes." 
non  fumum  ex  fulgore,  sed  ex  fumo  dare  lucem 
cogitat,  ut  speciosa  dehinc  miracula  promat, 
Antiphaten  Scyllamque  et  cum  Cyclope  Charybdin. 
nee  reditum  Diomedis  ah  interitu  Meleagri,  146 

nee  gemino  helium  Troianum  orditur  ah  ovo  ; 
semper  ad  eventum  festinat  et  in  medias  res 
non  secus  ac  notas  auditorem  rapit,  et  quae 
desperat  tractata  nitescere  posse,  relinquit,  150 

atque  ita  mentitur.  sic  veris  falsa  remiscet, 
primo  ne  medium,  medio  ne  discrepet  imum. 

Tu  quid  ego  et  populus  mecum  desideret  audi, 
si  plosoris*  eges  aulaea  manentis  et  usque 
sessuri,^  donee  cantor  "  vos  plaudite  "  dicat,  155 

aetatis  cuiusque  notandi  sunt  tibi  mores, 
mobilibusque^  decor  naturis  dandus  et  annis. 
reddere  qui  voces  iam  scit  puer  et  pede  certo 
signat  humum,  gestit  paribus  colludere,  et  iram 

^  cantarat  nobile  B.  *  parturiunt.  ^  quis  B. 

*  plosoris  V,  It  plus  oris,  II:  plausoris  B^. 

*  sessori  B.  •  nobilibusque  B. 

"  Horace  utilizes  the  fable  of  the  goat  that  leapt  into  a 
well,  but  has  nothing  to  say  about  the  fox  who  persuaded 
him  to  do  so. 

*  The  opening  of  the  Odyssey. 

'  Meleager  was  an  uncle  of  Diomede,  and  therefore  of 
an  older  generation. 

"*  i.e.  from  the  birth  of  Helen. 

•  The  cantor  was  probably  the  young  slave  who  stood 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  136-159 

a  step."  And  you  are  not  to  begin  as  the  Cyclic 
poet  of  old  : 

Of  Priam's  fate  and  famous  war  I'll  sing. 

What  will  this  boaster  produce  in  keeping  with  such 
mouthing  ?  Mountains  will  labour,  to  birth  will 
come  a  laughter-rousing  mouse  !  How  much  better 
he  who  makes  no  fooHsh  effort  : 

Sing,  Muse,  for  me  the  man  who  on  Troy's  fall 
Saw  the  wide  world,  its  ways  and  cities  all." 

Not  smoke  after  flame  does  he  plan  to  give,  but 
after  smoke  the  hght,  that  then  he  may  set  forth 
striking  and  wondrous  tales — Antiphates,  Scylla, 
Charj'bdis,  and  the  Cyclops.  Nor  does  he  begin 
Diomede's  return  from  the  death  of  Meleager,*'  or 
the  war  of  Troy  from  the  twin  eggs.**  Ever  he 
hastens  to  the  issue,  and  hurries  his  hearer  into  the 
story's  midst,  as  if  already  known,  and  what  he  fears 
he  cannot  make  attractive  with  his  touch  he  aban- 
dons ;  and  so  skilfully  does  he  invent,  so  closely 
does  he  blend  facts  and  fiction,  that  the  middle  is 
not  discordant  with  the  beginning,  nor  the  end  with 
the  middle. 

1^  Now  hear  what  I,  and  with  me  the  pubhc, 
expect.  If  you  want  an  approving  hearer,  one  who 
waits  for  the  curtain,  and  will  stay  in  his  seat  till 
the  singer  *  cries  "  Give  your  applause,"  you  must 
note  the  manners  of  each  age,  and  give  a  befitting 
tone  to  shifting  natures  and  their  years.  The  child, 
who  by  now  can  utter  words  and  set  firm  step  upon 
the  ground,  dehghts  to  play  with  his  mates,  flies 

near  the  flute-player  and  sang  the  eantica  of  a  play,  while 
the  actor  gesticulated.  All  the  comedies  of  Plautus  and 
Terence  close  with  plaudite  or  an  equivalent  phrase. 



colligit  ac  ponit  temere  et  mutatur  in  horas.  160 

imberbis^  iuvenis,  tandem  custode  remote, 
gaudet  equis  eanibusque  et  aprici  gramine  Campi, 
cereus  in  vitium  flecti,  monitoribus  asper, 
utilium  tardus  provisor,  prodigus  aeris, 
sublimis  cupidusque  et  amata  relinquere  pernix.    165 
conversis  studiis  aetas  animusque  virilis 
quaerit  opes  et  amicitias,  inservit  honori, 
commisisse  cavet  quod  mox  mutare^  laboret. 
multa  senem  circumveniunt  incommoda,  vel  quod 
quaerit  et  inventis  miser  abstinet  ac  timet  uti,       170 
vel  quod  res  omnis  timide  gelideque  ministrat, 
dilator^  spe  longus,  iners  avidusque  futuri, 
difficilis,  queruius,  laudator  temporis  acti 
se  puero,  castigator  censorque  minorum. 
multa  ferunt  anni  venientes  commoda  secum,         175 
multa  recedentes  adimunt.     ne  forte  seniles 
mandentur  iuveni  partes  pueroque  viriles, 
semper  in  adiunctis  aevoque  morabimur*  aptis.^ 

Aut  agitur  res  in  scaenis  aut  acta  refertur. 
segnius  irritant  animos  demissa  per  aurem  180 

quam  quae  sunt  oculis  subiecta  fidelibus  et  quae 
ipse  sibi  tradit  spectator  :   non  tamen  intus 
digna  geri  promes  in  scaenam,  multaque  tolles 

1  imberbis  aB:  imberbus  VCM;  cf.  Epist.  ii.  1.  85. 

*  mox  mutare]  permutare.  II.  *  delator  B. 

*  morabitur  B,  II,  Vollmer.  »  apti  B. 

"  i.e.  Campus  Martius. 

*  Spe  longus  seems  to  be  a  translation  of  Aristotle's 
SiVeXTTis  {Rhet.  ii.  12),  hence  Bentley  conjectured  lentus  for 
longus.  It  is,  however,  in  view  of  Horace's  spes  longa 
{Odes,  i.  4.  15;  i.  11.  6)  taken  by  some  as  "far-reaching 
in  hope,"  the  hope  requiring  a  long  time  for  fulfilment. 
Wickham  suggests  "  patient  in  hope,"  but  the  quality  is  here 
one  of  the  incommoda  of  age,  not  one  of  its  blessings.     The 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  160-183 

into  a  passion  and  as  lightly  puts  it  aside,  and 
changes  every  hour.  The  beardless  youth,  freed  at 
last  from  his  tutor,  finds  joy  in  horses  and  hounds 
and  the  grass  of  the  sunny  Campus,"  soft  as  wax  for 
moulding  to  evil,  peevish  with  his  counsellors,  slow 
to  make  needful  provision,  lavish  of  money,  spirited, 
of  strong  desires,  but  swift  to  change  his  fancies. 
With  altered  aims,  the  age  and  spirit  of  the  man 
seeks  wealth  and  friends,  becomes  a  slave  to  am- 
bition, and  is  fearful  of  ha\ing  done  what  soon  it 
will  be  eager  to  change.  Many  ills  encompass  an 
old  man,  whether  because  he  seeks  gain,  and  then 
miserably  holds  aloof  from  his  store  and  fears  to  use 
it,  or  because,  in  all  that  he  does,  he  lacks  fire  and 
courage,  is  dilatory  and  slow  to  form  hopes,''  is 
sluggish  and  greedy  of  a  longer  life,  peevish,  surly, 
given  to  praising  the  days  he  spent  as  a  boy,  and  to 
repro\ing  and  condemning  the  young.  Many  bless- 
ings do  the  advancing  years  bring  -with  them  ;  many, 
as  they  retire,  they  take  away.  So,  lest  haply  we 
assign  a  youth  the  part  of  age,  or  a  boy  that  of  man- 
hood, we  shall  ever  linger  over  traits  that  are  joined 
and  fitted  to  the  age. 

"^  Either  an  event  is  acted  on  the  stage,  or  the 
action  is  narrated.  Less  vividly  is  the  mind  stirred 
by  what  finds  entrance  through  the  ears  than  by 
what  is  brought  before  the  trusty  eyes,  and  what 
the  spectator  can  see  for  himself.  Yet  you  will  not 
bring  upon  the  stage  what  should  be  performed 
beliind  the  scenes,  and  you  will  keep  much  from  our 

phrase  is  explanatory  of  dilator,  even  as  avidus  futuri 
explains  iners,  for  unlike  the  youth,  who  is  absorbed  in  the 
present,  the  old  man  fails  to  act  promptly,  because  his  heart 
is  in  the  future,  however  brief  that  is  to  be. 

2h  465 


ex  oculis,  quae  mox  narret  facundia  praesens ; 
ne  pueros  coram  populo  Medea  trucidet,  185 

aut  humana  palam  coquat  exta  nefarius  Atreus, 
aut  in  avem  Procne  vertatur,  Gadmus  in  anguem. 
quodcumque  ostendis  mihi  sic,  incredulus.  odi. 

Neve  minor  neu  sit  quinto  productior  actu 
fabula  quae  posci  volt  et  spectata^  reponi.  190 

nee  deus  intersit,  nisi  dignus  vindice  nodus 
incident,  nee  quarta  loqui  persona  laboret. 

Actoris  partis  chorus  officiumque  virile 
defendat,  neu  quid  medios  intercinat  actus 
quod  non  proposito  conducat  et  haereat  apte.         195 
ille  bonis  faveatque  et  consilietur  amice, ^ 
et  regat  iratos  et  amet  peccare  timentis^  ; 
ille  dapes  laudet  mensae  brevis,  ille  salubi'em 
iustitiam  legesque  et  apertis  otia  portis  ; 
ille  tegat  commissa  deosque  precetur  et  oret  200 

ut  redeat  miseris,  abeat  fortuna  superbis. 

Tibia  non,  ut  nunc,  orichalco  vincta^  tubaeque 
aemula,  sed  tenuis  simplexque  foramine  pauco^ 
adspirare  et  adesse  choris  erat  utilis  atque 
nondum  spissa  nimis  complere  sedilia  flatu  ;  205 

quo  sane  populus  numerabilis,  utpote  parvus, 
et  frugi  castusque^  verecundusque  coibat. 
postquam  coepit  agros  extendere  victor  et  urbes 
latior  amplecti  murus,  vinoque  diurno 
placari  Genius  festis  impune  diebus,  210 

accessit  numerisque  modisque  licentia  maior. 

^  spectata  SXlir :  spectanda  (exsp-JS/L)  other  mss.  Both 
known  to  scholiasts.  The  latter  perhaps  an  early  error, 
due  to  Sat.  i.  10.  39, 

*  amici(s),  //.  *  pacare  tumentes.  *  iuncta  C'K. 

*  parvo,  //  {except  w).         •  cautusque  C :  catusque  ^t/-. 

"  The  deus  ex  machina.     As  vindex,  he  is  to  deliver  men 
from  difficulties  seemingly  insoluble. 

THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  184-211 

eyes,  which  an  actor's  ready  tongue  will  narrate  anon 
in  our  presence  ;  so  that  Medea  is  not  to  butcher  her 
boys  before  the  people,  nor  impious  Atreus  cook 
human  flesh  upon  the  stage,  nor  Procne  be  turned 
into  a  bird,  Cadmus  into  a  snake.  Whatever  you 
thus  show  me,  I  discredit  and  abhor. 

^^'  Let  no  play  be  either  shorter  or  longer  than 
five  acts,  if  when  once  seen  it  hopes  to  be  called  for 
and  brought  back  to  the  stage.  And  let  no  god" 
intervene,  unless  a  knot  come  worthy  of  such  a 
dehverer,  nor  let  a  fourth  actor  essay  to  speak.* 

1^^  Let  the  Chorus  sustain  the  part  and  strenuous 
duty  of  an  actor,  and  sing  nothing  between  acts 
which  does  not  advance  and  fitly  blend  into  the  plot. 
It  should  side  with  the  good  and  give  friendly  counsel ; 
sway  the  angry  and  cherish  the  righteous.  It  should 
praise  the  fare  of  a  modest  board,  praise  wholesome 
justice,  law,  and  peace  with  her  open  gates  ;  should 
keep  secrets,  and  pray  and  beseech  the  gods  that 
fortune  may  return  to  the  unhappy,  and  depart  from 
the  proud. 

2-2  The  flute — not,  as  now,  bound  with  brass  and 
a  rival  of  the  trmnpet,  but  shght  and  simple,  with 
few  stops — was  once  of  use  to  lead  and  aid  the  chorus 
and  to  fill  with  its  breath  benches  not  yet  too  crowded, 
where,  to  be  sure,  folk  gathered,  easy  to  count, 
because  few — sober  folk,  too.  and  chaste  and  modest. 
But  when  a  conquering  race  began  to  widen  its 
domain,  and  an  ampler  wall  embraced  its  cities,  and 
when,  on  festal  days,  appeasing  the  Genius"  by 
daylight  drinking  brought  no  penalty,  then  both 
time  and  tune  won  greater  hcence.     For  what  taste 

*  i.e.  not  more  than  three  speaking  characters  are  to  be 
on  the  stage  at  once.  •  Cf.  Epistlet,  ii.  1.  144. 



indoctus  quid  enim  saperet  liberque  laborum 
rusticus  urbano  confusus,  turpis  honesto  ? 
sic  priscae  motumque  et  luxuriem  addidit  arti 
tibicen  traxitque  vagus  per  pulpita  vestem  ;  215 

sic  etiam  fidibus  voces  crevere  severis, 
et  tulit  eloquium  insolitum  facundia  praeceps, 
utiliumque  sagax  rerum  et  divina  futuri 
sortilegis  non  discrepuit  sententia  Delphis. 

Carmine  qui  tragico  vilem  certavit  ob  hircum,    220 
mox  etiam  agrestis  Satyros  nudavit  et  asper 
incolumi  gravitate  iocum^  temptavit,  eo  quod 
illecebris  erat  et  grata  novitate  morandus 
spectator,  functusque  sacris  et  potus  et  exlex. 
verum  ita  risores,  ita  commendare  dicaces  225 

conveniet  Satyros,  ita  vertere  seria  ludo, 
ne  quicumque  deus,  quicumque  adhibebitur  heros, 
regali  conspectus  in  auro  nuper  et  ostro, 
migret  in  obscuras  hximili  sermone  tabernas, 
aut,  dum  vitat  humum,  nubes  et  inania  captet.      230 
efFutire  levis  indigna  Tragoedia  versus, 
ut  festis  matrona  moveri  iussa  diebus, 
intererit  Satyris  paulum  pudibunda  protervis. 
non  ego  inornata  et  dominantia  nomina  solum 

^  locum  BKSir. 

'  Horace  seems  to  speak  flippantly  of  the  style  of  choruses 
in  Greek  tragedy.  He  assumes  that  as  the  music  became 
more  florid,  both  speech  and  thought  also  lost  their  simplicity, 
the  former  becoming  dithyrambic,  the  latter  oracular  and 
obscure.  It  is  probable,  however,  that  he  has  in  view  the 
post-classical  drama. 

*  Tragedy  or  "  goat-song "  was  supposed  to  take  its 
name  from  the  prize  of  a  goat.  It  was  so  called,  however, 
because  the  singers  were  satyrs,  dressed  in  goat-skins. 
Satyric  drama,  the  subject  of  this  passage,  is  closely  con- 
nected with  tragedy,  and  must  not  be  handled  as  comedy. 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  212-234 

could  you  expect  of  an  unlettered  throng  just  freed 
from  toil,  rustic  mixed  up  with  city  folk,  vulgar  ^vith 
nobly-born  ?  So  to  the  early  art  the  flute-player 
added  movement  and  display,  and,  strutting  o'er  the 
stage,  trailed  a  robe  in  train.  So,  too,  to  the  sober 
lyre  new  tones  were  given,  and  an  impetuous  style 
brought  in  an  unwonted  diction  ;  and  the  thought, 
full  of  wise  saws  and  prophetic  of  the  future,  was 
attuned  to  the  oracles  of  Delphi." 

^^  The  poet  who  in  tragic  song  first  competed  for 
a  paltry  goat  ^  soon  also  brought  on  unclad  the 
woodland  Satyrs,  and  with  no  loss  of  dignity  roughly 
essayed  jesting,  for  only  the  lure  and  charm  of  novelty 
could  hold  the  spectator,  who,  after  observance  of 
the  rites,"  was  well  drunken  and  in  lawless  mood. 
But  it  will  be  fitting  so  to  seek  favour  for  your 
laughing,  bantering  Satyrs,  so  to  pass  from  grave  to 
gay,  that  no  god,  no  hero,  who  shall  be  brought 
upon  the  stage,  and  whom  we  have  just  beheld  in 
royal  gold  and  purple,  shall  shift  with  vulgar  speech 
into  dingy  hovels,  or,  while  shunning  the  ground, 
catch  at  clouds  and  emptiness.  Tragedy,  scorning 
to  babble  trivial  verses,  will,  hke  a  matron  bidden 
to  dance  on  festal  days,  take  her  place  in  the 
saucy  Satyrs'  circle  with  some  little  shame.  Not 
mine  shall  it  be,  ye  Pisos,  if  writing  Satyric  plays,  to 

It  came  as  a  fourth  play  after  a  tragic  trilogy.  Horace 
treats  this  form  as  if  it  had  developed  out  of  traged j-,  whereas 
in  fact  tragedy  is  an  offshoot  from  it  (see  e.g.  Barnett, 
The  Greek  Drama,  p.  11).  As  for  a  Satjric  drama  in  Latin, 
little  is  known  about  it,  but  Pomponius,  according  to 
Porphyrio  on  1.  221,  wrote  three  Satyrica,  viz.  Atalanta, 
Sisyphus,  and  Ariadne. 

*  i.e.  of  Bacchus  at  the  Dionysia,  when  plays  were 



verbaque,  Pisones,  Satyrorum  scriptor  amabo,        235 

nee  sic  enitar  tragico  difFerre  colori, 

ut  nihil  intersit,  Davusne  loquatur  et  audax^ 

Pythias,  emuncto  lucrata  Simone  talentum, 

an  custos  famuhisque  dei  Silenus  alumni. 

ex  noto  fietum  carmen  sequar,  ut  sibi  qui  vis  240 

speret  idem,  sudet  multum  frustraque  laboret 

ausus  idem  :  tantum  series  iuncturaque  pollet, 

tantum  de  medio  sumptis  accedit  honoris. 

silvis  deducti  caveant  me  iudice  Fauni, 

ne  velut  innati  triviis  ac  paene  forenses  245 

aut  nimium  teneris  iuvenentur  versibus  umquam, 

aut  immunda  crepent  ignominiosaque  dicta  : 

ofFenduntur  enim,  quibus  est  equus  et  pater  et  res, 

nee,  si  quid  fricti^  ciceris  probat  et  nucis  emptor, 

acquis  accipiunt  animis  donantve^  corona.  250 

Syllaba  longa  brevi  subiecta  vocatur  iambus, 
pes  citus  ;  unde  etiam  trimetris  accrescere  iussit 
nomen  iambeis,  cum  senos  redderet  ictus 
primus  ad  extremum  similis  sibi.     non  ita  pridem, 

^  et  audax  VBCKi  an  audax  a,  II. 

2  fricti  aM(p^p  :  strict!  C :  fracti  BK5-rr. 

'  donantque  tt. 

»  For  nomina  verbaque  cf.  Sat.  i.  3.  103.  Plato  {Cratylus, 
431  b)  uses  prifiara  and  dvbfxara  to  cover  the  whole  of 
lanpfuage.  The  epithet  dominantia  translates  Kvpia.  Such 
words  are  the  common,  ordinary  ones,  which  are  contrasted 
with  all  that  are  in  any  way  uncommon. 

*  Davus,  Pythias  and  Simo  are  cited  as  names  of  typical 
characters  in  comedy  {cf.  Sat.  i.  10.  40).  On  the  other  hand, 
Silenus,  the  jolly  old  philosopher,  who  was  father  of  the 
Satyrs  and  guardian  of  the  youthful  Dionysus,  appeared  in 
Satyric  dramas,  e.g.  the  Cyclops  of  Euripides. 

'  By  carmen  Horace  means  poetic  style,  not  plot,  as  some 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  235-254 

affect  only  the  plain  nouns  and  verbs  of  established 
use  <* ;  nor  shall  I  strive  so  to  part  company  with 
tragic  tone,  that  it  matters  not  whether  Davus  be 
speaking  with  shameless  Pythias,  who  has  won  a 
talent  by  bamboozling  Simo,  or  Silenus,  who  guards 
and  serves  his  di\ine  charge.^  My  aim  shall  be 
poetry,"  so  moulded  from  the  familiar  that  anybody 
may  hope  for  the  same  success,  may  sweat  much 
and  yet  toil  in  vain  when  attempting  the  same  : 
such  is  the  power  of  order  and  connexion,  such  the 
beauty  that  may  crown  the  commonplace.  When 
the  Fauns  ^  are  brought  from  the  forest,  they  should, 
methinks,  beware  of  behaving  as  though  born  at  the 
crossways  and  almost  as  dwelling  in  the  Forum, 
plapng  at  times  the  young  bloods  with  their  mawkish 
verses,  or  cracking  their  bawdy  and  shameless  jokes. 
For  some  take  offence — knights,  free-bom,  and  men 
of  substance — nor  do  they  greet  ^nth  kindly  feelings 
or  reward  with  a  crown  everything  which  the  buyers 
of  roasted  beans  and  chestnuts  *  approve. 

^^  A  long  syllable  following  a  short  is  called  an 
iambus — a  hght  foot  ;  hence  it  commanded  that  the 
name  of  trimeters  should  attach  itself  to  iambic  lines, 
though  it  pelded  six  beats,  being  from  first  to  last 
the  same  throughout.^     But  not  so  long  ago,  that  it 

have  taken  it.  Thus  11.  240-243  are  in  harmony  with  those 
that  precede  and  those  that  follow.  The  word  Return 
suggests  that  this  style  will  look  like  a  new  creation.  This 
is  to  seem  easy  enough  to  tempt  others  to  try  it. 

•*  i.e.  Sati,Ts.  These  wild  creatures  of  the  woods  must 
not  speak  as  though  they  were  natives  of  the  city,  whether 
vulgar  and  coarse  or  refined  and  sentimental. 

*  These  are  still  cheap  and  popular  articles  of  food  in 

'  An  iambic  trimeter  contains  six  feet,  but  it  takes  two 
feet  to  make  one  metrum. 



tardior  ut  paulo  graviorque  veniret  ad  auris,  255 

spondeos  stabilis  in  iiira  paterna  recepit 

commodus  et  patiens,  non  ut  de  sede  secunda 

cederet  aut  quarta  socialiter.     hie  et  in  Acci 

nobilibus  trimetris  apparet  rarus,  et  Enni 

in  scaenam  missos  cum  magno  pondere  versus        260 

aut  operae  celeris  nimium^  curaque  carentis 

aut  ignoratae  premit  artis  crimine  turpi. 

non  quivis  videt  immodulata  poemata  iudex, 

et  data  Romanis  venia  est  indigna  poetis. 

idcircone  vager  scribamque  licenter  ?     an  omnis    265 

visuros  peccata  putem  mea,  tutus  et  intra 

spem  veniae  cautus  ?     vitavi  denique  culpam, 

non  laudem  merui.     vos  exemplaria  Graeca 

nocturna  versate  manu,  versate  diurna. 

at  vestri  proavi  Plautinos  et  numeros  et  270 

laudavere  sales,  nimium  patienter  utrumque, 

ne  dicam  stulte,  mirati,  si  modo  ego  et  vos 

scimus  inurbanum  lepido  seponere  dicto 

legitimumque  sonum  digitis  callemus  et  aure. 

Ignotum  tragicae  genus  invenisse  Camenae         275 
dicitur  et  plaustris  vexisse  poemata  Thespis, 
quae  eanerent  agerentque  peruncti  faecibus  ora.^ 
post  hunc  personae  pallaeque  repertor  honestae 
Aeschylus  et  modicis  instravit  pulpita  tignis 
et  docuit  magnumque  loqui  nitique  cothurno.         280 

1  nimium  celeris  o.  *  ora  aKM,  II:  atris  BC. 

"  The  admission  of  spondees  to  the  odd  places  in  the 
trimeter,  though  mentioned  by  Horace  as  recent,  is  really 
very  old.  Pure  iambic  trimeters  are  occasionally  used  by 
Catullus  and  by  Horace  {Epode  xvi.). 

*  The  epithet  given  by  this  poet's  admirers.  Cf.  EpisL  i. 
19.  39.  "  See  notes  on  Epist.  ii.  1.  170-176. 

•*  Jesting  from  wagons  (to.  ef  a/xd^rjs  (TKun/jLara),  in  the 
processions  which  formed  a  feature  of  the  vintage  celebration, 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  255-280 

might  reach  the  ears  -sdth  somewhat  more  slowness 
and  weight,  it  admitted  the  steady  spondees  to  its 
paternal  rights ,<»  being  obhging  and  tolerant,  but  not 
so  much  so  as  to  give  up  the  second  and  fourth  places 
in  its  friendly  ranks.  In  the  "  noble  "  ^  trimeters  of 
Accius  this  iambus  appears  but  seldom  ;  and  on  the 
verses  which  Ennius  hurled  ponderously  upon  the 
stage  it  lays  the  shameful  charge  either  of  hasty 
and  too  careless  work  or  of  ignorance  of  the  art. 
Not  every  critic  discerns  unmusical  verses,  and  so 
undeserved  indulgence  has  been  granted  our  Roman 
poets.  Am  I  therefore  to  run  loose  and  -WTite  %\ith- 
out  restraint  r  Or^  supposing  that  all  will  see  my 
faults,  shall  I  seek  safety  and  take  care  to  keep 
within  hope  of  pardon  ?  At  the  best  I  have  escaped 
censure,  I  have  earned  no  praise.  For  yourselves, 
handle  Greek  models  by  night,  handle  them  by  day. 
Yet  your  forefathers,  you  say,  praised  both  the 
measures  and  the  wit  of  Plautus.'U  Too  tolerant,  not 
to  sav  foolish,  was  their  admiration  of  both,  if  you 
and  I  but  know  how  to  distinguish  coai-seness  from 
wit,  and  with  fingers  and  ear  can  catch  the  lawful 

2"^  Thespis  is  said  to  have  discovered  the  Tragic 
Muse,  a  type  unknown  before,  and  to  have  carried 
his  pieces  in  wagons  to  be  sung  and  acted  by  players 
with  faces  smeared  with  M-ine-lees."*  After  him 
Aeschylus,  inventor  of  the  mask  and  comely  robe, 
laid  a  stage  of  small  planks,  and  taught  a  lofty  speech 
and  stately  gait  on  the  buskin.     To  these  succeeded 

is  associated,  not  with  Tragedy,  but  with  Comedy.  Horace 
seems  to  confuse  the  two.  The  words  peruncti  faecibus  ora 
are  an  allusion  to  rpvyifioia,  a  term  used  of  comedy  {cf. 
Aristophanes,  Achamians,  499,  500),  and  derived  from  t/w|, 
**  wine-lees." 



successit  vetus  his  comoedia,  non  sine  multa 
laude  ;  sed  in  vitium  libertas  excidit  et  vim 
dignam  lege  regi  :  lex  est  accepta  chorusque 
turpiter  obticuit  sublato  iure  nocendi. 

Nil  intemptatum  nostri  liquere  poetae,  2S6 

nee  minimum  meruere  decus  vestigia  Graeca 
ausi  deserere  et  celebrare  domestica  facta, 
vel  qui  praetextas  vel  qui  docuere  togatas. 
nee  virtute  foret  clarisve^  potentius  armis 
quam  lingua  Latium,  si  non  ofFenderet  unum         290 
quemque  poetarum  limae  labor  et  mora,     vos,  o 
Pompilius  sanguis,  carmen  reprehendite  quod  non 
multa  dies  et  multa  litura  coercuit  atque 
praesectum^  deciens  non  castigavit  ad  unguem. 

Ingenium  misera  quia  fortunatius  arte  295 

credit  et  excludit  sanos  Helicone  poetas 
Democritus,  bona  pars  non  unguis  ponere  curat, 
non  barbam,^  secreta  petit  loca,  balnea  vitat. 
nanciscetur  enim  pretium  nomenque  poetae, 
si  tribus  Anticyris  caput  insanabile  numquam         300 
tonsori  Licino  oommiserit.     o  ego  laevus, 
qui  purgor  bilem  sub  verni  temporis  horam  ! 
non  alius  faceret  meliora  poemata  :   verum 
nil  tanti  est,     ergo  fungar  vice  cotis,  acutum 
reddere  quae  ferrum  valet,  exsors  ipsa*  secandi ;    305 

^  clarisque  BCK. 

*  praesectum  VBC:  perspectum  tt  :  perfectum  a,  //. 

3  barbas  B.  *  exsortita  aBCMRir. 

"  Fahulae  praetextae  (or  praetextatae)  were  tragedies  with 
Roman  themes,  so  called  because  of  the  toga  praetexta 
worn  by  the  actors.  Similarly  comedies,  in  which  Roman 
citizens  appeared,  were  called  togatae.  Cf.  Epist.  ii.  1.  57, 
and  note  e. 

THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  281-305 

Old  Comedy,  and  won  no  little  credit,  but  its  freedom 
sank  into  excess  and  a  \aolence  deserving  to  be 
checked  by  law.  The  law  was  obeyed,  and  the 
chorus  to  its  shame  became  mute,  its  right  to  injure 
being  withdrawn. 

^^  Our  own  poets  have  left  no  style  untried,  nor 
has  least  honour  been  earned  when  they  have  dared 
to  leave  the  footsteps  of  the  Greeks  and  sing  of 
deeds  at  home,  whether  they  have  put  native 
tragedies  or  native  comedies  upon  the  stage."  Nor 
would  Latium  be  more  supreme  in  valour  and  glory 
of  arms  than  in  letters,  were  it  not  that  her  poets, 
one  and  all,  cannot  brook  the  toil  and  tedium  of  the 
file.  Do  you,  O  sons  of  PompiUus,*  condemn  a 
poem  which  many  a  day  and  many  a  blot  has  not 
restrained  and  refined  ten  times  over  to  the  test  of 
the  close-cut  nail." 

^^  Because  Democritus  believes  that  native  talent 
is  a  greater  boon  than  wTctched  art,  and  shuts  out 
from  Hehcon  poets  in  their  sober  senses,  a  goodly 
nxunber  take  no  pains  to  pare  their  nails  or  to  shave 
their  beards  ;  they  haunt  lonely  places  and  shun 
the  baths — for  surely  one  will  win  the  esteem  and 
name  of  poet  if  he  never  entrusts  to  the  barber 
Licinus  a  head  that  three  Anticyras  cannot  cure.'* 
Ah,  fool  that  I  am,  who  purge  me  of  my  bile  as  the 
season  of  spring  comes  on  !  Not  another  man  would 
compose  better  poems.  Yet  it's  not  worth  while.* 
So  I'll  play  a  whetstone's  part,  which  makes  steel 
sharp,   but  of  itself  cannot    cut.     Though    I   write 

*  The  Calpurnii  are  said  to  have  been  descended  froni 
Calpus,  one  of  the  sons  of  Numa  Pompilius. 

'  A  metaphor  from  sculpture  ;  cf.  Sat.  i.  5.  32. 

"  Cf.  Sat.  ii.  3.  82,  166. 

'  Viz.  to  write  poetry  and  lose  your  wits. 



munus  et  officium,  nil  scribens  ipse,  docebo, 
unde  parentur  opes,  quid  alat  formetque  poetam, 
quid  deceat,^  quid  non,  quo  virtus,  quo  ferat  error. 

Scribendi  recte  sapere  est  et  principium  et  fons. 
rem  tibi  Socraticae  poterunt  ostendere  chartae,     310 
verbaque  provisam  rem  non  invita  sequentur. 
qui  didicit  patriae  quid  debeat  et  quid  amicis, 
quo  sit  amore  parens,  quo  frater  amandus  et  hospes, 
quod  sit  conseripti,  quod  iudicis  officium,  quae 
partes  in  bellum  missi  ducis,  ille  profecto  315 

reddere  personae  scit  convenientia  cuique. 
respicere  exemplar  vitae  morumque  iubebo 
doctum  imitatorem  et  vivas  bine  ducere  voces, 
interdum  speciosa  locis^  morataque  recte 
fabula  nullius  veneris,  sine  pondere  et  arte,  320 

valdius  oblectat  populum  meliusque  moratur 
quam  versus  inopes  rerum  nugaeque  canorae. 

Grais  ingenium,  Grais  dedit  ore  rotundo 
Musa  loqui,  praeter  laudem  nullius  avaris. 
Romani  pueri  longis  rationibus  assem  325 

discunt  in  partis  centum  diducere.     "  dicat 
filius  Albani^  :   si  de  quincunce  remota  est 
uncia,  quid  superat?    poteras*  dixisse."     "  triens." 


rem  poteris  servare  tuam.     redit  uncia,  quid  fit  ?  " 
"semis."    an,^  haec  animos  aerugo  et  cura  peculi    330 

1  doceat  aRd.  *  iocis  K,  II. 

'  Albini,  //.  *  poterat  o,  //. 

*  an  FjS:  &daCMK,II. 

"  I  take  doctum  as  a  repetition  of  qui  didicit  (1.  312). 
The  drama  is  an  imitation  of  life,  and  the  would-be  dramatist 
who  has  first  learned  about  life  from  his  studies  should  next 
turn  to  real  life  and  make  his  own  observations. 

*"  Some  take  Iocis  as  equivalent  to  sententiis,  moral  reflec- 
tions or  commonplaces,  which  may  be  used  anywhere. 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  306-330 

naught  myself,  I  will  teach  the  poet's  office  and  duty ; 
whence  he  draws  his  stores ;  what  nurtures  and 
fashions  him  ;  what  befits  him  and  what  not  ;  whither 
the  right  course  leads  and  whither  the  ^vrong. 

^^  Of  good  writing  the  source  and  fount  is  \\isdom. 
Your  matter  the  Socratic  pages  can  set  forth,  and 
when  matter  is  in  liand  words  will  not  be  loath  to 
follow.  He  who  has  learned  what  he  owes  his  country 
and  his  friends,  what  love  is  due  a  parent,  a  brother, 
and  a  guest,  what  is  imposed  on  senator  and  judge, 
what  is  the  function  of  a  general  sent  to  war,  he  surely 
knows  how  to  give  each  character  his  fitting  part. 
I  would  ad\ise  one  who  has  learned  the  imitative 
art  to  look  to  Ufe  and  manners  for  a  model,  and  draw 
from  thence  hving  words."  At  times  a  play  marked 
by  attractive  passages  ''  and  characters  fitly  sketched, 
though  lacking  in  charm,  though  without  force  and 
art,  gives  the  people  more  delight  and  holds  them 
better  than  verses  void  of  thought,  and  sonorous 

^^  To  the  Greeks  the  Muse  gave  native  wit,  to 
the  Greeks  she  gave  speech  in  well-rounded  phrase  *  ; 
they  craved  naught  but  glory.  Our  Romans,  by 
many  a  long  sum,  learn  in  childhood  to  divide  the 
as  into  a  hundred  parts.  "  Let  the  son  of  Albinus 
answer.**  If  from  five-twelfths  one  ounce  be  taken, 
what  remains  ?  You  might  have  told  me  by  now." 
"  A  third."  "  Good  !  you  %\-ill  be  able  to  look  after 
your  means.  An  ounce  is  added  ;  what's  the  result  ?  " 
"  A  half."     \Mien  once  this  canker,  this  lust  of  petty 

*  Ore  rotundo  is  here  used  of  stjle,  not  utterance. 

•*  This  is  a  school-lesson  in  arithmetic.  The  Romans  used 
a  duodecimal  system  (their  as  being  divided  into  twelve 
ounces),  and  the  children  learn  to  reduce  figures  to  decimals 
{in  partes  centum). 



cum  semel  imbuerit,  speramus^  carmina  fingi 
posse  linenda  cedro  et  levi  servanda  cupresso  ? 

Aut  prodesse  volunt  aut  delectare  poetae 
aut  simul  et  iucunda  et  idonea  dicere  vitae. 
quidquid  praecipies,  esto  brevis,  ut  cito  dicta         335 
percipiant  animi  dociles  teneantque  fideles  : 
omne  supervacuum  pleno  de  pectore  raanat. 
ficta  voluptatis  causa  sint  proxima  veris, 
ne^  quodcumque  velit^  poscat  sibi  fabula  credi, 
neu  pransae  Lamiae  vivum  puerum  extrahat  alvo.  340 
centuriae  seniorum  agitant  expertia  frugis, 
celsi  praetereunt  austera  poemata  Ramnes  : 
omne  tulit  punctum  qui  miscuit  utile  dulci, 
lectorem  delectando  pariterque  monendo. 
hie  meret  aera*  liber  Sosiis,  hie  et  mare  transit     345 
et  longum  noto  scriptori  prorogat  aevum. 

Sunt  delicta  tamen  quibus  ignovisse  velimus  : 
nam  neque  chorda  sonum  reddit,  quem  volt  manus 

et  mens, 
poscentique  gravem  persaepe  remittit  acutum  ; 
nee  semper  feriet  quodcumque  minabitur  arcus.    350 
verum  ubi  plura  nitent  in  carmine,  non  ego  paucis 
ofFendar  maculis,  quas  aut  incuria  fudit 
aut  humana  parum  cavit  natura.     quid  ergo  est  ? 
ut  scriptor  si  peccat  idem  librarius  usque, 
quamvis  est  monitus,  venia  caret,  et^  citharoedus    355 
ridetur,  chorda  qui  semper  oberrat*  eadem  : 

1  speremiis,  II.  *  nee  BC.  '  volet,  //. 

*  aere  C,  //  (but  not  ir).  *  ut.  ^  oberret  aM. 

"  Lamia  was  "  a  bugbear  of  the  Greek  nursery." 

*  An  ancient  classification  of  the  citizens  into  seniores 
and  iuniores  is  here  referred  to.  The  former  were  between 
the  ages  of  forty-six  and  sixty.  The  terms  Ramnes,  Titles, 
and  Luceres  were  applied  to  the  three  centuries  of  equites 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  331-356 

gain  has  stained  the  soul,  can  we  hope  for  poems  to 
be  fashioned,  worthy  to  be  smeared  with  cedar-oil, 
and  kept  in  polished  cypress  ? 

^^  Poets  aim  either  to  benefit,  or  to  amuse,  or  to 
utter  words  at  once  both  pleasing  and  helpful  to  hfe. 
Whenever  you  instruct,  be  brief,  so  that  what  is 
quickly  said  the  mind  may  readily  grasp  and  faith- 
fully hold  :  every  word  in  excess  flows  away  from 
the  full  mind.  Fictions  meant  to  please  should  be 
close  to  the  real,  so  that  your  play  must  not  ask  for 
belief  in  anything  it  chooses,  nor  from  the  Ogress's  " 
belly,  after  dinner,  draw  forth  a  h\ing  child.  The 
centuries  of  the  elders  chase  from  the  stage  what 
is  profitless  ;  the  proud  Ramnes  disdain  poems  * 
devoid  of  charms.  He  has  won  every  vote  who  has 
blended  profit  and  pleasure,  at  once  dehghting  and 
instructing  the  reader.  That  is  the  book  to  make 
money  for  the  Sosii"  ;  this  the  one  to  cross  the  sea 
and  extend  to  a  distant  day  its  author's  fame. 

^^  Yet  faults  there  are  which  we  can  gladly 
pardon  ;  for  the  string  does  not  always  yield  the 
sound  which  hand  and  heart  intend,  but  when  you 
call  for  a  flat  often  returns  you  a  sharp  ;  nor  will 
the  bow  always  hit  whatever  mark  it  threatens. 
But  when  the  beauties  in  a  poem  are  more  in  number, 
I  shall  not  take  offence  at  a  few  blots  which  a  careless 
hand  has  let  drop,  or  human  frailty  has  failed  to 
avert.  What,  then,  is  the  truth  ?  As  a  copying 
clerk  is  without  excuse  if,  however  much  warned,  he 
always  makes  the  same  mistake,  and  a  harper  is 
laughed  at  who  always  blunders  on  the  same  string  : 

formed  by  Romulus,  so  that  "  Ramnes  "  is  here  used  for 
the  young  aristocrats. 

'  For  the  Sosii,  famous  booksellers,  cf.  Epiat.  i.  20.  2. 



sic  mihi,  qui  multum  cessat,  fit  Choerilus  ille, 
quern  bis  terve^  bonum  cum  risu  miror  ;   et  idem 
indignor  quandoque  bonus  dormitat  Homerus, 
verum  operi^  longo  fas  est  obrepere  somnum.         360 

Ut  pictura  poesis  :   erit  quae,  si  propius  stes, 
te  capiat  magis,  et  quaedam,  si  longius  abstes. 
haec  amat  obscurum,  volet  haec  sub  luce  videri, 
iudicis  argutum  quae  non  formidat  acumen  ; 
haec  placuit  semel,  haec  deciens  repetita  placebit.  365 

O  maior  iuvenum,  quamvis  et  voce  paterna 
fingeris  ad  rectum  et  per  te  sapis,  hoc  tibi  dictum 
tolle  memor,  certis  medium  et  tolerabile  rebus 
recte  concedi.     consultus  iuris  et  actor 
causavum  mediocris  abest  virtute  diserti  370 

Messallae,  nee  scit^  quantum  Cascellius  Aulus, 
sed  tamen  in  pretio  est  :   mediocribus  esse  poetis 
non  homines,  non  di,  non  concessere  column ae. 
ut  gratas  inter  mensas  symphonia  discors  374 

et  crassum  unguentum  et  Sardo  cum  melle  papaver 
ofFendunt,  poterat  duci  quia  cena  sine  istis  : 
sic  animis  natum  inventumque  poema  iuvandis, 
si  paulum  summo  decessit,  vergit*  ad  imum. 
ludere  qui  nescit,  campestribus  abstinet  armis, 
indoctusque  pilae  discive  trochive  quiescit,  380 

ne  spissae  risum  tollant  impune  coronae  : 
qui  nescit  versus  tamen  audet  fingere.     quidni  ? 
liber  et  ingenuus,  praesertim  census  equestrem 
summam  nummorum  vitioque  remotus  ab  omni. 

^  terque  aCM.  ^  opere  5:  opere  in  aM. 

*  nee  scit  VB:  nescit  a  C  J/.  *  pergit  £C. 

"  Dormitat  —  aitrowdTa^ei.     Cf.    iv     eiriardK-Q    yp6.\}/as   .    .   . 
dnovva-Tci^eLv  rbv  At) /j-oa 9 ivrjv  (Plutarch,  Cicero,  24). 

*  Poppy-seeds,  when  roasted  and  served  with  honey,  were 
considered  a  delicacy,  but  were  spoilt  if  the  honey  had  a 
bitter  flavour. 

THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  357-384 

so  the  poet  who  often  defaults,  becomes,  methinks, 
another  Choerilus,  whose  one  or  two  good  lines  cause 
laughter  and  surprise  ;  and  yet  I  also  feel  aggrieved, 
whenever  good  Homer  "nods,""  but  when  a  work 
is  long,  a  drowsy  mood  may  well  creep  over  it. 

^^  A  poem  is  Uke  a  picture  :  one  strikes  your 
fancy  more,  the  nearer  you  stand  ;  another,  the 
farther  away.  This  courts  the  shade,  that  will  wish 
to  be  seen  in  the  Hght,  and  dreads  not  the  critic 
insight  of  the  judge.  This  pleased  but  once  ;  that, 
though  ten  times  called  for,  will  always  please. 

^^  O  you  elder  youth,  though  wise  yourself  and 
trained  to  right  judgement  by  a  father's  voice,  take 
to  heart  and  remember  this  sa\ing,  that  only  some 
things  rightly  brook  the  medium  and  the  bearable. 
A  lawyer  and  pleader  of  middling  rank  falls  short  of 
the  merit  of  eloquent  Messalla,  and  knows  not  as 
much  as  Aulus  Cascellius,  yet  he  has  a  value.  But 
that  poets  be  of  middling  rank,  neither  men  nor  gods 
nor  booksellers  ever  brooked.  As  at  pleasant  ban- 
quets an  orchestra  out  of  tune,  an  unguent  that  is 
thick,  and  poppy-seeds  served  with  Sardinian  honey,' 
give  offence,  because  the  feast  might  have  gone  on 
without  them  :  so  a  poem,  whose  birth  and  creation 
are  for  the  soul's  deUght,  if  in  aught  it  falls  short 
of  the  top,  sinks  to  the  bottom.  He  who  cannot 
play  a  game,  shuns  the  weapons  of  the  Campus,'' 
and,  if  unskilled  in  ball  or  quoit  or  hoop,  remains 
aloof,  lest  the  crowded  circle  break  out  in  righteous 
laughter.  Yet  the  man  who  knows  not  how  dares  to 
frame  verses.  WTiy  not .''  He  is  free,  even  free- 
born,  nay,  is  rated  at  the  fortune  of  a  knight,  and 
stands  clear  from  every  blemish. 

"  The  Campus  Martius  in  Rome. 

2 1  4,81 


Tu  nihil  invita  dices  faciesve^  Minerva  ;  385 

id  tibi  indicium  est,  ea  mens,     si  quid  tamen  olim 
scripseris,  in  Maeci  descendat  iudicis  auris 
et  patris  et  nostras,  nonumque  prematur  in  annum, 
membranis  intus  positis  :   delere  licebit 
quod  non  edideris  ;   nescit  vox  missa  reverti.  390 

Silvestris  homines  sacer  interpresque  deorum 
caedibus  et  victu  foedo  deterruit  Orpheus, 
dictus  ob  hoc  lenire  tigris  rabidosque^  leones. 
dictus  et  Amphion,  Thebanae  conditor  urbis,^ 
saxa  movere  sono  testudinis  et  prece  blanda  395 

ducere  quo  vellet.     fuit  haec  sapientia  quondam, 
pubhca  privatis  secernere,  sacra  profanis, 
concubitu  prohibere  vago,  dare  iura  maritis, 
oppida  moliri,  leges  incidere  ligno. 
sic  honor  et  nomen  divinis  vatibus  atque  400 

carminibus  venit.     post  hos  insignis  Homerus 
Tyrtaeusque  mares  animos  in  Martia  bella 
versibus  exacuit ;   dictae  per  carmina  sortes, 
et  vitae  monstrata  via  est,  et  gratia  regum 
Pieriis  temptata  modis,  ludusque  repertus  405 

et  longorum  operum  finis  :   ne  forte  pudori 
sit  tibi  Musa  lyrae  sollers  et  cantor  Apollo. 

1  faciesque  aM.  *  rapidos  aCM,  II.  '  arcis  aM. 

"  The  phrase  invita  Minerva  is  explained  by  Cicero, 
De  off.  i.  31.  10,  as  meaning  adversante  et  repugnante 
natura  x  cf.  "  crassa  Minerva,"  Sat.  ii.  2.  3. 

»  Cf.  Sat.  i.  10.  38.  '  Cf.  Epist.  i.  20.  6. 

<*  The  laws  of  Solon  were  published  thus. 

«  The  first  poets  were  inspired  teachers. 

f  Tyrtaeus,  who  according  to  tradition  was  a  lame  Attic 
schoolmaster,  composed  marching-songs  and  martial  elegies 
for  the  Spartans  in  the  seventh  century  b.c. 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  385-407 

2^  But  you  will  say  nothing  and  do  nothing 
against  Minerv'a's  will "» ;  such  is  your  judgement, 
such  your  good  sense.  Yet  if  ever  you  do  write 
anything,  let  it  enter  the  ears  of  some  critical 
Maecius,^  and  your  father's,  and  my  ovra  ;  then  put 
your  parchment  in  the  closet  and  keep  it  back  till 
the  ninth  year.  What  you  have  not  pubHshed  you 
can  destroy  ;  the  word  once  sent  forth  can  never 
come  back.** 

^^  While  men  still  roamed  the  woods,  Orpheus, 
the  holy  prophet  of  the  gods,  made  them  shrink  from 
bloodshed  and  brutal  h\  ing ;  hence  the  fable  that  he 
tamed  tigers  and  ravening  lions  ;  hence  too  the  fable 
that  Amphion,  builder  ofThebes's  citadel,  moved  stones 
by  the  sound  of  his  lyre,  and  led  them  whither  he 
would  by  his  supphcating  spell.  In  days  of  yore,  this 
was  wisdom,  to  draw  a  hne  between  public  and  private  ' 
rights,  between  things  sacred  and  things  common, 
to  check  vagrant  union,  to  give  rules  for  wedded  life, 
to  build  towns,  and  grave  laws  on  tables  of  wood<* ; 
and  so  honour  and  fame  fell  to  bards  and  their 
songs,  as  divine.*  After  these  Homer  won  his  renown,  \ 
and  Tyrtaeus  ^  with  his  verses  fired  manly  hearts  for 
battles  of  Mars.  In  song  oracles  were  given,  and 
the  way  of  hfe  was  shown  "  ;  the  favour  of  kings 
was  sought  in  Pierian  strains,^  and  mirth  was  found 
to  close  toil's  long  spell.'  So  you  need  not  blush 
for  the  Muse  skilled  in  the  lyre,  and  for  Apollo,  god 
of  song. 

»  In  didactic  poetry  such  as  Hesiod's,  and  gnomic  poetry 
such  as  Solon's. 

*  A  reference  to  Pindar,  Simonides,  and  Bacchylides. 

*  The  ludus  is  such  festal  mirth  as  was  exhibited  in  the 
dramatic  performances  of  the  Dionysia.  Cf.  Epist.  ii.  1. 
139  ff. 



Natura  fieret  laudabile  carmen  an  arte, 
quaesitum  est  :   ego  nee  studium  sine  divite  vena, 
nee  rude  quid  prosit^  video  ingenium :  alterius  sic  410 
altera  poscit  opem  res  et  coniurat  amice, 
qui  studet  optatam  cursu  contingere  metam, 
multa  tulit  fecitque  puer,  sudavit  et  alsit, 
abstinuit  Venere  et  vino  ;   qui  Pythia  cantat 
tibicen,  didicit  prius  extimuitque  magistrum.         415 
nunc^  satis  est^  dixisse:  "ego  mira  poemata  pango; 
occupet  extremum  scabies  ;  mihi  turpe  relinqui  est 
et  quod  non  didici  sane  nescire  fateri." 

Ut  praeco,  ad  merces  turbam  qui  cogit  emendas, 
adsentatoi-es  iubet  ad  lucrum  ire  poeta  420 

dives  agris,*  dives  positis  in  faenore  nummis. 
si^  vero  est,  unctum  qui  recte  ponere  possit 
et  spondere  levi  pro  paupere  et  eripere  atris® 
litibus  implicitum,  mirabor,  si  sciet  inter- 
noscere  mendacem  verumque  beatus  amicum.        425 
tu  seu  donaris  seu  quid  donare  voles  cui,' 
nolito  ad  versus  tibi  factos  ducere  plenum 
laetitiae  :  clamabit  enim  "  pulchre  !   bene  !   recte  !  " 
pallescet  super  his,  etiam  stillabit  amicis 
ex  oculis  rorem,  saliet,  tundet  pede  terram.  430 

ut  qui  conducti  plorant  in  funere  dicunt 
et  faciunt  prope  plura  dolentibus  ex  animo,  sic 
derisor  vero  plus  laudatore  movetur. 
reges  dicuntur  multis  urgere  culullis 

^  possit.  ^  nee.  ^  et  BC.  *  agri  BC. 

*  sin  Xtt.  *  artis :  so  Bentley.  '  qui  B :  quoi  V. 

"  An  allusion  to  a  game  of  tag,  in  which  the  children  cried: 
habeat  scabiem  quisquis  ad  me  venerit  novi'ssimus. 
Horace  means  that  people  play  at  poetry  like  children.     Cf, 
Ep.  i.  1.  59. 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  408-434 

***  Often  it  is  asked  whether  a  praiseworthy  poem 
be  due  to  Nature  or  to  art.  For  my  part,  I  do  not 
see  of  what  avail  is  either  study,  when  not  enriched 
by  Nature's  vein,  or  native  \sit,  if  untrained  ;  so 
truly  does  each  claim  the  other's  aid,  and  make  with 
it  a  friendly  league.  He  who  in  the  race-course 
craves  to  reach  the  longed-for  goal,  has  borne  much 
and  done  much  as  a  boy,  has  sweated  and  shivered, 
has  kept  aloof  from  •nine  and  women.  The  flautist 
who  plays  at  the  Pythian  games,  has  first  learned 
his  lessons  and  been  in  awe  of  a  master.  To-day  'tis 
enough  to  say  :  "  I  fashion  wondrous  poems  :  the 
devil  take  the  hindmost  ! "  'Tis  unseemly  for  me 
to  be  left  behind,  and  to  confess  that  I  really  do  not 
know  what  I  have  never  learned." 

*^^  Like  the  crier,  who  gathers  a  crowd  to  the 
auction  of  his  wares,  so  the  poet  bids  flatterers  flock 
to  the  call  of  gain,  if  he  is  rich  in  lands,  and  rich  in 
moneys  put  out  at  interest.  But  if  he  be  one  who 
can  fitly  serve  a  dainty  dinner,  and  be  surety  for  a 
poor  man  of  httle  credit,  or  can  rescue  one  entangled 
in  gloomy  suits-at-law,  I  shall  wonder  if  the  happy 
fellow  will  be  able  to  distinguish  between  a  false 
and  a  true  friend.  And  you,  if  you  have  given  or 
mean  to  give  a  present  to  anyone,  do  not  bring  him, 
in  the  fulness  of  his  joy,  to  hear  verses  you  have 
wTitten.  For  he  will  call  out  "  Fine  !  good ! 
perfect  !  "  He  will  change  colour  over  them  ;  he 
\\i\\  even  distil  the  dew  from  his  friendly  eyes,  he 
will  dance  and  thump  the  ground  with  his  foot.  As 
hired  mourners  at  a  funeral  say  and  do  almost  more 
than  those  who  grieve  at  heart,  so  the  man  who 
mocks  is  more  moved  than  the  true  admirer.  Kings, 
we  are  told,  ply  with  many  a  bumper  and  test  witli 



et  torquere  mero,  quem  perspexisse  laborent,^       435 
an  sit  amicitia  dignus  :  si  carmina  condes, 
numquam  te  fallent^  animi  sub  volpe  latentes. 

Quintilio  si  quid  recitares,  "  corrige,  sodes, 
hoc,"  aiebat,  "  et  hoc."     melius  te  posse  negares 
bis  terque  expertum  frustra,  delere  iubebat  440       ^ 

et  male  tornatos^  incudi  reddere  versus.  | 

si  defendere  delictum  quam  vertere  malles,  i 

nullum  ultra  verbum  aut  operam  insumebat  inanem, 
quin  sine  rivali  teque  et  tua  solus  amares. 
vir  bonus  et  prudens  versus  reprehendet  inertis,     445 
culpabit  duros,  incomptis  allinet  atrum 
transverso  calamo  signum,  ambitiosa  recidet 
ornamenta,  parum  claris  lucem  dare  coget, 
arguet  ambigue  dictum,  mutanda  notabit, 
fiet  Aristarchus  ;  nee*  dicet:    "  cur  ego  amicum     450 
ofFendam  in  nugis  ?  "     hae  nugae  seria  ducent 
in  mala  derisum  semel  exceptumque  sinistre. 

Ut  mala  quem  scabies  aut  morbus  regius  urget 
aut  fanaticus  error  et  iracunda  Diana, 
vesanum  tetigisse  timent  fugientque^  poetam         455 
qui  sapiunt  ;   agitant  pueri  incautique  sequuntur. 
hie,  dum  sublimis  versus  ructatur  et  errat, 

1  laborant,  //  {not  <t>).  *  fallant  <t>f8. 

^  torquatos  Ex  ter  natos  Bentley.  *  non,  II. 

*  fugientque  a^ :  fugentque  M:  fugiuntque  K. 

'  In  one  of  Aesop's  fables,  the  crow,  yielding  to  the  fox's 
flatterj%  drops  the  cheese  he  has  found. 

*  i.e.  Quintilius  Varus,  whose  death  is  lamented  in  Odes, 
i.  24. 

«  The  name  of  Aristarchus,  famous  as  an  Homeric  scholar 
of  Alexandria  in  the  second  century  B.C.,  had  become  pro- 
verbial as  that  of  a  keen  critic. 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  435-457 

wine  the  man  they  are  anxious  to  see  through, 
whether  he  be  worthy  of  their  friendship.  If  you 
mean  to  fashion  verses,  never  let  the  intent  that 
lurks  beneath  the  fox  ensnare  you.<* 

*^  If  you  ever  read  aught  to  Qiiintilius,'  he  would 
say  :  "  Pray  correct  this  and  this."  If,  after  two  or 
three  vain  trials,  you  said  you  could  not  do  better, 
he  would  bid  you  blot  it  out,  and  return  the  ill- 
shaped  verses  to  the  anvil.  If  vou  preferred  defend- 
ing your  mistake  to  amending  it,  he  would  waste 
not  a  word  more,  would  spend  no  fruitless  toil,  to 
prevent  your  lo\ing  yourself  and  your  work  alone 
without  a  rival.  An  honest  and  sensible  man  will 
censure  Ufeless  lines,  he  will  find  fault  with  harsh 
ones  ;  if  they  are  graceless,  he  will  draw  his  pen 
across  and  smear  them  with  a  black  stroke  ;  he  will 
cut  away  pretentious  ornament  ;  he  wiU  force  you 
to  flood  the  obscure  with  light,  \vill  convict  the  doubt- 
ful phrase,  will  mark  what  should  be  changed,  will 
prove  an  Aristarchus."  He  will  not  say, "  WTiy  should 
I  give  offence  to  a  friend  about  trifles  ?  "  These 
trifles  will  bring  that  friend  into  serious  trouble, 
if  once  he  has  been  laughed  dowm  and  given  an 
unlucky  reception. 

*^^  As  when  the  accursed  itch  plagues  a  man,  or 
the  disease  of  kings,**  or  a  fit  of  frenzy  and  Diana's 
wrath,'  so  men  of  sense  fear  to  touch  a  crazy  poet  and 
run  away  ;  children  tease  and  pursue  him  rashly.  He, 
with  head  upraised,  splutters  verses  and  off  he  strays; 

•*  The  morbus  regius,  said  to  be  so  called  because  the 
patient  was  treated  with  costly  remedies,  which  only  the 
rich  (reges)  could  afford,  was  our  jaundice  and  was  supposed 
to  be  contagious. 

«  "  Lunacy "  was  supposed  to  be  caused  by  the  moon, 
and  the  moon-goddess  was  Diana. 



si*  veliiti  merulis  intentus  decidit  auceps 

in  puteum  foveamve,  licet  "  succurrite  "  longuin 

clamet  "  io  cives  !  "  non  sit  qui  tollere  curet.  4G0 

si  curet  quis  opem  ferre  et  demittere^  funem, 

"  qui  scis,  an  prudens  hue  se  deiecerit^  atque 

servari  nolit  ?  "  dicam,  Siculique  poetae 

narrabo  interitum.     deus  immortalis  haberi 

dum  cupit  Empedocles,  ardentem  frigidus  Aetnam 

insiluit.     sit  ius  liceatque  perire  poetis  :  466 

invitum  qui  servat,  idem  facit  occidenti. 

nee  semel  hoc  fecit,  nee,  si  retractus  erit,  iam 

fiet  homo  et  ponet  famosae  mortis  amorem. 

nee  satis  apparet,  cur  versus  factitet,  utrum  470 

minxerit  in  patrios  cineres,  an  triste  bidental 

moverit  incestus  :  certe  furit,  ac  velut  ursus, 

obiectos*  caveae  valuit  si  frangere  clatros, 

indoctum  doctumque  fugat  recitator  acerbus  ; 

quern  vero  arripuit,  tenet  occiditque  legendo,         475 

non  missura  cutem,  nisi  plena  cruoris,  hirudo. 

1  si  K8 :  sic  aEM.  ^  dimittere  most  ms8. 

'  proiecerit,  //.  *  obiectas  E. 

"  So  Thales  is  said  to  have  fallen  into  a  well  while  studying 
the  stars  (Plato,  Theaetetug,  174  a). 


THE  ART  OF  POETRY,  458-476 

then  if,  like  a  fowler  with  his  eyes  upon  blackbirds,  he 
fall  into  a  well  <*  or  pit,  despite  his  far-reaching  cry, 
"  Help,  O  fellow-citizens  !  "  not  a  soul  will  care  to 
pull  him  out.  And  if  one  should  care  to  lend  aid 
and  let  do^^■n  a  rope,  "  How  do  you  know,"  I'll  say, 
"  but  that  he  threw  himself  in  on  purpose,  and  does 
not  wish  to  be  saved  ?  "  and  I'll  tell  the  tale  of  the 
Sicilian  poet's  end.  Empedocles,  eager  to  be  thought 
a  god  immortal,  coolly  leapt  into  burning  Aetna. 
Let  poets  have  the  right  and  power  to  destroy  them- 
selves. Who  saves  a  man  against  his  %\'ill  does  the 
same  as  miu-der  him.  Not  for  the  first  time  has  he 
done  this,  nor  if  he  is  pulled  out  will  he  at  once 
become  a  human  being  and  lay  aside  his  cra\ing  for 
a  notable  death.  Nor  is  it  very  clear  how  he  comes 
to  be  a  verse-monger.  Has  he  defiled  ancestral  ashes 
or  in  sacrilege  disturbed  a  hallowed  plot  **  ?  At  any 
rate  he  is  mad,  and,  hke  a  bear,  if  he  has  had  strength 
to  break  the  confining  bars  of  his  cage,  he  puts  learned 
and  unlearned  ahke  to  flight  by  the  scourge  of  his 
recitals.  If  he  catches  a  man,  he  holds  him  fast  and 
reads  him  to  death — a  leech  that  will  not  let  go  the 
skin,  till  gorged  with  blood. 

*  The  hidental  was  a  spot  struck  by  lightning,  which  was 
consecrated  by  a  sacrifice  of  sheep  {biderUet). 



The  references  are  to  books  and  lines  in  the  Latin  text.  Abbreviatious : 
A.P.=An  Poetica;  E.  =  Epistles;  S.=Satires  or  Sermones;  also  adj.= 
adjectiTe;  a/.  =  alios;  /em.  =  feminine  ;  pJur.  =  plural ;  rin^.  =  singular ; 
«iil»<.  =sabst&ntiTe. 

ACASEJTus,  an  old  Athenian  hero. 

In  a  garden  dedicated  to  him  and 

called  Academia,  Plato  and  his 

successors  taught.    E.  ii.  2.  45 
Accius,  Roman   tragic  poet,  bom 

170  ac,  S.  L  10.  53  ;  E.  u.  1.  56 ; 

A. P.  258 
Achilles,  hero  of  the  Iliad,  S.  L  7. 

12 ;  iL  3.  193 ;  E.  il  2.  42 ;  A.P. 

120.     See  Pelides 
Achivi,  the  Greeks,  S.  ii  3.  194; 

E.  L  2.  14 ;  ii.  1.  33 
Actius,  adj.,  of  Actiiim,  promon- 
tory and  town  of  Greece  on  the 

Ambracian  Gulf,  where  Octavius 

defeated  Antony  in  31  &a,  £.  L 

18.  61 
Aegaeus,  adj.,  Aegean,  applied  to 

the  sea  between  Greece  and  Asia 

Minor,  E.  i.  11.  16 

who,    according    to    Porphyrio, 

set    up    a    gladiatorial    school, 

A.P.  32 
Aeneas,  the  Trojan    hero,  son  of 

Anchises  and  Venus,  S.  ii.  5.  63 
Aeschylus,   Greek  tragic  poet,   E. 

U.  1.  163 ;  A.P.  279 
Aesopus,   Roman   tragic  actor,  S. 

ii.  3.  239 ;  E.  ii.  1.  82 
Aetna,   the    famous  Mt.    Etna  in 

SicUy,  A.P.  465 
Aetolus,  adj.,  of  Aetolia,  in  central 

Greece,  E.  i.  18.  46 
Afer,   adj.,  African,   S.   ii.   4.  58 ; 

ii.  8.  95 
Atenius.  a  writer  of  comedies  with 

a  Roman  setting,  known  as 
togatae,  E.  ii.  1.  57 

Africa,  i.e.  Africa  Provincia,  the 
Roman  province  of  Africa,  S. 
ii.  3.  87 

Agave,  daughter  of  Cadmus,  wife 
of  Echion,  king  of  Thebes,  who 
in  the  madness  of  Bacchic  rites 
tore  her  son  Pentheus  to  pieces, 
S.  ii.  3.  203 

Agrippa,  i.e.  M.  Vipsanius  Agrippa, 
S'jn-in-law  of  Augustus,  aedile  in 
33  B.C.,  S.  ii.  3.  185 ;  erected  the 
Portico  of  Neptune  in  27  b.c., 
B.  i.  6.  26  ;  had  estates  in  Sicily, 
E.  L  12.  1 ;  conquered  the  Can- 
tabri  in  20-19  B.C.,  E.  i.  12.  26 

Aiax,  Greek  hero,  son  of  Telamon, 
and  brother  of  Teucer.  In  his 
tragedy,  the  Ajax,  Sophocles 
represents  Menelaus  as  forbid- 
ding Teucer  to  burv  the  dead  hero. 
S.  ii.  3.  187.  193,  201,  211 

Albanns,  adj.,  Alban,  associated 
with  the  Alban  hills,  or  the 
Alban  Mount  (now  Monte  Cavo) 
near  Rome,  S.  ii.  4.  72 ;  B.  L  7. 
10 ;  u.  1.  27 

Albino%-anus,  i.«.  Celsus  Albino- 
vanus,  E.  i.  H.  1,     See  Celsus 

Albinus,  probably  a  usurer,  A.P.  327 

Albins,  (1)  a  man  of  expensive  tastes, 
S.  i.  4.  28,  109;  (2)  the  poet, 
Albius  TibuUus,  E.i.i.\,  possibly 
son  of  (1) 

Albucius,  a  name  from  Lucillns. 
S.  iL  1.  48 ;  iL  2.  67 



Alcaeus,  Lesbian  poet,  E.  i.  19.  29 ; 

ii.  2.  99 
Alcinous,    king    of    Pliaeacia   and 

host  of  Ulysses,  E.  i.  2.  28 
Alcon,  a  Greek  slave,  S.  ii.  8.  15 
Alexander,  i.e.  Alexander  the  Great, 

king  of  Macedon,  E.  ii.  1.  232,  241 
Alfenus,  a  barber,  who  is  said  to 

have  become  eminent  in  the  law, 

S.  i.  3.  130 
AUifanus,  adj.,  of  Allifae,  a  town 

of     Samnium,     known    for     its 

pottery,  S.  ii.  8.  39 
Alpes,  the  Alps,  S.  ii.  5.  41 
Alpinus,   properly  an  adj.,  of  the 

Alps,  a  nickname   given  to  M. 

Furius  Bibaculus,  who  wrote  an 

Aethiopis  and  a  poem  on  Gaul,  S.  i. 

10.  3(5.     See  also  Furius 
Amphion,    son    of    Jupiter    and 

Antiope,  mother  of  Zethus,  and 

famous  player  on  the  lyre.     The 

citadel  of  Thebes  was  built  to  the 

accompaniment  of  his  music.    E. 

i.  18.  41, 44 ;  ^.P.  394.  See  Zethus 
Aiieus,  Ancus  Marcius,  fourth  king 

of  Rome,  E.  i.  6.  27 
Antenor,  a  Trojan  chief,  who  pro- 
posed to  restore  Helen   to  the 

Greeks,  E.  1.  2.  9 
Anticyra,  a  town  in  Phocis  on  the 

Corinthian  gulf,  famous   for  its 

hellebore,  S.  ii.  3.  83,  106,  A.  P. 

Antiphates,  king  of  the  Laestry- 

gones  (Homer,  Od.  x.  100  f.),  A.P. 

Antonius,    (1)    Marcus    Antonius, 

the    triumvir,    S.    i.   6.    33;    (2) 

Antonius  Musa,  a  freedman  and 

physician,  who  cured   Augustus 

by  cold-water  treatment,  E.  i. 

15.  3 
Anxur,  the  old  name  of  Terracina, 

originally  built  at  the  top  of  a 

hill,   but   later   rebuilt   on    the 

plain  below,  S.  i.  5.  26 
Anytus,   one    of   the    accusers    of 

Socrates,  S.  ii.  4.  3 
Apella,  a  Jewish  freedman,  S.  i.  5. 

Apelles,  a  famous  Greek   painter, 

E.  ii.  1.  239 
Apollo,  the  god,  S.  1.  8.  78 ;  ii.  6. 


60;  E.  i.  3.  17;  i.  16.  59;  11.  1 

216  ;  A.P.  407 
Appia  (Via),  Appian  Way,  S.  i.  5.  6 
Appius,     i.e.      Appius      Claudius 

Caecus,  who  in  312  B.C.  built  the 

Appian  Way  and   Aqueduct,   E. 

i.  6.  26;  i.  18.  20.      The  Forum 

Appi,  43  miles  south  of  Rome,  was 

also  named  from  him,  S.  i.  53. 

The  Appius  mentioned  in  S.  i.  6. 

21   is  perhaps    Appius  Claudius 

Pulcher,  who  was  censor  in  50  b.o. 
Apulia,  a  district  of  Italy,  S.  i.  5.  77 
Apulus,  adj.,   of  Apulia,  S.  ii.  1. 

34,  38 
Aquarius,  the  water-bearer,  a  sign 

of  the  Zodiac,  S.  i.  1.  86 
Aquilo,   the  north    wind,    or    the 

North,  S.    ii.   6.   25;    ii.   8.   56; 

A.P.  64 
Aquinas,  adj.,  of  Aquinum,  a  town 

of  Latium,  E.  i.  10.  27 
Arabs,  an  Arab,  E.  i.  6.  6 ;  i.  7.  36 
Arbuscula,    an   actress    or   mima, 

celebrated   in   Cicero's  time  (Ad 

Att.  iv.  15),  S.  i.  10.  77 
Archiacus,  adj.,  of  Archias,  a  maker 

of  furniture,  E.  i.  5.  1 
Archilochus,  Greek    iambic   poet, 

flourished  about  650  B.O.,  S.  ii.  3. 

12;  E.  i.  19.  25,  28;  A.P.  79 
Arellius,  a  rich  neighbour  of  Horace, 

S.  ii.  6.  78 
Argi,  city  of  Argos,  in  the  Pelopon- 
nesus,  often    representative    of 

Greece  in  general,  S.  ii.  3.  132 ; 

E.  ii.  2.  128;  A.P.  118 
Aricia,  a  town  sixteen  miles  south 

of  Rome,  S.  i.  5.  1 
Aricinus,  adj.,  of  Aricia,  E.  ii.  2. 167 
Aristarchus,  a  great  Homeric  critic, 

flourished  at   Alexandria   about 

180  B.C. ;  A.P.  450 
Aristippus,  founder  of  the  Cyrenaic 

school  of  philosophy,  S.  ii.  3. 100 ; 

E.  i.  1.  18 ;  i.  17.  14,  23 
Aristius  Fuscus,  a  friend  of  Horace, 

S.  i.  9.  61 ;  i.  10.  S3 ;  E.  i.  10.  1 
Aristophanes,  the  most  famous  of 

Attic  writers  of  comedy,  S.  i.  4. 1 
Armenius,  adj.,  Armenian,  E.  i.  12. 

Arrius,  whose  praenomen  was  Quin- 

tus,  and  who  gave  a  great  funeral 


entertainment,     mentioned     by 

Cicero (/n  Vatinium,  xii.),  S.  ii  3. 

86,  243 
Asia,  the  province  of  Asia,  in  Asia 

Minor,  6\  i.  7.  19,  24  ;  £.  L  8.  6 
Asina,  cognomen  of  Vinius,  E.  1. 

IS.  8 
Assyrius,  adj.,  of  Assyria,  A. P.  118 
Atabulus,  a  hot,  dry  wind,  peculiar 

to  Apulia,  the  scirocco,  S.  i.  5.  78 
Atacinus.    See  Varro 
Athenae,  Athens,  5.  i.  1.  64 ;  ii.  7. 

13  ;  E.  ii.  1.  213  ;  ii.  2.  43,  81 
Atreus,  son  of   Pelops,    murdered 

the    children   of   Thyestes,    his 

brother,  and  served  them  as  a 

meal  to  their  father,  A.P.  1S6 
Atrides,  son  of  Atreus,  Agamem- 
non, .S.  iL   3.  187;  E.  i.   2.  12; 

Menelaus,  E.  i.   7.   43 ;  plur.  of 

both  sons,  S.  ii.  3.  203 
Atta,  i.e.  T.  Qnintius  .\tt3,  a  writer 

of  togatae,  who  died  in  78  B.C., 

E.  ii.  1.  79 
Attalicus,    adj.,    of    Attains,    the 

name  of  several  kings  of  Pergamos. 

The  last  of  these  left  his  enormous 

wealth  to  the  Roman  people  in 

133  B.C.,  E.  i.  11.  5 
Atticus,  adj.,  of  Attica  or  Athens, 

S.  ii.  8.  13 
Autidins,     perhaps     M.     Aufldius 

Lurco,   the  first  to  fatten  pea- 
cocks for  sale,  according  to  PUny 

(N.H.  X.  23.  20),  S.  ii.  4.  24 
Aufldius  Luscus,  the  "praefectns" 

at  Fundi,  S.  i.  5.  34 
Autidus,  a  river   of  Apulia,  now 

Ofanto,  S.  i.  1.  58 
Augustus,  imperial  title  of  Octaviiis 

Caesar,  E.  i.  3.  2,  7 ;  i.   16.  29 ; 

ii.  2.  48.    See  Caesar 
Aulis,  a  town  of  Boeotia,  whence 

the  Greeks  sailed    for  Troy,  S. 

ii.  3.  199 
Aulus,  son  of  Oppidius,  S.  ii.  3.  171. 

See  Cascellius 
Auster,  the  south  wind,  S.  i.  1.  6 ; 

ii.  2.  41 ;  ii.  6.  18 ;  il.  8.  6 ;  B.  i. 

11.  15 
Avidienus,  a  miser,  S.  it  2.  55 

Bacchius,  n  famous  gladiator,  S.  1. 
7.  2a    See  Bithus 

Bacchus,  a  god  of  wine  and  of  poets, 

S.   L    3.   7  where   some    editors 

read    Bacchae,    i.e.    votaries    of 

Bacchus ;  E.  ii.  2.  78 
Baiae,    a    town    of   Campania,    a 

favourite   seaside  resort  of  the 

Romans,  E.  i.  1.  83 ;  i.  15.  2,  12 
Baianus,  adj.,  of  Baiae,  S.  ii.  4.  32 
Baius,  a  certain  poor  man,  S.  i.  4. 1 10 
Balatro,  a  parasite  of  Maecenas,  S. 
.  iL  S.  21,  33,  40,  83  (cf.  S.  i.  2.  2) 
Balbinus,  a   person    unknown,  S. 

i.  3.  40 
Barbaria,    a  general  term  for  all 

countries  not  Greek,  E.  i.  2.  7 
Barium,  a  town   in    Apulia,    now 

Bari,  S.  i.  5.  97.    To-day  steamers 

go  from  Bari  to  ports  in  Albania, 

Montenegro,  and  Dalmatia 
Barrus,  (1)  a  vain  person,  unknown, 

S.   i.  6.  30;  (2)  a  foul-mouthed 

person,  S.  i.  7.  8 
Bellona,  sister  of  Mars,  and  goddess 

of  war,  S.  ii.  3.  223 
Beneveutum,  a  town  of  Samnium, 

now  Benevento,  S.  i.  5.  71 
Bestius,    probably  a  character  in 

Lucilins,  E.  i.  15.  37 
Bibulus,   prob;ibly    C.    Calpumiua 

Bibulus,  a  step-scfh  of  Brutus  .S. 

i.  10.  86 
Bioneus,  adj. ,  of  Bion,  a  philosopher, 

bom    in  Scythia,   who  lived  in 

Athens  in  the  third  century  B.a, 

and  was  famous  for  his  caustic 

wit,  E.  ii.  2.  60 
Birrius,  a  robber,  S.  i.  4.  69 
Bithus,     a    gladiator.      He     and 

Bacchius,    after    slaying    many 

opponents,    finally    killed    each 

other.    S.  i.  7.  20 
Bithynus,a<y.,  of  Bithynia,  a  Roman 

province  in  Asia  Minor,  south  of 

the  Euxine,  E.  i.  6.  33 
Boeotus,  adj.,  of  Boeotia,  a  district 

in  Greece,  north-west  of  Attica 

E.  ii.  1.  244 
Bolanus,  ahot-headed  acquaintance 

of  Horace  (the  name  was  derived 

from  Bola,  a  town  of  the  Aequi) 

S.  L  9.  U 
Brundisium,  now  Brindisi,  famous 

port  of  Calabria,  S.  L  6.  104 ;  £ 

i.  17.  52  ;  i.  18.  20 



Bnitus,  i.e.  M.  Junius  Brutus,  who 
slew  Caesar.  He  was  properly  pro- 
praetor of  Macedonia,  but  after 
the  coalition  of  Octavian  and  M. 
Antonius,  and  the  murder  of  C. 
Trebonius,  proconsul  of  Asia,  he 
assumed  the  jurisdiction  of  that 
province  as  well,  S.  i.  7.  18,  33 

BuUatius,  a  friend  of  Horace,  E.  i. 
11.  1 

Butra,  a  friend  of  Torquatus,  E.  i. 
5.  26 

Byzantius,  adj.,  of  Byzantium, 
centre  of  the  tunny  fishery  of 
the  Black  Sea,  S.  ii.  4.  66 

Cadmus,  (1)  a  public  executioner, 
S.  i.  6.  39  :  (2)  founder  of  Thebes 
in  Boeotia.  He  and  his  wife 
Harmonia  were  changed  into 
serpents  (so  Ovid,  Met.  iv.  563  ff.), 
A.P.  187 

Caecilius,  Roman  comic  poet,  older 
contemporary  of  Terence,  E.  ii. 
1.  ."iQ  ;  A.P.  54 

Caelius,  a  robber,  S.  i.  4.  69 

Caeres,  adj.,  belonging  to  Caere,  an 
old  town  of  Etruiia,  which  had 
a  limited  Roman  franchise. 
Whether  thi%  was  given  as  a  re- 
ward or  was  due  to  punisliment 
imposed,  is  uncertain,  E.  i.  6.  62 

Caesar,  a  family  name  in  the  Julian 
gens ;  hence  (1)  C.  Julius  Caesar, 
the  famous  statesman  and  dic- 
tator, who  left  his  gardens  by  his 
will  to  the  Roman  people,  S.  i.  9. 
18  ;  (2)  C.  Julius  Caesar  Octavia- 
iius,  also  called  Augustus  when 
emperor,  grandnephew  of  the 
dictator,  who  adopted  him  as  his 
son  and  heir,  S.  i.  3.  4 ;  ii.  1. 11, 19, 
84;  E.  i.  5.  9;  i.  12.  28;  i.  13.18; 
ii.  1.  4 ;  ii.  2.  48.    See  Augustus 

Calaber,  adj.,  of  Calabria,  E.  i.  7. 
14  ;  ii.  2.  177 

Calliniachus,  famous  poet  of  Alex- 
andria, flourished  about  270  B.C., 
E.  ii.  2.  100 

Calvus,  i.e.  C.  Liciniua  Cahnis, 
orator  and  poet,  friend  of  Catul- 
lus, S.  i.  10.  19 

Camena,  pure  Latin  name  of  the 
Grefk  MoOcra,    Muse,    S.  L    10. 


45 ;  B.  i.  I.  1;    1.  18.  47  ;  L  19 

5 ;  A.P.  275 
Caraillus,  i.e.  M.  Furius  Camillus, 

who  took  Veil  and  freed  Rome 

from  the  Gauls,  390  B.C. ,  £.  i.  1. 64 
Campanus,  adj.,  of  Campania,  S.  i. 

5.  45,  62  ;  i.  6.  118 ;  ii.  3.  144 ;  ii. 

8.  56 
Campus,  the  Campus  Martins  or 

Field  of  Mars,  in  Rome,  S.  i.  1. 

90 ;   i.  6.  126 ;   ii.  6.  49 ;  E.  i.  7. 

59  ;  i.  18.  54 
Canidia,  a  sorceress,  S.  1,  8.  24,  48  ; 

ii.  1.  48 ;  ii.  8.  95 
Canis,  (1)  the  Dog-star,  E.  i.  10 

16  ;  (2)  a  nickname,  S.  ii.  2.  56 
Cantaber,    adj.,   of   Cantabria,   in 

Spain,  E.  i.  12.  26 
Caiitabricus,    adj.,    of  Cantabria, 

E.  i.  18.  55 
Canusinus,  adj.,  of  Canusium,  S. 

i.  10,  30 
Canusium,  a  place  in  Apulia,  where 

they  spoke  both  Greek  and  Latin, 

S.  i.  5.  91 ;  ii.  3.  168 
Capito.    See  Fonteius' 
Capitolinus.     See  Petillius 
Cappadox,  a  Cappadocian,  living  in 

Cappadocia,    the    most    eastern 

Asiatic  province  of  the  Romans, 

E.  i.  6.  39 
Caprius,  a  public  prosecutor,  S.  i. 

4.  66 

Capua,  a  town  in  Campania,  &  L 
b.  47  ;  E.  i.  11.  11 

Cascellius,  with  praenomen  Aulus, 
an  eminent  jurist,  contemporary 
of  Cicero,  but  living  into  the 
time  of  Augustus,  A.P.  371 

Cassius,  (1)  Btruscus,  a  poet,  per- 
haps same  as  (2),  .<.  i.  10.  62  ;  (2) 
Parmeusis,  an  elegiac  poet,  one 
of  the  slayers  of  Caesar,  E.  i.  4.  3 

Castor,  (1)  brother  of  Pollux  and 
Helen,  S.  ii.  1.  26 ;  E.  ii.  1.  5  ; 
(2)  a  gladiator,  E.  i.  18.  19 

Catia,  a  shameless  woman,  S.  I.  2.  95 

Catienus,  an  actor,  S.  ii.  3.  61 

Catius,  according  to  the  scholiasts 
either  an  Epicurean  philosopher, 
or  a  writer  on  the  art  of  baking, 

5.  iL  4.  1,  88 

Cato,  (1)  the  famous  censor,  M. 
Porcius   Cato,   S.  i.    2.    32 ;   E. 


H.  S.  117 ;  A.P.  56 ;  (2)  another 
M.  Porcius  Cato,  called  Uticensis, 
because  he  killed  himself  at 
Utica,  E.  i.  19. 13,  14  ;  (3)  Valerius 
Cato,  a  grammarian  of  the  late 
Republic,  S.  i.  10.  1*  (interpo- 

Catullus,  the  famous  Roman  poet, 
87-54  B.C.,  S.  i.  10.  19 

Caudiam,  a  Samnite  town  at  the 
head  of  the  famous  Caudine 
Forks,  S.  i.  5.  51 

Celsus  Albinovanns,  a  friend  of 
Horace,  one  of  the  staff  of  Tiberius 
and  his  secretary,  E.  i.  3.  15  ;  i. 
8.  1,  17 

Ceres,  goddess  of  agriculture,  6'. 
ii.  2.  124 ;  ii.  8.  14 

Cerinthus,  a  profligate,  S.  i.  2.  81 

Cervius,  (1)  an  informer,  S.  ii.  1. 
47 ;  (2)  one  of  Horace's  country 
neighbours,  S.  ii.  6.  77 

Cethegus,  an  orator  of  the  old 
Republic,  consul  in  204  B.C.,  E. 
u.  2.  117 ;  A.P.  50 

Charybdis,  a  whirlpool  in  the 
straits  of  Messina  (see  Homer, 
Od.  xii.  81  ff^.),  A.P.  145 

Chios,  an  island  in  the  Aegean, 
E.  i.  11.  1,  21 

Choerilns,  a  poet  of  lasos  in  Caria, 
who  followed  in  the  train  of 
Alexander  the  Great  and  com- 
posed epic  verse  upon  his 
victories,  £.  ii.  1.  233  ;  ^.P.  357 

Chremes,  an  old  man  figuring  in 
the  Aniria  and  Heauton.  of 
Terence,  and  typical  of  his  form 
of  comedy,  S.  i.  10.  40  ;  A.P.  94 

Chrysippus,  a  Stoic  philosopher, 
bom  at  Soli  in  Cilicia  in  280  rc, 
S.  i.  3.  127  ;  iL  3.  44,  287  ;  E.  i.  2.  4 

Cibyraticus,  oulj.,  of  Cib3rra,  a  town 
in  southern  Phrygia,  centre  of  a 
eonventus  of  twenty-five  towns, 
E.  i.  6.  33 

Cicirrhus  Messins,  an  Oscan 
("Cicirrhus"  is  a  nickname, 
meaning  "a  cock"X  S.  i.  5.  52, 

Cicuta,  a  moneylender  (the  name 
is  probably  a  nickname,  i.e. 
"hemlock-poison"),  S.  iL  3.  69, 
175.    See  PerelUua 

Cinara,  a  girl  who  figures  in  Horace's 

lyric  poetry,  E.  I  7.   28 ;  L  14. 

Circe,    a    famous   enchantress    in 

Homer's  Odyssey  (x.  230  ff.X  E. 

L  2.  23 
Circeii,  a  promontory  in  lAtium, 

S.  ii.  4.  33 
Claudius,    t.e.    Tiberius   Claudius 

Xero,  son  of  Livia,    and    later 

emperor,  E.  i.  3.  2;  i.  12.  26 
Clazomenae,  a  town  in  Asia  Minor, 

on  the  bay  of  Smyrna,  S.  i.  7.  5 
Clusinus,     adj.,    of    Clusium,    lu 

Etruria,  E.  i.  15.  9 
Cocceius,  i.e.  M.  Cocceius  Nerva, 

consul  36  B.C.,  great-grandfather 

of  the  emperor  Kerva,  S.  L  5. 

28,  50 
Colchns,  an  inhabitant  of  Colchis 

on  the  Black  Sea,  A.P.  118 
Colophon,  a  city  of  Ionia,  on  the 

coast  of  Lydia,  E.  L  11.  3 
Copia,  Abundance  (a  personifica- 
tion), E.  i.  12.  29 
Coranus,  a  quinqnerir  who  became 

a  scriba,  S.  ii  5.  57,  64 
Coriiithus,  a  city  on  the  Isthmus 

of  Corinth,  E.  L  17.  36 ;  ii.  1.  193 
Corvinus,  S.  i.  10.  29.  See  Messalla 
Corycius,    adj.,     at    Corycus     in 

Cilicia,  S.  ii.  4.  68 
Cous,  adj.,  of  Cos,  an  island  near 

Halicarnassus  in   Caria,  S.  i.  2. 

101 ;  ii.  8.  9 
Crantor,  an  Academic  philosopher 

and  a  voluminous  writer,  E.  i.  2.  4 
Craterus,    a   physician   named    in 

Cicero's  letters  {Ad  Att.  xiL  13.  1 ; 

xii.  14.  4),  S.  ii.  3.  161 
Cratinus,  a  poet  of  the  Old  Attic 

Comedy,  S.  i.  4.  1 ;  B.  L  19.  1 
Crispinus,  a  Stoic  writer,  despised 

by  Horace,  S.  L  1.  120;  i.  3.  139; 

i.  4.  14 ;  ii.  7.  45 
Croesus,  a  wealthy  king  of  Lydia, 

E.  i.  11.  2 
Cumae,  a  town  in  Campania,  B.  L 

15.  11 
Cupiennius,     i.e.     C.    C!npiennius 

Libo  of  Cumae,  a  favourite  of 

Augustus,  S.  i.  2.  36 
Curius,   i.e.    M.   Curius   Dentatus, 

consul  290  sua,  conqueror  of  the 



Samnites,  Senones,  and  Pyrrhus, 

E.  i.  1.  64 
Curtillus,  unknown  except  from  S. 

ii.  8.  52 
Cyclops,  one  of  the  Cyclopes,  a 

one-eyed  race  of  giants,  especially 

the  Cyclops  Polyphemus,  S.  i.  5. 

63  ;  E.  ii.  2.  125  ;  A.P.  145 
Cynicus,  a  Cynic  philosopher,  E. 

i.  17.  18 

Daods,  adj.,  Dacian,  of  the  Daci,  a 
people  on  the  north  bank  of  the 
Danube,  S.  ii.  6.  53 

Dama,  a  slave-name,  S.  i.  6.  38 ;  ii. 
5.  18,  101 ;  ii.  7.  54 

Damasippus,  i.e.  Junius  Damas- 
ippus,  a  man  who  figures  in 
Cicero's  Letters  as  an  agent  in  the 
purchase  of  works  of  art  and  other 
kinds  of  property  (Ad  Att.  xii. 
29.  S3;  Adfam.  vii.  23).  Horace 
represents  him  as  a  convert  to 
Stoicism,  S.  ii.  3.  16,  64,  65,  824 

Davus,  (1)  a  slave  character  in 
Comedy,  S.  1.  10.  40 ;  u.  5.  91 ; 
A.P.  237;  (2)  a  slave  of  Horace, 
S.  ii.  7.  2,  46,  100 

December,  the  tenth  month  of  the 
Roman  year,  when  the  Saturnalia 
were  celebrated,  S.  ii.  7.  4 ;  E. 
I.  20.  27 

Decius,  i.e.  P.  Decius  Mus,  who 
devoted  himself  to  death  in  the 
Latin  War,  was  the  first  consul 
of  his  family,  the  Decian  gens 
being  plebeian,  S.  i.  6.  20 

Delphi,  seat  of  the  oracle  of  Apollo, 
A.P.  219 

Demetrius,  (1)  a  trainer  of  actresses 
(mimae),  S.  i.  10.  79,  90,  and 
probably  the  simius  of  1.  18  ;  (2) 
a  Greek  slave,  E.  i.  7.  52 

Democritus,  the  Eleatic  laughing 
philosopher  of  Abdera  in  Thrace, 
E.  i.  12.  12;  ii.  1.  194;  A.P.  297 

Diana,  sister  to  Apollo,  and  goddess 
of  the  Moon,  A.P.  16,  454 

Digentia,  a  small  river  in  the  Sabine 
country,  now  the  Licenza,  E. 
i.  18.  104 

Diomede,  or  Diomedes,  son  of 
Tydeus,  who  was  famous  as  a 
Greek  hero  at  Troy  and  later  was 


said  to  have  founded  Cannsium 

and  other  towns  in  Apulia,  S.  i. 

5.  92;  i.  7.  16;  A.P.  146 
Dionysius,  a  slave-name,  S.  i.  6.  38 
Dolichos  (al.  Docilis),  a  gladiator, 

E.  i.  18.  19 

EoERiA,  a  nymph  of  Latium  who 
became  wife  of  Numa,  S.  i.  2.  126 

Erapedocles,  a  philosopher,  bom  at 
Agrigentum  in  Sicily,  who  wrote 
a  poem  on  Nature,  E.  i.  12.  20 ; 
A.P.  465 

Ennius,  a  famous  Roman  epic  poet, 
born  at  Rudiae,  in  Calabria, 
240  B.C.,  author  of  the  Annales, 
S.  1.  10.  5i;  E.  I  19.  7 ;  IL  1.  50 ; 
A.P.  56,  259 

Epicharmus,  writer  of  Doric 
comedy,  born  at  Cos,  but  lived 
most  of  his  life  in  Sicily,  E.  ii.  1. 

Epicurus,  founder  of  the  Epicurean 
school  of  philosophy,  E.  i.  4.  16 

Epidaurius,  adj.,  of  Epidaurus, 
a  city  of  Argolis  in  Greece, 
dedicated  to  Aesculapius,  whose 
symbol  was  a  serpent,  S.  i.  3.  27 

Btruscus,  adj.,  Etruscan,  S.  1.  6. 
1 ;  i.  10.  61 

Eupolis,  a  poet  of  the  Old  Attic 
Comedy,  S.  i.  4.  1 ;  ii.  8.  12 

Eutrapelus,  i.e.  P.  Volumnius  Eu- 
trapelus,  a  knight,  and  friend  of 
Antonius,  to  whom  are  addressed 
two  of  Cicero's  letters  (Ad  fam. 
vii.  32.  33),  E.  i.  18.  31 

Evander,  the  king  of  Pallanteum, 
who  welcomed  Aeneas  to  his 
home  on  the  Palatine  Hill,  S. 
i.  3.  91 

Fabia,  adj.  (sc.  tribus),  the  Fabian 
tribe,  of  Roman  citizens,  E.  i.  6. 52 

Fabius,  a  Roman  eqites,  who  wrote 
on  Stoic  philosophy,  5.  i.  1.  14 ; 
i.  2.  134 

Fabricius,  adj.,  of  Fabricius,  who 
in  62  B.C.  built  the  bridge  con- 
necting the  Insula  Tiberina  with 
the  left  bank  of  the  Tiber,  S.  ii. 
3.  36 

Fannius,  a  vain  poet,  S.  L  4.  21 ; 
L  10.  80 


Fanni,  gods  of  the  forests,  identi- 
fied with  the  Greek  satyra,  the 
followers  of  Bacchus,  £.  i.  19.  4  ; 
A.F.  244 

Faiista,  daughter  of  the  dictator 
Sulla,  S.  i.  2.  6i 

Ferentinuni,  a  qniet  hamlet  in  the 
Alban  district,  wliere  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Latin  league  once 
assembled,  E.  L  17.  S 

Feronia,  an  Italian  goddess,  perhaps 
Etrujscan,  who  had  a  shrine  near 
Tarracina,  S.  L  5.  24 

Fescenninus,  adj.,  Fescennine,  of 
doubtful  origin.  The  Fescennina 
carmiiux  were  coarse  verses  sung 
at  rustic  festivals  and  at 
weddings,  E.  iL  1.  145 

Fidenae,  a  town  on  the  Via  Salaria, 
five  miles  from  Rome,  E.  i.  11.  8 

Flaecus,  S.  ii.  1.  18.     See  Horatins 

Flavius,  a  schoolmaster  at  Yenusia, 
S.  i.  G.  72 

Florus,  i.e.  Julius  Floras,  a  friend 
of  Horace  and  of  Tiberius,  a 
student  of  oratory  and  a  writer 
of  satires,  i.  3,  1 ;  ii  2.  1 

Fonteius  Capito,  consul  suffectus  in 
30  B.C.,  5.  L  5.  32,  38 

Fortuna,  Fortune  (personification), 
S.  ii.  2. 126 ;  u.  6.  49 ;  u.  8.  61 ;  E. 
L  1.  68 

Forum  Appi.     See  Appins 

Fufidius,  a  money-lender  of  Arpi- 
num,  with  whom  Cicero  had  deal- 
ings, 6'.  i.  2.  12 
tifius,  an  actor,  S.  ii.  3.  60 

Fulvius,  a  gladiator,  S.  iL  7.  96 

Fundanius,  a  writer  of  comedies, 
S.  i.  10.  42  ;  ii.  8.  19 

Fundi,  a  town  in  Latium  on  the 
Appian  Way,  now  Fondi,  S.  i. 
5.  34 

Furiae,  goddesses  of  vengeance,  S. 
L  8.  45 ;  ii.  3.  135 :  the  singular 
Furia,  S.  ii.  3.  141 

Furius,  i.e.  M.  Fiirius  Bibacnlus,  a 
poet  of  Cremona,  whom  Quintilian 
classes  with  Catullus  and  Horace 
as  a  writer  of  iambics  (x.  i.  96). 
See  also  Alpinus,  S.  ii.  5.  41 

Fumius,  consul  17  B.C.,  a  firiend  of 
Horace,  S.  i.  10.  86 

Fuscus.    See  Aristius 

Gabii,   an   old    town  of   Latium, 

between    Rome   and   Praeneste, 

£.  i.  11.  7;  L  15.  9;  ii.  1.  25; 

iL  2.  3 
Gaetulus,  adj.,  Gaetulian,  African, 

the   Gaetuli   bt-ing  a    people  of 

north-west  Africa,  E.  iL  2.  ISl 
Galba,  aJuriscon;<ult,  but  a  man  of 

low  morals,  S.  i.  2.  46 
Galli,  (1)  priests  of  Cybele,  S.  i.  2. 

121 ;  (2)  the  Gauls,  S.  iL  1.  14 
GaUina,   a  gladiator,   S.   iL  6.    44. 

See  Thrax 
Gallonius,  an  epicure  figuring  in 

Lucilius,  S.  iL  2.  47 
Garganus,  a  mountain  in  Apulia, 

now  Monte  di  S.  Angelo,  E.  u.  1. 

Gargilius,  a  man  who  wanted  to  be 

known  as  a  huntsman,  E.  i.  6.  58 
Gargonius,   an   unsavoury  person, 

5.  i.  2.  27 ;  i.  4.  92 
Genius,   guardian    spirit,   E.   L   7. 

94  ;  iL  1.  144 ;  iL  2.  187 ;  A.P. 

Glaucns,    the    Lycian   hero    who, 

instead  of  fighting  with  Diomedes, 

exchanged  his  golden  armour  for 

the  other's  brazen  (Homer,  Iliad 

vi.),  S.  L  7.  17 
Glycon,  a  famous  athlete,  E.  i.  1.  30 
Gnatia,    or   Egnatia,    a    town   of 

Apulia,  on  the  Adriatic  coast,  5. 

L  5.  97 
Gracchus,  an  eloquent  orator,  like 

the  famous  brothers  Gaius  and 

Tiberius     Gracchus,      the     re- 
formers, E.  iL  2.  89 
Graecia,  Greece,  £.  L  2.  7  ;  ii.  1.  93, 

Graecus,  adj.,  Greek,  S.  L  5.  3  ;  L  7, 

32  ;  L  10.  20,  31,  35,  66 ;  iL  3. 100 ; 

E.  iL  1.  90,  161 ;  ii.  2.  7;  A.P.  53, 

268,  286 
Grains,  adj.,  Greek,  E.  iL  1. 19,  28  ; 

u.  2.  42 ;  .4. P.  323 
Grosphus,  a  Roman  knight,  living 

in  Sicily,  where  he  owned  a  large 

esUte,  JS.  L  12.  22 

Hadria,  the  Adriatic,  E.  L  18.  63 
Hagne,  a  woman  loved  by  Balbinua, 

5.  i.  3.  40 
Harpyia,  a  Harpy,  a  monster  with 




a  human  head,  but  the  body  of  a 

bird,  .<?.  ii.  2.  40 
Hebrus,  a  river  of  Tlirace,    now 

Maritza,  E.  i.  3.  3  ;  i.  16.  13 
Hecate,  a  goddess    of  the   lower 

world,    and    sister    of    Latona, 

identified  with  Diana  on   earth 

and  Luni  in  heaven,  and  tliere- 

fore     represented     with     three 

heads,  S.  i.  8.  33 
Hector,  eldest  son  of  Priam,  chief 

hero  of  Troy,  slain  by  Achilles, 

S.  i.  7.  12 
Helena,  wife  of  Menelaus,  carried 

off  by  Paris  to  Troy,  S.  i.  3.  107 
Helicon,     famous     mountain     in 

Boeotia,  abode  of  the  Muses,  E. 

ii.  1.  118  ;  A. P.  296 
Heliodonis,  a  rhetorician,   known 

only  from  S.  i.  5.  2.     See  p.  63 
Hellas,   a  girl    murdered   by    her 

lover  Marius,  S.  ii.  3.  277 
Hercules,     son     of     Jupiter     and 

Alcmena,     renowned      for     his 

"Labours,"  E.  i.  1.  5 ;  sometimes, 

like  Mercury,  regarded  as  a  god 

of  gain,  S.  ii.  6.  13 
Hermogenes  Tigelliiis,  a  singer  and 

poet  despised  by  Horace,  S.  i.  3. 

129 ;  i.  4.  72  ;  i.  9.  25  ;  i.  10.  18,  SO, 

90.    See  Tigellius  and  p.  54,  note  *> 
Herodes,  i.e.  Herod  the  Great,  who 

derived  a  large  revenue  from  the 

palm-groves  of  Judaea,  especially 

about  Jericho,  E.  ii.  2.  184 
Hiberus,    adj.,    Iberian,    Spanish, 

thepiscis  Hiberus  was  the  scom- 
ber or  mackerel,  S.  ii.  8.  46 
Homerus,  the  Greek  epic  poet  ;  S. 

i.  10.  52;  E.  i.  19.  6;  ii.  1.  50; 

A. P.  74,  359,  401  (c/.  E.  i.  2.  1) 
Horatius,    i.e.    Quintus    Horatius 

Fiaccus,  the  poet,  E.  i.  14.  5.   See 

Flaccus  and  Quintus 
Hydaspes,  an  Indian  slave,  named 

from  tlie  river  Hydaspes,  now 

Djelun,  S.  ii.  8.  14 
Hydra,  a  seven-headed  snake,  killed 

by  Hercules,  E.  ii.  1.  10 
Hymettius,  adj.,  of  Ilymettus,   a 

mountain  of  Attica,  .S.  ii.  2.  15 
Hypsaea,  a  blind  woman,  who  is 

said  to  have  also  had  tlie  name 

Plotia  or  Plautia,  S.  i.  2.  91 


Ianus,  a  two-faced  Italian  deity, 
god  of  beginnings,  entrances,  and 
undertakings,  whose  temple,  said 
to  have  been  built  originally  by 
Numa,  stood  in  the  Argiletum, 
north  of  ths  Roman  Forum.  It 
was  opened  on  the  declaration  of 
war,  but  kept  closed  in  time  of 
peace.  S.  ii.  6.  20 ;  E.  i.  16.  59 ; 
i.  20.  1 ;  ii.  1.  255.  Certain  arches 
in  the  Forum  itself  also  went  by 
the  name  of  Ianus,  and  were  the 
centre  of  the  banking  business  of 
Rome,  S.  ii.  3.  18;  E.  i.  1.  54 

larbila,  a  Moor,  E.  1.  19.  15 

Iccius,  a  friend  of  Horace,  pro- 
curator of  Agrippa's  estates  in 
Sicily,  E.  i.  12.  1  (c/.  Odes  i.  29) 

Idus,  the  Ides,  the  middle  of  the 
Roman  month,  the  fifteenth  day 
in  March,  May,  July,  October ; 
the  thirteenth  in  the  other 
months,  .S.  1.  6.  75 

Ilerda,  atown  in  Spain,  now  Lerida, 
E.  i.  20.  13 

Ilia,  mother  of  Romulus  and 
Remus,  S.  1.  2.  126 

Iliacus,  adj.,  of  Ilion,  Trojan;  E. 
i.  2.  16;  A.P.  129 

Iliona  or  Ilione,  eldest  daughter  of 
Priam,  wifeof  Polymnestor,  king 
of  Thrace,  wliose  son  Deiphilus 
was  killed  by  his  father.  This 
furnished  the  subject  of  the 
tragedy  Ilione  by  Pacuwus.  S. 
ii.  3.  61 

Indi,  inhabitants  of  India,  E.  i.  1. 
45  ;  i.  6.  6 

Ino,  daughter  of  Cadmus  and  wife 
of  Athamas,  who,  after  her  hus- 
band went  mad  and  toie  one  of 
her  children  to  pieces,  was 
changed  into  a  sea-goddess,  A.P. 

lo,  daughter  of  Inachus,  loved  by 
Jupiter  and  changed  by  Juno  into 
a  heifer,  A.P.  124 

Italia,  Italy,  S.  i.  6.  85;  E.  i.  12. 

Italus,  adj.,  Italian,  S.  i.  7.  82; 
ii.  6.  56 ;  E.  1.  18.  57 ;  ii.  1.  2 

Ithaca,  Ithaca,  an  island  off  the 
west  coast  of  Greece,  S.  iL  5.  4; 
B.  i.  7.  41 


Ithacensb,  adj.,  of  Ithaca,  E.  L  6. 

[adaena,  adj.,  of  Judaea,  used  a«  a 

noon,  a  Jew;  pi.  the  Jews,  S. 

i.  4.  143 ;  L  5.  100 ;  L  9.  70 
lolios,  possibly  a  freedman  of  Julias 

Caesar,  &  L  8.  39 
lolios  Floms.    See  Floras 
lano,  danghter  of  Satoin  and  wife 

of  Jupiter,  &  L  3.  11 
lappiter,  son  of  Saturn  and  king 

of  the  gods,  S.  L  1.  20 ;  L  i  18 ; 

a.  1.  43 ;  iL  3.  288 ;  £.  i  1.  106  ; 

i.  12.  3 :  i.  16.  29 ;  L  17.  34 ;  i.  18. 

Ill ;  L  19.  43 ;  iL  L  16,  68.    See 

Ixion,   king  of  the  Lapithae  and 

&ther  of  Pirithous.    Called  per- 

Jidtu,  because,  after  being  kindlj 

treated  by  Jupiter,  he  tried  to 

dishonour  Juno,  A.  P.  124 

KAI.KXOAJC,  first  day  of  the  month, 
one  of  the  regular  days  for  the 
settling  of  debts,  S.  L  3.  87 

Earthago,  Carthage,  5.  ii.  1.  66 

LiABEO,     «.e.     according     to     the 

scholiasts,   M.  Antistins  Labeo, 

a  Jniisconsult,  5.  L  3.  82 
Laberins,    a    Boman  knight,  who 

composed  mimes  in  the  time  of 

Julius  Caesar,  S.  L  la  6 
Laelius,  «.«.  C.  Laelins  Sapiens,  a 

friend  of  Scipio  and  Terence,  S. 

ii.  1.  65,  72 
Laertiades,  the  son  of  Laertes,  i.€. 

Ulysses,  S.  iL  5.  59.    See  Ulixes 
Laerinus,  t.e.  P.  Valerias  Laerinus, 

a  man  of  high  birth  but  poor 

character,  S.  L  6.  12,  19 
Lamia,  (1)  a  witch  who  preyed  on 

children,  a  vampire,  A. P.  340; 

(2)  L.  Aelins  Lamia,  a  friend  of 

Horace,  B.  i.  14.  6  (see  Odts  iii. 

17.  1  ff.) 
Lares  (also  sing.  Lar),  tutelar  d«  ties 

of  the  hearth,  5.  L  5.  66 ;  iL  3. 

165 ;  ii.  5.  14 ;  iL  6.  66 
Latinae(K.  feriae),  the  Latin  games, 

the  days  for  which  wereappointed 

annu^y  by  the  consuls,  E.i.  7. 

Latin  us,  (1)  Latinns,  kingof  Latinm, 

whose  danghter  I.arinia  became 
the  wife  of  Aeneas,  S  L  iO.  S7 
(reading  Latini) ,  (2)  adj.,  ].atin, 
S.  L  10.  20 ,  E.  i.  3.  12 ;  L  19.  32 ; 
iL  2.  143;  adv.  Latins,  5.  L  10.  S7 

Latiom,  the  plain  between  tlie 
lower  Tiber  and  C^unpania,  E. 
L  19.  24;  iL  L  157;  iL  2.  121; 
^.P.  290 

Laurens,  adj., of  Laurentum,  capital 
of  latium,  5.  IL  4.  42 

Larema,  goddess  of  thieves,  B. 
L  16.  60 

Lebedu-s,  a  town  of  Ionia,  neax 
Colophon,  in  Asia  Minor,  de- 
stroyed )>y  Lysiroachus  after  the 
battle  of  Ipsus  (301  B.C.),  B.  L  IL 

Leo,  constellation  of  the  Lion, 
E.  L  10.  16 

Lepidus,  i.e.  Q.  Aemilius  Lepidns, 
one  of  the  consuls  of  21  B.a,  E. 
L  20.  28 

Lepos,  a  fionous  mime  actor,  & 
ii.  6.  72 

Lesbos,  Uie  island  of  Lesbos,  in  the 
A^aaan,  famous  tat  its  beauty, 
its  climate,  its  wine,  its  art,  and 
its  literature,  E.  L  11.  1 

Liber,  the  same  as  6acchn.s,  5.  L  4. 
89 ;  £.  i.  19.  4 ;  ii.  1.  5 

Libitina,  goddess  of  death,  S.  iL  flw 
19 ;  £.  iL  L  49 

Libo,  as  in  jmUal  LibofiU,  "  Libo's 
well,"  a  well-head  in  the  Forom, 
near  the  Arch  of  Fabins,  where  a 
tribunal  was  first  set  up  by  one 
Libo,  JB.  L  19.  8 ;  ef.  S.  ii.  6.  35 

Libya,  the  northern  part  of  Africa, 
S.  iL  3. 101 

Libycns,  adj.,  of  Libya,  E.  L  10. 19 

Licinns,  a  barber,  A.P.  SOI 

Linns  (Andronicus),  who  first 
brought  ont  a  play  in  Ri>me  in 
240  B.C.,  and  translated  the 
Odgtteg  into  Satornian  verse,  E. 
iL  1.  62,  69 

Lollios,  (1)  i.«.  IL  Lollins,  consul 
in    21    B.a,    £    L    20l    28;   (2) 

-  Lollios  Maximos,  probably  a 
relative  of  the  former,  who  served 
under  Augnstos  in  tiie  Cantabrian 
campaign,  25  B.C.,  &  L  L  1 ;  L 
18.  1 



Iiongarenus,  unknown  except  from 

S.  i.  2.  67 
Lacania,  a  district  of  lower  Italy, 

S.  li.  1.  38 
Lucanus,  culj.,  of  Lncania,  S.  ii.  1. 

34  ;  ii.  3.  234  ;  ii.  8.  6  ;  JS.  i.  15.  21 ; 

ii.  2.  178 
Lucilius,  i.e.  C.  Lucilius,  friend  of 

Scipio,    writer    of   satires,    who 

lived  about  180  to  103  B.C.,  S.  i. 

4.  6,  57 ;  i.  10.  1*  (interpolated 
lines) ;  i.  10.  2,  53,  56,  64  ;  ii.  1. 
17,  29,  62,  75 

Lncrinus,  adj.,  of  the  Lucrine  lake, 
in  Campania,  S.  ii.  4.  32 

LucuUus,  i.e.  h.  Licinius  Lucullus, 
general  against  Mithridates,  ex- 
tremely wealthy,  E.  i.  6.  40 ;  ii. 
2.  26 

Lupus,  i.e.  L.  Cornelius  Lentuhig 
Lupus,  consul  156  B.C.,  who  was 
assailed  by  Lucilius,  S.  ii.  1.  68 

LycAnibes,  the  father  of  Neobule, 
who  betrothed  hertoArchilochus, 
but  later  broke  his  word.  The 
poet's  invectives  caused Lycambes 
to  hang  himself.  E.  i.  19."25.  See 
Epode  vi.  13 

Lydi,  the  Lydians,  by  whom  Etruria 
is  said  to  have  been  settled,  S. 
1.  6.  1 

Lymphae,  nymphs  of  the  springs, 

5.  i.  5.  97 

Lynceus,  one  of  the  Argonauts,  son 
of  Apliareus  and  brotlier  of  Ida, 
possessed  of  very  keen  sight,  S. 
i.  2.  90 ;  E.  i.  1.  28 

Lysippus,  a  famous  Greek  sculptor 
of  the  fourth  century  b.c.,  E. 
ii.  1.  240 

Maecenas,  a  Roman  knight,  friend 

of    Augustus,     and     patron    of 

Horace,  S.  i.  1.  1 ;  i.  3.  64 ;  i.  6. 

27,  31,  48;  i.  6.  1 ;  i.  9.  43;  i.  10. 

81 ;  ii.  8.  312 ;  ii.  6.  31,  38,  41  ;  ii. 

7.  33  ;  ii.  8.  16,  22 ;  E.  i.  1.  3 ;  i. 

7.  5  ;  i.  19.  1 
Maecius,  i.e.  Spurius Maecius  Tarpa, 

a  critic  of  the  drama  known  to 

Cicero  (Ad  fam.  vii.  1),  A.P.  387 
Maenius,  a  spendthrift,  who  figured 

in  Lucilius,  S.  i.  3.  21 ;  E.  i.  15. 



Maia,  mother  of  Mercury,  and 
daughter  of  Atlas,  S.  ii.  6.  5 

Maltinus(f<i.Malchinu8),  an  effemin- 
ate person,  S.  i.  2.  25.     See  p.  17 

Mamurra,  a  Roman  knight  of 
Formiae,  a  favourite  of  Caesar's, 
wlio  amassed  great  wealth,  S.  i. 
5.  37 

Manes,  the  spirits  of  the  departed, 
the  gods  below,  S.  i.  8.  29  ;  E. 
ii.  1.  138 

Marius,  a  man  who  murdered  his 
mistress  and  then  committed 
suicide,  S.  ii.  3.  277 

Marsaeus,  lover  of  Origo,  S.  i.  2.  56 

Marsya,  Marsyas,  a  satyr,  who 
challenged  Apollo  to  a  musical 
contest  and,  being  defeated,  was 
flayed  alive.  A  statue  of  Marsyas 
stood  in  the  Forum  near  the 
Rostra.  Either  the  expression 
of  pain  or  the  uplifted  arm  is  re- 
ferred to  in  S.  i.  6.  120  f. 

Martins,  adj.;  of  Mars,  the  god  of 
war.  A.P.  402 

Matutinus,  adj.,  belonging  to  the 
morning,  or  used  as  a  noun,  god 
of  the  morning,  a  term  applied 
to  lanus,  S.  ii.  6.  20 

Maximus,  E.  i.  2.  1.    See  Lollius 

Medea,  the  sorceress,  daughter  of 
Aeetes  in  Colchis,  whence  she 
fled  with  Jason  the  Argonaut, 
who  afterwards  deserted  her. 
She  then  slew  their  common 
children.  This  is  the  subject  of 
the  Med-ea  of  Euripides.  A.P. 
123,  185 

Meleager,  son  of  Oeneus  and 
Althaea,  was  the  half-brother  of 
Tydeus  (son  of  Periboea),  father 
or  Diomedes.  He  was  cursed  by 
his  mother  for  the  death  of  his 
two  brothers,  and  her  Erinnys 
pursued  him  to  his  death.  A.P. 

Memnon,  son  of  Tithonus  and 
Aurora  and  king  of  the  Ethi- 
opians. His  death  at  the  hands 
of  Achilles  was  the  subject  of 
the  Aethiopis  of  Arctinus,  a 
cyclic  poet.    S.  i.  10.  36 

Mena,  or  Menas,  a  name  contracted 
from  the  Greek  Menodorua.    He 


was  a  freednian,  and  took  the 
Roman  genti  le  name  Voltt  ivs  from 
his  patron.  B.  L  7.  55,  61.  See 

Menander,  famous  writer  of  the 
New  Attic  Comedy,  lived  from 
342  to  290  B.a,  S.  ii.  3.  11 ;  E. 
iL  1.  57 

Menelaus,  son  of  Atreus,  brother  of 
Agamemnon,  and  husband  of 
Helen,  S.  ii.  3.  198.    See  Atrides 

Menenius,  a  roadman,  5.  ii.  3.  287 

MercuriaUs,  adj.,  of  Mercury,  the 
god  of  gain,  5.  ii.  3.  25 

Mercurins.  Mercury,  son  of  Jupiter 
and  Maia,  and  messenger  of  the 
gods,  god  of  gain  and  good 
luck,  S.  ii  3.  68  ((/.  ii.  6.  5) 

Uessalla,  a  name  associated  with 
the  aristocratic  Valerian  gens. 
M.  Valerius  MessaUa  Corvinus, 
orator  and  historian,  was  consul 
in  31  B.C.,  and  triumphed  over 
the  Aqoitani  in  27  b.c.  He  had 
a  brother,  L.  Gelliiis  Pnblicola, 
who  was  consul  in  36  b.  a  S. 
L  6.  42;  i.  10.  85;  A. P.  371 

Hessius,  &  i.  5.  52,  54.  SeeCicirrhns 

Metella,  perhaps  Caecilia  Metella, 
divorced  wife  of  P.  Comehns 
Lentolns  Spinther,  5.  ii.  3.  239 

Metellus,  t.*.  Q.  Caecilius  Metellns 
Macedonicus,  consul  143  b.c., 
political  opponent  of  Scipio,  S. 
ii.  1.  67 

Methynmaens,  adj.,  of  MethjTnna, 
a  town  in  Lesbos,  S.  ii.  8.  50 

Miletus,  a  city  of  Ionia  in  Asia 
Minor,  E.  i.  17.  30 

Milonius,  according  to  PorphjTio, 
a  seurra  or  parasite,  S.  ii.  1.  24 

Himnennus,  an  elegiac  poet  of 
Colophon,  of  the  sixth  century 
B.C.,  E.  i.  6.  65;  ii.  2.  101 

Minerva,  goddess  of  wisdom,  patro- 
ness of  arts  and  science,  S.  ii.  2. 
3  ;  A. P.  385 

Mintumae,  a  town  on  the  borders 
of  Latinm  and  Campania,  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Liris,  £.  i.  5.  5 

Minucius,  who  gave  his  name  to 
the  Via  Minucia,  which  ran  from 
Bmndisiom  to  Beneventum,  E. 

Misenom,  a  promontory  of  Cam 
pania,  north  of  the  bay  of  Naples, 
S.  ii.  4.  33 

Mitylene,  capital  of  Lesbos,  E.  L 
11.  17 

Molossus,  adj.,  of  the  Molossians, 
who  lived  in  Eastern  Epims,  8. 
ii.  6.  114 

Moschus,  a  rhetorician  from  Per- 
gamum,  who  was  tried  for  poison- 
ing, £.  L  5.  9 

Mucins,  a  famous  lawyer,  probably 
P.  Mucins  Scaevola,  consul  in  133 
B.a,  or  his  son  Q.  Mucius 
Scaevola,  consul  in  95  b.c.,  £.  ii. 
2.  89 

Mulvius,  a  parasite,  S.  ii.  7.  36 

Munatius,  son  of  L.  Munatina 
Plancus,  the  consul  of  42  B.& 
(see  Odes  i.  7.  19 ;  iiL  14.  28) ;  E. 
i.  3.  31 

Mnrena,  Cc.  L.  Licinins  Mnrena, 
brother-in-law  of  Maecenas,  S.  i, 

5.  38 

Mosa,  (1)  a  Muse,  S.  L  5.  53 ;  ii.  3. 

105  ;  ii.  6. 17  ;  £.  i.  3.  13  ;  i.  8.  2; 

i.  19.  2S ;  ii.  1.  27,  133,  243 ;  iL 

2.   92;    A.P.   83,   141,   324,   407; 

(2)  Musa  Antonius.  See  Autonius 
Mutns,  unknown  elsewhere,  E.  i, 

6.  22 

Nakvius,  (1)  *  spendthrift,  S.  L  1. 
101 ;  S.  ii.  2.  i>8  (perhaps  not  the 
same) ;  (2)  a  poet  from  Campania 
of  the  third  century  B.C.  (he  wrote 
dramas  and  also  an  epic,  the 
BeUum  Pvnicum,  this  last  in 
Satumian  verse),  E.  ii.  1.  53 

Nasica,  a  man  who,  being  in  debt 
to  Coranus,  gave  him  his  daughter 
in  marriage,  S.  ii.  5.  57,  65,  67 

Kasidienus,  Rufns  (probably  a 
fictitious  nameX  a  wealthy  up- 
start, S.  U.  8,  1,  58,  75,  84 

Natta,  a  stingy  person,  S.  i.  6.  124 

Xeptunus,  Neptune,  god  of  the  sea, 
E.  i.  11.  10;  A.P.  64 

Nero,  t.e.  Tiberius  Claudius  Nero, 
£.  L  8.  2 ;  i.  9.  4 ;  L  12.  26 ;  ii, 
2.  1.    See  Claudius 

Nestor,  son  of  Neleus,  king  of 
Pylu-s,  oldest  of  the  Greeks  before 
Troy,  B.i.%n 




Nomentanus,  (l)a  spendthrift,  who 

figures  in  Lucilius,  S.  i.  1.  102 ; 

18.  U  ;  ii.  1.  22 ;  ii.  3.  175,  224  ; 

(2)  a  parasite,  S.  ii.  8.  23,  25,  60 
Novius,  a  money-lender,  one  of  two 

brothers,  S.  i.  3.  21 ;  i.  6.  40 ;  i. 

6.  121 
Numa,      i.e.     Numa     Pompilms, 

second  king  of   Rome,  E.  i.   6. 

27  ;  ii.  1.  86 
Numicius,  unknown,  E.  i.  6.  1 

OcTAViua,  a  poet  and  historian, 
friend  of  Horace,  S.  i.  10.  82 

Ofellus,  a  country  neighbour  of 
Horace's,  S.  ii.  2.  2,  53,  112,  133 

Olympia,  the  Olympic  games,  cele- 
brated every  four  years  at  Olym- 
pia, in  Elis,  E.  i.  1.  50 

Opimius,  a  miser,  S.  ii.  3.  142 

Oppidius,  i.e.  Servius  Oppidius,  a 
man  of  Canusium  who  had  two 
sons,  Aulus  and  Tiberius,  S.  ii. 
3.  168,  171,  173 

Orbilius,  a  native  of  Benevenlum, 
who  set  up  a  school  there,  and 
later  in  Rome,  E.  ii.  1.  71 

Orbius,  a  rich  landowner,  E.  ii.  2. 

Orcus  a  god  of  the  lower  world. 
Death,  S.  ii.  5.  49  ;  E.  ii.  2.  178 

Orestes,  son  of  Agamemnon  and 
Clytemnestra.  He  killed  his 
mother  and  was  driven  mad  by 
the  Furies.  S.  ii.  3.  133,  137; 
A.P.  124 

Origo,  a  mima,  or  actress,  S.  i.  2. 

Orpheus,  a  mythical  bard  of  Thrace, 
whose  song  charmed  wild  beasts, 
A.P.  392 
Oscus,  adj.,  Oscan,  of  the  Oscans, 
a  primitive  people  of  Italy,  S.  i. 

5.  54 
Osiris,  an  Egyptian  deity,  husband 
of  Isis,  E.  i.  17.  60 

Pacideianus,  agladiator, "  the  best 

that  ever    lived,"   according   to 

Lucilius,  S.  ii.  7.  97 
Pacuvius,     a     famous     writer    of 

tragedies,  nephew  of  Eunius,  E. 

ii.  1.  56.    See  Ilione 


Palatinus,   adj.,   of  the  Palathie, 
where  Augustus  in  28  b.c.  dedi- 
cated a  temple  to  Apollo,  with  a 
public  library,  E.  i.  3.  17 
Pantilius,  unknown,  S.  i.  10.  78 
Pantolabus,  a  parasite.     The  name 
is    probably    coined    for    satire 
{ttolv +\a^eii',  "  all-receiver  "),  S. 
i.  8.  11 ;  ii.  1.  22 
Paris,  son  of  Priam  and  Hecuba, 
who  carried  off  Helen,   wife  of 
Menelaus,  and  so  led  to  the  Trojan 
war,  E.  i.  2.  6,  10 
Parius,  adj.,  of  Paros,  an  island  of 
the    Cyclades    in   the    Aegaean, 
famous  for  its  marble  and  as  the 
birtliplace  of  Archilochus,  E.  i. 
19.  23 
Parmensis.     See  Cassius 
Parthus,  a  Parthian.   TheParthians 
lived  north-east  of  the  Caspian 
Sea,  S.  ii.  1.  15 ;  ii.  5.  62 ;  E.  i. 
18.  66 ;  ii.  1.  112,  256 
Paulus,  a  cognomen  of  the  Aemilian 
gens,     to    which     belonged     L. 
Aemilius  Paulus,   consul  in   216 
B.C.  ;  his   son,  the  conqueror  of 
Perseus,  and  the  younger  Scipio 
Africanus,  the  latter's  son,  S.  i. 
6.  41 
Pausiacus,  adj.,  of  Pausias,  a  Greek 
painter  from  Sicyon,  contempor- 
ary   of   Apelles    in    the    fourth 
century  B.C.,  S.  ii.  7.  95 
Pedanus,  adj.,  of  Pedum,  a  town 
between   Xibur   and    Praeneste, 
E.  i.  4.  2 
Pediatia,  a  feminine  name  given  in 
contempt  to    one    Pediatius,    a 
Roman  knight  who  had  lost  both 
fortune  and  repute,  S.  i.  8.  39 
Pedius,  an  orator,  probably  the  son 
of  Q.  Pedius,  who  was  consul  in 
43  B.C.,  S.  i.  10.  28 
Peleus  (the  subject  of  a  tragedy  by 
Sophocles),   son  of  Aeacus,  was 
driven  from  Aegina  for  the  murder 
of  his  half-brother  Phocus,  A.P. 
96,  104 
Pelides,  son  of  Peleus,  Achilles,  E. 

i.  2.  12.     See  Achilles 
Penates,    the    Penates,   household 
gods,  S.  ii.  3.  176  ;  E.  i.  7.  94 
I    Penelope,    the     faithful    wife    of 


Ulysses,  5.  U.  5.  76,  81 ;  £.  i.  2. 


Pentheus,  king  of  Thebes,  torn  in 
pieces  by  his  mother  Agave 
because  he  had  mocked  at  the 
rites  of  Bacchus,  E.  i.  16.  73. 
See  Agave 

Perellius,  a  banker,  perhaps  the 
'  same  as  Cicuta,  5.  ii.  3.  75 

Persius,  a  wealthy  man  of  Clazo- 
menae,  bom  of  a  Greek  father  and 
a  Roman  mother,  S.  i.  7.  2,  4,  19, 

Petillius  Capitolinns,  said  to  have 
been  accused  of  stealing  the  gold 
crown  from  the  statue  of  Jupiter 
on  the  Capitol,  and  to  have  been 
acquitted  by  Caesar.  The  story 
is  an  exaggeration,  because  the 
name  Capitolinus,  which  is  said 
to  have  been  given  Petillius  be- 
cause of  the  charge,  was  a  cogno- 
men of  the  Petillia  gens,  and  the 
crime  of  stealing  the  crown  of 
Jupiter  is  proverbial  in  the  plays 
of  Plautus.     S.  i.  4.  94 ;  L  10.  26 

Petrinus,  a  town  in  the  Falemian 
district,  E.  i.  5.  5 

Phaeax,  a  Phaeacian.  The  Phae- 
acians  were  mythic  inhabitants 
of  Corcyra,  subjects  of  Alcinous, 
and  living  in  luxury,  E.  1.  15.  24 

Philippi,  a  town  of  Macedonia, 
now  Filibi,  where  Brutus  and 
Cassius  were  defeated  by  Oc- 
tavius  and  Antony,  42  b.c.,  E. 
ii.  2.  49 

Philippus,  (1)  L.  Marcius  Philip- 
pus,  consul  91  B.C.,  a  distin- 
gnished  lawyer,  £.  i.  7.  46,  52, 
64,  66,  78,  89,  90  ;  (2)  a  gold  coin, 
the  Macedonian  stater,  bearing 
the  head  of  Philip  the  Great, 
worth  rather  more  than  one 
guinea,  or  five  dollars,  E.  ii.  1.  234 

Philodemus,  of  Gadara,  poet  and 
Epicurean  philosopher,  who  lived 
at  Rome  in  the  time  of  Cicero, 
S.  L  2.  121 

Phraates,  king  of  the  Parthians, 
who  in  20-19  B.&  restored  to  the 
Romans  the  standards  taken 
from  Crassos  at  Charrae,  E.  i. 
IS.  37 

Picenns,  adj.,  of  Picennm,  a  di» 
trict  of  Italy  on  the  Adriatic, 
S.  ii  3.  272  ;  ii.  4.  70 

Pieriu-s,  adj.,  Pierian,  Thessalian, 
from  Pieria  in  Thessaly,  haunted 
by  the  Muses,  A.  P.  405 

Pindaricus,  adj.,  of  Pindar,  from 
Thebes  in  Boeotia,  greatest  of 
the  Greek  lyric  poets,  £.  i.  3. 

Pisones  or  Pisos,  a  father  and  two 
sons,  to  whom  the  Ars  Poetica  is 
addressed.  According  to  Por- 
phyrio,  the  father  was  L.  Cal- 
pumius  Piso,  praefedus  urbi  in 
A.  V.  14.  Others  hold  that  he  waa 
Cn.  Calpumius  Piso,  who,  like 
Horace,  fought  under  Brutus 
and  Cassius  at  Philippi.  He  had 
a  son,  Cneius,  who  was  consul 
7  B.C.,  and  another  Lucius,  who 
was  consul  in  1  b.c.  A. P.  6,  235. 
See  Pompilius 

Pitholeon,  according  to  Bentley 
the  same  as  Pitholaus,  who 
libelled  Julius  Caesar  in  his 
verses  (Suetonius,  ItUiiis,  75), 
S.  i.  10.  22 

Plato,  (1)  the  comic  poet,  repre- 
sentative of  Attic  Middle 
Comedy,  S.  ii.  3.  11 ;  (2)  cele- 
brated Greek  philosopher,  dis- 
ciple of  Socrates,  5.  ii.  4.  3 

Plautinus,  adj.,  of  Plautus,  A.P. 

Plautus,  Roman  comic  poet,  who 
died  in  184  b.c.  ;  E.  ii.  1.  58,  170 ; 
A.P.  64 

Plotius,  i.e.  Plotius  Tucca,  friend 
of  Virgil  and  Horace.  He  and 
Varius  were  Virgil's  literary 
executors.    S.  i.  5.  40  ;  1.  10.  81 

Polemon,  a  luxurious  Athenian 
youth,  reformed  by  Xenocrates, 
whom  he  succeeded  as  head  of 
the  Academic  school  of  philo- 
sophy, 5.  ii.  3.  254 

PoUio,  i.e.  C.  Asinius  PoUio,  dis- 
tinguished as  statesman,  orator, 
historian,  and  tragic  poet,  S. 
i.  10.  42,  85 

Pollux,  twin  brother  of  Castor, 
E.  ii.  1.  5  (c/.  S.  ii.  L  26) 

Pompeius  Grosphns.  See  Orosphns 



Pompilius,  adj.,  Pompilian.  The 
Calpurnian  gens,  to  which  the 
Pisones  belonged,  claimed  de- 
scent from  Numa  Pompilius, 
second  king  of  Rome.     A. P.  292 

Pomponius,  a  dissolute  youth,  S. 

1.  4.  52 

Porcius,  a  parasite  of  Nasidienus. 
Tlie  name  is  probably  fictitious 
and  chosen  for  its  meaning 
(porcus,  a  pig),  S.  ii.  8.  23 

Praeneste,  an  ancient  city  of 
Latium,  now    Palestrina,    E.   i. 

2.  2 

Praenestinus,   adj.,   of    Praeneste, 

i.'.  i.  7.  28 
Priamides,  son  of  Priam,  Hector, 

.«!.  i.  7.  12 
Priamus,  Priam,  king  of  Troy,  S. 

ii.  3.  195 ;  A. P.  137 
Priapus,  god  of  gardens  (his  image 

served  as  a  kind  of  scarecrow), 

S.  i.  8.  2 
Priscus,  a  changeable  person,   S. 

ii.  7.  9 
Procne,  wife  of  Tereus  and  sister 

of  Philomela,   changed    into    a 

swallow,  A. P.  1S7 
Proserpina,  daughter  of  Ceres  and 

wife  of  Pluto,  S.  ii.  5.  110 
Proteus,   a  sea-god,  who  had  the 

power  of  changing  himself  into 

all  kinds  of  forms,  S.  ii.  3.  71 ; 

E.  i.  1.  90 
Publicola,  cognomen  of  Q.  Pedius, 

S.  i.  10.  28,  though  some  take  it 

there  with  Corvinus.     See  Mes- 

Publius,  a  praenomen,  S.  ii.  6.  32 
Pupius,  a  tragic  poet,  E.  1.  1.  67 
Pusilla,   a  pet    name    for    a    girl, 

meaning  "  tiny,"  S.  ii.  3.  216 
Puteal.     See  Libo 
Pylades,  faithful  friend  of  Orestes, 

S.  ii.  3.  139 
Pyrria,     a     maid  -  servant     who 

figured   in  a  togata  of  Titinius, 

E.  i.  13.  14 
Pythagoras,  a  philosopher  of  Samos 

of  the  sixth  century  b.  c,   who 

believed  in  the  transmigration  of 

souls,  S.  ii.  4.  3  ;  ii.  6.  63 
Pythagoreus,  adj.,  of  Pythagoras, 

E.  ii  1,  52 


Pythia,  the  Pythian  games,  cele 
brated  every  five  years  at  Delphi 
in  honour  of  Apollo,  A.P,  414 

Pythias,  a  maid  figuring  as  a  char- 
acter in  a  play  of  Caecilius,  A.P. 

QuiNCTios,  unknown  except  firom  B. 
i.  16.  1 

Quinquatrus,  a  festival  of  five  days 
in  honour  of  Minerva,  beginning 
on  March  19th,  during  which 
school-boys  had  holidays,  E.  ii. 
2.  197 

Quintilius,  i.e.  Quintilius  Varus,  of 
Cremona,  a  friend  of  Virgil  and 
Horace  (see  Odes  i.  24),  A.P.  438 

Quintus,  (1)  Horace's  own  praeno- 
men, S.  ii.  6  37 ;  (2)  an  ordinary 
praenomen,  S.  ii.  8.  243 ;  ii.  5.  32 

Quirinus,  i.e.  Romulus,  representa- 
tive of  the  Roman  people,  S. 
i.  10.  32 

Quiris,  a  Roman  citizen,  E.  i.  6.  7 

Ramnes,  one  of  the  three  centuries 
of  equites  or  knights  established 
by  Romulus.  They  represent 
the  equites  of  Horace's  day,  and 
stand  for  youngmen  as  contrasted 
with  old.     ^.P.  342 

Rex,  i.e.  Rupilius  Rex,  of  Praeneste, 
who  served  in  Africa  under  Attius 
Verus,  became  Praetor  under 
Julius  Caesar,  and  later  joined 
the  army  of  Brutus,  S.  i.  7.  1,  6, 
6,  9,  19,  25,  35 

Rhenus,  the  river  Rhine,  S.  1.  10. 
37;  A.P.  18 

Rhodius,  adj.,  of  Rhodes,  S. 
i.  10.  22 

Rhodos,  the  island  of  Rhodes,  off 
the  south  -  west  coast  of  Asia 
Minor,  E.  i.  11.  17,  21 

Roma,  Rome,  S.  i.  5.  1 ;  i.  6.  76 ; 
ii.  1.  59  ;  ii.  6.  23  ;  ii.  7.  13,  2S ;  E. 
i.  2.  2 ;  i.  7.  44 ;  i.  8.  12 ;  i.  11. 
11,  21  ;  i.  14.  17 ;  i.  16.  18 ;  i.  20. 
10;  ii.  1.  61,  103,  256;  ii.  2.  41, 
65,  87 

Romanus,  adj.,  Roman,  S.  i.  4. 
85;  i.  6.  48;  ii.  1.  37;  ii.  2.  10, 
52;  ii.  4. 10;  ii.  7.  54;  E.  i.  1.  70; 
1.  3.  9  ;  1.  12.  25  ;   1.  18.  49 ;  IL  1. 


29;  {£  2.  M;  A.P.  54,  118,  264, 
285,  325 

Romulus,  the  mythical  founder  of 
Rome,  E.  ii.  1.  5.    See  Quirinus 

Roscius,  (1)  a  person  unknown,  5. 
U.  6.  35 ;  (2)  the  great  actor,  a 
friend  of  Cicero,  E.  ii.  1.  82 ;  (3) 
adj.,  Roscian.  The  Roscian  Law, 
passed  by  L.  Roscius  Otho  in 
67  ac,  gave  the  first  fourteen 
rows  in  the  theatre  to  the  equites, 
who  had  to  have  a  property 
minimum  of  400,000  sesterces,  E. 
i.  1.  62 

Rnbi,  now  Ruvo,  a  town  about 
thirty  miles  from  Canusium,  S. 
i.  5.  94 

Rufa,  a  pet  name  for  a  girl  (  =  "  red- 
hi^ded  "),  5.  ii.  3.  216 

Rutillus,  an  unknown  fop,  S.  L  2. 
27  ;  i.  4.  92 

Rufus.     See  Nasidienus 

Ruso,  i.e.  Octavius  Ruso,  a  money- 
lender, who  also  wrote  histories, 
S.  i.  3.  86 

Rutuba,  a  gladiator,  S.  iL  7.  96 

Sabbata,  the  Jewish  Sabbath,  S. 

i.  9.  69 
Sabellns,  adj.,  Sabellian  or  Sabine, 

of  the  Sabelli  or  Sabini,  S.  i.  9. 

29  ;  ii.  1.  36 ;  K  L  16.  49 
Sabinus,  (1)  adj.,    Sabine,  of  the 

Sabines,  a  people  of  Central  Italy, 

S.  ii.  7.  118 ;  E.  i.  7.  77 ;  ii.  1.  25  ; 

(2)  a  friend  of  Torquatus,  E.  L  5.  27 
Sagana,  a  witch,  S.  L  8.  25,  48 
Salemum,   a    town    in    Campania, 

now  Salerno,  E.  L  15.  1 
Saliaris,    adj.,    of    the    Salii,  the 

twelve  dancing  priests  of  Mars, 

E.  ii.  1.  86 
Sallnstius,  t.e.  C.  Sallustius Cri.spus, 

grand  -  nephew  of  the  historian 

Sallust  (see  Odes  ii.  2),  S.  i.  2.  48 
Samnites,  the  Samnites,  living  in 

Central  Italy,  E.  u.  2.  98 
Samas,  an  island  off  the  coast  of 

Asia  Minor,  now  Samo,  E.  i.  11. 

2,  21 
Sappho,    the    famou.s    poetess    of 

Lesbos,  of  the  sixth  century  B.C., 

E.  i.  19.  28 
Sardis,  capital  of  Lydia,  E.  i.  U.  2 

Sard  OS,  adj.,  from  Sardinia,  5.  i.  8 
5;  ^.P.  375 

Sarraentu.s,  a  slave  of  M.  Favonius, 
of  Etruscan  birth,  freed  by  Ma» 
cenas,  became  a  »criba  in  the 
quaestor's  department  and  sat 
among  the  equiUs.  When  old  he 
was  reduced  to  poverty,  S.  i.  5. 
52,  55,  56 

Satureianos,  adj.,  of  Saturium,  the 
district  in  which  Tarentum  in 
southern  Italy  was  founded,  S.  i- 
6.  59 

Saturnalia,  a  festival  beginning  on 
the  17th  December,  during  which 
the  Romans  granted  much  licenca 
to  their  slaves,  S.  ii.  3.  5 

Satnmius  (numerus),  the  Satumian 
measure,  a  verse  form  native  to 
Italy,  used  by  LiWus  Audronicus 
in  his  translation  of  the  Odyssey, 
and  by  Naevius  in  his  epic  on 
the  Punic  War.  It  seems  to  have 
been  based  on  accent  rather  than 
on  quantity,  E.  iii.  1.  158 

Satyrus,  a  satyr,  a  companion  of 
Bacchus,  represented  with  the 
ears  and  tail  of  a  goat.  Also 
used  in  pi.  of  the  Greek  Satyric 
drama,  in  which  Satyrs  formed 
the  chorus.  E.  i.  19.  4  ;  ii.  2.  125  ; 
A.P.  221,  226,  233,  235 

Scaeva,  (1)  a  spendthrift,  who  poi- 
soned his  mother,  S.  ii.  1.  53  ; 
(2)  the  unknown  person  to  whom 
E.  L  17  is  addressed  ;  see  p.  358 

Scanrus,  adj.,  "with  swollen 
ankles,"  perhaps  a  proper  name 
in  S.  i.  3.  48 

Scetanus,  a  proftigate,  S.  L  4.  112 

Scipiadas,  one  of  the  family  of  the 
Scipios,  a  Scipio  (the  form  was 
used  by  Lucilius),  S.  ii.  1.  17,  72 

Scylla,  a  sea-monster  dwelling  on 
one  side  of  the  Straits  of  Messene, 
A.P.  145.    See  Charybdis 

September,  adj.,  belonging  to  Sep- 
tember, the  seventh  month  of 
the  Roman  year,  E.  i.  16.  16 

Septicius,  a  friend  of  Torquatus,  E. 
i.  5.  26 

Septimius,  a  friend  of  Horace,  whom 
the  poet  introdoces  to  Tiberius 
in  £.  L  e 



Servilius  (Balatro).    See  Balatro 

Servius,  (1)  perhaps  the  son  of 
Servius  Sulpicius  Rufus,  a  lawyer 
and  friend  of  Cicero,  S.  i.  10.  86 ; 
(2)  see  Oppidius 

Sextilis,  the  sixth  month  of  the 
Roman  year,  afterwards  called 
August,  E.  i.  7.  2 ;  i.  11.  19 

Siculus,  adj.,  Sicilian,  E.  i.  2.  58; 
i.  12.  1;  ii.  1.  68;  A. P.  403 

Sidonius,  adj.,  of  Sidon,  a  city  of 
Phoenicia,  Phoenician,  E.  i.  10. 

Silenus,  an  old  Satyr,  chief  attend- 
ant of  Bacchus,  A.P.  239 

Silvanus,  an  Italian  god  of  forests 
and  the  country,  E.  ii.  1.  143 

Simo,  an  old  man,  figuring  in  a 
comedy  of  Caecilius,  A.P.  238 

Sinuessa,  a  town  of  Latium,  near 
the  modern  Mondragone,  S.  i.  5. 

Sinuessanus,  adj.,  of  or  near  Sinu- 
essa, E.  1.  6.  6 

Siren,  a  Siren.  The  Sirens  were 
fabulous  creatures,  half  maiden, 
half  bird,  living  on  rocky  islands 
near  the  Campanian  coast,  and 
with  their  songs  enticing  sailors 
to  their  destruction.  See  Homer, 
Odyssey,xn.    S.  ii.3. 14    £.1.2.22 

Sisenna,  a  foul-mouthed  person,  S. 
i.  7.  8 

Sisyphus,  (1)  a  dwarf  in  the  house 
of  M.  Antonius,  S.  i.  3.  47 ;  (2) 
mythical  founder  of  Corinth, 
famous  for  its  bronze,  subject  of 
a  Satyric  drama  of  Aeschylus, 
S.  Ii.  3.  21 

Smyrna,  a  famous  city  of  Ionia,  E. 
i.  11.  3 

Socraticus,  adj.,  of  Socrates,  the 
famous  Atlienian  philosopher, 
A.P.  310 

Sophocles,  famous  Greek  tragic 
poet  of  the  5th  century  B.C.,  E. 
ii.  1.  163 

Sosii,  brothers,  who  were  Horace's 
booksellers,  E.  i.  20.  2 ;  ^.P.  345 

Staberius,  a  miser,  S.  ii.  3.  84,  89 

Stertinius,  (1)  a  philosopher,  who 
wrote  220  volumes  on  Stoicism ; 
S.  a  3.  33,  296  ;  (2)  adj.,  of  Ster- 
tinius, E.  I  12.  20 


Stoicus,  a  Stoic,  S.  Ii.  3.  160,  300 

Suadela,  the  goddess  of  Persuasion, 
a  personification  (  =  Tlei0a)),  E. 
i.  6.  38 

Sulcius,  a  public  prosecutor,  S. 
i.  4.  65 

Sulla,  i.e.  L.  Cornelius  SuUa,  the 
dictator,  S.  i.  2.  64 

Surrentum,  a  city  at  the  south  end 
of  the  Bay  of  Naples,  now  Sor- 
rento, E.  i.  17.  52 

Syrus,  (1)  a  common  slave-name, 

5.  1.  6.  38;  (2)  a  gladiator,  S.  ii. 

6.  44 

Tanais,  a  freedman  of  Maecenas,  a 
eunuch,  S.  i.  1.  105 

Tantalus,  a  Phrygian  king,  who 
offered  his  own  child  as  food  for 
the  gods,  and  was  punished  in 
Hades  by  a  craving  for  food  and 
drink  that  escaped  his  reach,  S. 
i.  1.  68 

Tarentinus,  adj.,  of  Tarentum, 
where  a  famous  purple  dye  was 
produced,  E.  ii.  1.  207 

Tarentum,  a  city  of  Calabria  in 
southern  Italy,  now  Taranto,  S. 
i.  6.  105  ;  u.  4.  34 ;  E.  i.  7.  45 ; 
i.  16.  11 

Tarpa,  i.e.  Spurius  Maecius  Tarpa, 
S.  i.  10.  38.     See  Maecius 

Tarquinius,  i.e.  Tarquinius  Super- 
bus,  last  king  of  Rome,  S.  i.  6.  13 

Taurus,  i.e.  T.  Statilius  Taurus, 
who  was  consul  for  the  second 
time  in  26  b.c,  E.  i.  5.  4 

Teanum,  i.e.  Teanum  Sidicinum,  a 
town  in  Campania,  now  Teano, 
E.  i.  1.  86 

Telemachus,  son  of  Ulysses  and 
Penelope,  who  visited  Menelaus 
in  Sparta  in  quest  of  news  of  his 
father  (Homer.  Odyssey  iv.),  E.  L 

7.  40 

Telephus,  son  of  Hercules,  and  king 
of  Mysia.  He  was  wounded  by 
the  spear  of  Achilles,  but  finally 
healed  by  its  rust.  This  was  the 
subject  of  a  tragedy  by  Euri- 
pides, A.P.  96,  104 

Tellus,  the  goddess  Earth,  all- 
nourishing,  E.  ii.  1.  143 

Terentius,  i.e.   P.  Terentius  Afer^ 


oomio  poet,  who  lived  185-159 
B-c,  S.  L  2.  20 ;  li.  1.  59 

Teucer,  son  of  Telamon,  king  of 
Salamis,  and  Hesione,  and  brother 
of  Ajax,  6".  ii.  3.  204.     See  Aiax 

Thebac,  a  city  of  Uoeotia,  founded 
by  Cadmus  with  the  help  of  Ani- 
phion,  birth-place  of  Pindar,  5. 
ii.  5.  84  ;  K.  L  16.  74  ;  ii  1.  213  ; 
A.P.  118 

Tbebanus,  adj.,  of  Thebes,  B.  i  3. 
13  ;  A.P.  394 

Theoniuus,  adj.,  of  Theon,  an  un- 
known person  of  a  bitter  tongue, 
E.  i.  18.  82 

Thespis,  of  Icaria,  who  first  exhi- 
bited tragedies  in  Athens,  E.  ii 

1.  163 ;  A.P.  276 

Thessalus,  adj.,  of  Thessaly,  a 
country  of  northern  Greece, 
famous  for  magic  and  drugs,  E. 
ii.  2.  209 

Thraca,  Thrace,  a  land  north  of 
Greece,  E.  i  3.  3 ;  i.  16.  13 

Thrax,  wJj.,  Thracian,  or  as  subsL, 
a  Thracian,  a  name  given  to  a 
gladiator  who  was  anued  with 
a  Thi-acian  buckler  and  short 
sword,  S.  ii  6.  4  ;  B.  i.  18.  36 

Thuriiius,  adj.,  of  Thurii,  a  town  of 
Lucania,  on  the  Tarentine  Gulf, 
&  ii.  8.  20 

Thyestes,  son  of  Pelops,  brother  of 
Atreus,  who  placed  before  him  for 
food  his  own  son,  A.P.  91 

Tiberinus,  adj.,  of  the  Tiber,  S.  ii 

2.  31 ;  E.  i  11.  4 

Tiberis,  the  Tiber,  river  of  Rome, 
now  Tevere ;  S.  i.  9.  18 ;  ii  1.  8 ; 
ii.  3.  292 ;  E.  i  11.  19 

Tiberius,  (1)  i.«.  Tiberius  Claudius 
Nero.  See  Claudius;  (2)  son  of 
Oppidius,  S.  ii.  3.  173 

Tibur,  ancient  city  of  Latium,  on 
the  Anio,  now  Tivoli,  E.  i.  7.  45  ; 
i  8.  12 ;  ii  2.  3 

Tiburs,  adj.,  of  Tibur,  Tiburtine, 
S.  i  6.  108  ;  ii  4.  70 

Tigellius,  a  freedman  from  Sar- 
dinia, a  favourite  of  Caesar  and 
of  Cleopatra,  a  well-known  mu- 
sician, S.  i  2.  3 ;  i  3.  4 ;  probably 
the  same  as  Hermogenes  Tigel- 
lioB.    See  Hermogenes 

Tillius,  probably  a  brother  of  Tillhw 
Cimber,  who  was  among  Caesar's 
assa-^ins.  He  was  removed  from 
the  senate  by  Caesar,  but  later 
resumed  his  dignities  and  became 
a  tribune  of  the  .soldiers,  also,  it 
would  seem,  a  praetor,  S.  L  6. 
24,  107 

Tiniagenes,  a  native  of  Alexandria, 
was  taken  prisoner  by  A.  Gabinius 
and  sold  as  a  slave.  In  Rome, 
where  he  received  his  freedom 
through  Faustns,  son  of  Sulla, 
he  taught  rhetoric,  and  won  as 
patrons,  first  Augustus  and  then 
Asinius  Pollio,  with  whom  he 
lived  at  Tusculum.     E.  i  19.  15 

Tiresias,  famous  blind  soothsayer 
of  Thebes,  S.  ii  5.  1 

Tisiphone,  one  of  the  Furies,  S. 
i  8.  34 

Titius,  a  young  Roman  who  ven- 
tured to  present  the  Greek  poet 
Pindar  in  Latin  dress,  E.  i.  3.  9 

Torquatus,  a  friend  of  Horace,  per- 
haps the  Aulus  Torquatus  who, 
according  to  N'epos  in  his  life  of 
Acticus  (c.  xi.),  was  with  Brutus 
and  Cassiu-s  at  Philippi  He  is 
addressed  in  Odes  iv.  7  and  E. 
i.  5.  3 

Transius,  an  unknown  person,  both 
poor  and  extravagant,  S.  ii.  2.  99 

Trebatius,  i.e.  C.  Trebatius  Testa, 
a  lawyer  of  distinction,  a  friend 
of  Cicero  and  of  Caesar.  From 
Cicero's  Letters  (Ad  fam.  vii.  6-22) 
addressed  to  him,  we  learn  that 
he  was  a  good  swimmer  and  a  hard 
drinker.     S.  ii  1.  4,  78 

Trebouius,  an  adulterer,  S.  i.  4. 114 

Triquetra,  adj.,  "  three-cornered," 
applied  to  .Sicily,  S.  ii  6.  55 

Trivlcum,  a  town  of  Apulia,  now 
Trevico,  S.  i.  5.  79 

Troia,  Troy,  S.  ii  3.  191  ;  a  5.  18 ; 
E.  i.  2.  19;  A.P.  141 

Troianus,  adj.,  of  Troy,  £.  L  8.  1 ; 
A.P.  147 

TuUius,  i.e.  Servius  TuUius,  sixth 
king  of  Rome,  born  a  slave,  S.  i 

Turbo,  a  gladiator,  of  small  stature 
bat  grntt  courage,  5.  ii  3.  310 



Turius,  praetor  in  76  B.C.,  6'.  ii.  1.  49 

Tuscus,  adj.,  of  Etruria,  Etruscan, 
or  Tuscan,  applied  to  the  Tiber, 
whicli  rises  in  Etruria,  .S.  ii.  2.  33  ; 
to  the  Vicus  Tuscus,  a  street 
leading  from  the  Forum  to  the 
Velabrum,  and  perhaps  named 
from  the  Etruscan  workmen  who 
once  lived  there,  S.  ii.  3.  228  ;  to 
the  sea,  south  and  west  of  Italy, 
E.  ii.  1.  202 

Tyndaridae,  children  of  Tyndarens 
and  Leda,  including  Castor  and 
Pollux,  Helen  and  Clytemnestra, 
the  last  of  whom  slew  her  hus- 
band Agamemnon  on  his  return 
from  Troy,  S.  i.  1.  100 

Tyrius,  adj. ,  of  Tyre,  a  city  of  Phoe- 
nicia famous  for  its  purple,  S.  ii. 
4.  84  ;  E.  i.  6.  18 

Tyrrhenus,  adj.,  of  the  Tyrrheni  or 
Etruscans,  who  were  famous  for 
their  bronze- work,  E.  ii.  2.  180 

Tyrtaeus,  a  ^vTiter  of  elegiac  verse, 
said  to  be  a  native  of  Attica,  who 
with  his  songs  aided  the  Spartans 
in  their  Second  Messenian  War, 
A.P.  402 

Ulixes,  Ulysses,  the  hero  Odysseus 

of  the  Odyssey,  S.  ii.  8.  197,  204 ; 

IL  5.  100;  E.  i.  2.  18;  i.  6.  63; 

i.  7.  40.     Cf.   A.P.    141  and  see 

Ulubrae,  a  small  town  of  Latium, 

near  the  Pomptine  marshes,  E. 

i.  11.  30 
Umber,     adj.,     Umbrian,    of    the 

Umbri,  a  tribe  of  Northern  Italy, 

S.  ii.  4.  40 
Umbrenus,  a  veteran  soldier,  S.  ii. 

2.  133 
Ummidius,  a  rich  and  mean  man,  S. 

i.  1.  95 
Utica,  a  town  in  Africa,  north  of 

Carthage,  E.  i.  20.  13 

Vacuna,  a  Sabine  goddess,  whose 
name  popular  etymology  associ- 
ated with  vacuus,  "idle,"  E.  i. 
10.  49 

Vala,  probably  Numonius  Vala.  a 
friend  of  Horace,  addressed  in  E. 
i.  15 


Valerius,  i.e.  P.  Valerius  PubUcola, 
collea^rue  of  Brutus  after  the  ex- 
pulsion of  the  kings,  S.  i.  6.  12. 
See  Messalla 
Valgius,  i.e.  C.  Valgius  Rufus,  con- 
sul 12  B.C.,  an  elegiac  poet,  to 
whom  Od.  ii.  9  is  addressed,  S. 
i.  10.  82 
Varia,  a  small  town  in  the  Sabine 
territory,  now  Vico  Varo,  E.  L 
14.  3 
Varius,  i.e.,  L.  Varius,  tragic  and 
epic  poet,  friend  of  Virgil  and 
Horace,  S.  i.  5.  40,  93  ;  L  6.  55  ; 
i.  9.  23 ;  i.  10.  44,  81 ;  S.  ii.  8.  21, 
63 ;  E.  ii.  1.  247 ;  A.P.  55.    See 
Varro  Atacinus,   i.e.   P.  Terentius 
Varro,  called  Atacinus  from  his 
birth-place  on    the    river  Atax 
(Aude)    in    Gallia    Narbonensis. 
He     wrote     Argonautica,     and, 
according  to  Horace,  Satires,  S. 
i.  10.  46 
Veianius,  a  retired  gladiator,  E.  i. 

1.  4 
Veiens,  of  Veil,  Veientine.    Veii  was 
an  old  town  in  Etruria,  destroyed 
by  Camillus,  near  Isola  Farnese, 
eleven  miles  north  of  Rome,  E. 
ii.  2.  167 
Velia,  a  town  of  Lucania,  also  called 
Elea,  associated  with  the  Eleatio 
School  of  philosophy,  E.  i.  15.  1 
Velina,  a^j.,  with   tribus  "tribe" 
understood.      The    Veline    tribe 
was  one  of  the  last  of  the  thirty- 
five  tribes  of  Roman  citizens  to 
be  formed,  E.  i.  6.  52 
Venafranus,  adj.,  of  Venafrum,  S. 

ii.  4.  69 
Venafrum,  now  Venafro,  the  most 
northern     town    of     Campania, 
celebrated  for  its  olives,  6".  ii.  8. 
Veiiucula,  name  of  a  grape,  S.  ii. 

Venus,  daughter  of  Jupiter  and 
Dione,  goddess  of  love  and 
beauty,  E.  i.  6.  38  ;  L  18.  21 
Venusinus,  ailj.,  of  Venusia,  an 
old  Samnite  town  in  Apulia,  neai 
which  Horace  was  born,  S.  iL  1. 


Vergilius,  ».«,,  P.  Vergiliiis  Maro, 
the  great  poet  Virgil,  S.  i.  5.  40, 
48 ;  L  &  55 ;  i.  10.  45,  81 ;  E.  iL 
1.  247  ;  A.P.  55 

Vertumnus,  the  god  of  the  chang- 
ing seasons,  and  the  god  of  ex- 
change (buying  and  selling).  A 
statue  of  the  god  stood  at  the 
end  of  the  Vicus  Tuscus,  where  it 
entered  the  Forum.  S.  ii  7.  14  ; 
E.  i.  20.  1 

Vesta,  goddess  of  the  hearth  and 
household,  emblem  of  family  life. 
The  Temple  of  Vesta  in  Rome 
stood  at  the  east  end  of  the 
Forum.  S.  L  9.  35;  £.  ii.  2. 

Via  Sacra,  oldest  and  most  famous 
street  in  Rome,  running  from  the 
Velia  through  the  Forum  along 
the  foot  of  the  Palatine ;  probably 
called  sacra  because  of  the  shrines 
along  its  course,  5.  i.  9.  1  (qf. 
Epode  iv.  7) 

Vibidius,  a  parasite  of  Maecenas, 
S.  a  8.  22,  33,  40,  80 

VilUns,  perhaps  Sextus  Villius, 
friend  of  Milo,  5.  i.  2.  64 

Vinius,  the  person  addressed  in  B. 
L  13.  From  L  8  it  is  inferred 
that  his  cognomen  was  Asina, 
or  AseUns     The  fbruier  is  fouud 

with  the    Cornelian    gnu ;    the 
Uitter    with    the    Annian    and 
Clandian  gentes 
Viscus    and  pL    Visci.      Nothing 
certain  is  known  of  these  men, 
except  that   one,    being    called 
Thurinus,  doubtless  came  from 
Thurii.     The  scholiast  says  that 
the  two  mentioned  in  the  tenth 
satire.  Book  I.,  were  brothers, 
sons  of  Vibius   Viscus,    a   rich 
friend  of  Augustus,  who  remained 
an  etfues  even  after  his  sons  had 
become  senators,  £>.  i.  9.  22  ;  L  10. 
83 ;  ii.  8.  20 
Visellius,  unknown,  S.  i  1.  105 
Volanerius,  a  parasite,  S.  ii.  7.  15 
Volcanus,  Vulcan,  go<i  of  fire,  S. 

i.  5.  74 
Volteius  Mena,  E.  i.  7.  55,  64.  91- 

See  Mena 
Voranns,  a  thief,  S.  L  8.  39 

Zephyrcs,  god  of  the  west  wind, 
E.  i.  7.  13 

Zethus,  brother  of  Amphion,  whose 
lyre  he  despised,  being  hioisflf  a 
shepherd  and  huntsman.  The 
story  of  the  two  was  told  in  the 
Antiopt  of  Euripides,  and  the 
Aniiope  of  Pacuviug,  X.  L  18 
4S,    See  AmphioD 

Printed  in  Great  Britain  by  R.  &  R.  Clakk,  Limited,  Edinlmrgh, 




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DIO  CHRYSOSTOM.     5  Vols.     Vols.  I.  and  II.    J.  W. 

Cohoon.     Vol.  in.    J.  W.  Cohoon  and  H.  Lamar  Crosby. 
DIODORUS    SICULUS.     C.    H.    Oldfather.      12    Vols. 

Vols.  I. -1 1 1. 
DIOGENES  LAERTIUS.     R.  D.  Hicks.     2  Vols.     (Vol. 

I.  Srd  Imp.,  Vol.  II.  2nd  Imp.) 
QUITIES.    Spelman's  translation   revised  by  E.  Cary. 

7  Vols.      Vols.  I.-III. 
EPICTETUS.     W.  A.  Oldfather.     2  Vols. 
EURIPIDES.      A.  S.  Way.      4  Vols.      (Vols.  I.  and  II. 

6th  Imp.,  Vol.  III.  Uh  Imp.,  Vol.  IV.  5th  Imp.)     Verse 


Lake  and  J.  E.  L.  Oulton.     2  Vols.     (Vol.  II.  2nd /mp.) 

Brock.     (2nd  Imp.) 
THE  GREEK  ANTHOLOGY.     W.   R.   Paton.     5   Vols. 


(VoL  I.  4th  Imp.,  Vol.  II.  3rd  Imp.,  Vols.  III.  and  IV. 

2nd  Imp.) 

BION,   MOSCHUS).      J.    M.    Edmonds.      {6th    Imp. 


ONTEA.     J.  M.  Edmonds.     2  Vols.     (\'ol.  I.  ^nd  Imp.) 
GREEK    MATHEMATICAL    WORKS.       Ivor    Thomas. 

2  Vols. 

HERODOTUS.     A.    D.    Godley.     4  Vols.     (Vols.   I.- HI. 

3rd  Imp.,  Vol.  IV.  2nd  Imp.) 

White.     (6th  Imp.  revised  and  enlarged.) 

CLEITUS.    W.  H.  S.  Jones  and  E,  T.  Withington.    4  Vols. 

(VoU.  I.  and  I\'.  2nd  hup.) 
HOxMER:   ILIAD.     A.T.Murray.     2  Vols.     (Vol.  I.  5//i 

Imp.,  Vol.  II.  -ith  Imp.) 
HOMER:  ODYSSEY.    A.  T.  Murray.     2  Vols.     (Vol.  I. 

5th  Imp.,  \'o\.  II.  6th  Imp.) 
ISAEUS.     E.  S.  Forster. 
ISOCRATES.     George   Norlin  and   La   Rue   Van   Hook. 

3  Vols.     Vols.  I.  and  II. 


SAPH.    Rev.  G.  R.  Woodward  and  Harold   Mattingly. 

(2nd  Imp.  revised.) 
JOSEPHUS.     H.  St.  J.  Thackeray  and  Ralph  Marcus. 

9  Vols.     Vols.  I.-VI.     (Vol.  V.  2nd  Imp.) 
JULIAN.    Wilnier  Cave  Wright.    3  Vols,    (Vols.  Land  IL 

2nd  Imp.) 
LONGUS;    DAPHNIS  and  CHLOE.     Thornley's  Trans- 
lation revised  by  J.  M.  Edmonds;   and  PARTHENIUS. 

S.  Gaselee.     (3rd  Imp.) 
LUCIAN.     A.  M.  Harmon.     8  Vols.     Vols.  I.-V.     (Vols. 

I.  and  II.  3rd  Imp.) 
LYRA   GRAECA.    J.    M.   Edmonds.     3   Vols.     (Vol.   L 

3rd  Imp.,  Vol.  IL  2nd  Ed.  revised  and  enlarged.  Vol.  III. 

2nd  Imp.  revised.) 
LYSIAS.     W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
MAN'ETHO.     W.   G.  Waddell.     PTOLEMY:    TETRA- 

BIBLOS.     F.  E.  Robbins. 


MARCUS  AURELIUS.    C.  R.  Haines.    (Srd  Imp.  revised.) 
MENANDER.     F.  G.  Allinson,    (2nd  Imp.  revised.) 
MINOR  ATTIC  ORATORS.     2   Vols.     Vol.    I.     ANTI- 

PHON,  ANDOCIDES.    K.  J.  Maidment. 
NONNOS:  DIONYSIACA.     W.  H.  D.  Rouse.      3  Vols. 

(Vol.  III.  2nd  Imp.) 


Hunt  and  C.  C.  Edgar.     2  Vols.     LITERARY  SELEC- 
TIONS.    Vol. 'I.  (Poetry).     D.  L.  Paee.     {2nd  Imp.) 

Jones.     5  Vols,  and  Companion  Vol.  arranged  by  R.  F^. 

Wvcherley.    (Vols.  I.  and  III.  2nd  Imp.) 
PHILO.     10  Vols.     Vols.  I.-V.    F.  H.  Colson  and  Rev.  G. 

H.  Whitaker;  Vols.  ^^.-IX.     F.  H.  Colson.     (Vol.  IV. 

2nd  Imp.  revised.) 

TYANA.     F.  C.  Conybeare.     2  Vols.     (Vol.  I.  Srd  hnp.. 

Vol.  II.  2nd  Imp.) 

DESCRIPTIONS.     A.  Fairbanks. 

SOPHISTS.     Wilmer  Cave  Wright. 
PINDAR.     Sir  J.  E.  Sandys.     (6th  Imp.  revised.) 


W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 

PIAS,  LESSER  HIPPIAS.     H.  N.  Fowler.     {Srd  hup.) 

DO,  PHAEDRUS.     H.  N.  Fowler.     (9th  Imp.) 

DEMUS.     W   R.  M.  Lamb.     (2nd  Imp.  revised.) 
PLATO  :  LAWS.     Rev.  R.  G.  Bury.     2  Vols.    (2nd  Imp.) 

Lamb.     (Srd  Imp.  revised.) 
PLATO  :   REPUBLIC.    Paul  Shorey.    2  Vols.    (2nd  Imp.) 
PLATO:    STATESMAN,  PHILEBUS.     H.  N.   Fowler; 

ION.     W.  R.  M.  Lamb.     (Srd  Imp.) 
PLATO  :   THEAETETUS  and  SOPHIST.     H.  N.  Fowler. 

(3rd  Imp.) 




NLS,  EPISTULAE.     Rev.  R.  G.  Bury.     (2nd  Imp.) 
PLUTARCH:    MORALIA,     14  Vols.    Vols.   L-V.    F.  C. 

Babbitt ;  \'ol.  VL     W.   C.   Helinbold  ;  Vol.   X.    H.    N. 

PLUTARCH:     THE   PARALLEL    LIVES.     B.    Perrin. 

11  Vols.     (Vols.  L,  H.,  HL  and  VH.  2nd  Imp.) 
POLYBIUS.     W.  R.  Paton.     6  Vols. 
PROCOPIUS:     HISTORY  OF  THE    WARS.      H.    B. 

Dewing.     7  Vols.     (Vol.  I.  2nd  Imp.) 
QUINTUS  SMYRNAEUS.     A.  S.Wav.     Verse  trans. 
SEXTUS   EMPIRICUS.      Rev.  R.   G'.   Bury.       3  Vols. 

(Vol.  I.  2nd  Imp.) 
SOPHOCLES.     F.  Storr.     2  Vols.     (Vol.  I.  llh  Imp.,  Vol. 

II.  5th  Imp.)     Verse  trans. 
STRABO  :    GEOGRAPHY.     Horace  L.  Jones.     8  Vols. 

(Vols.  I.,  V.  and  VIII.  2nd  Imp.) 
THEOPHRASTUS  :    CHARACTEP^.     J.  iM.  Edmonds  ; 

HERODES,  etc.     A.  D.  Knox. 

Arthur  Hort.     2  Vols. 
THUCYDIDES.     C.F.Smith.     4  Vols.     (Vol.  L  3rd/mp., 

Vols.  II.,  III.  and  IV.  2nd  Imp.  revised.) 
XENOPHON  :   CYROPAEDIA.     Walter  MUler.     2  Vols. 

(2nd  Imp.) 

AND  SYMPOSIUM.     C.  L.  Brownion  and  O.  J.  Todd. 

3  Vols.     (2nd  Imp.) 

E.  C.  Marchant.     (2nd  Imp.) 
XENOPHON  :  SCRIPl  A  MINORA.     E.  C.  Marchant. 



ALCIPHRON.     A.  R.  Bonner  and  F.  H.  Fobes. 
ARISTOTLE:  DE  MUNDO,  etc.     W.  K.  C.  Guthrie. 



ANIMALS.     A.  L.  Peck. 
DEMOSTHENES:    EPISTLES,  etc      N.  W.  and  N.  J 



S.  AUGUSTINE  :  CITY  OF  GOD.    J.  H.  Baxter. 

[CICERO  :]  AD  HERENNIUM.     H.  Caplan. 

CICERO  :      PRO     SESTIO,     IN     VATINIUM,     PRC 


BALBO.     J.  H.  Freese  and  R.  Gardner. 

PRUDENTIUS.      H.  J.  Thomson. 




Cloth  108.  Cloth  12.50 



riEE-HOUR  k 


Horace . 

-'  -\ 
Satires,  Spistles,  Ars        6393.' 

Poetica.   (Loeb  ed.)